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Latest & greatest articles for type 2 diabetes
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on type 2 diabetes or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Randomized Trial of a Lifestyle Intervention for Urban Low-Income African Americans with Type2Diabetes African Americans suffer more than non-Hispanic whites from type2diabetes, but diabetes self-management education (DSME) has been less effective at improving glycemic control for African Americans. Our objective was to determine whether a novel, culturally tailored DSME intervention would result in sustained improvements in glycemic control in low-income African-American patients of public (...) hospital clinics.This randomized controlled trial (n = 211) compared changes in hemoglobin A1c (A1c) at 6, 12, and 18 months between two arms: (1) Lifestyle Improvement through Food and Exercise (LIFE), a culturally tailored, 28-session community-based intervention, focused on diet and physical activity, and (2) a standard of care comparison group receiving two group DSME classes. Cluster-adjusted ANCOVA modeling was used to assess A1c changes from baseline to 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively
Fixed-ratio combination of insulin degludec and liraglutide (IDegLira) improves cardiovascular risk markers in patients with type2diabetes uncontrolled on basal insulin In this post hoc analysis we investigated the effects of insulin degludec/liraglutide fixed-ratio combination (IDegLira) versus comparators on cardiovascular (CV) risk markers in participants in the DUAL II (vs. insulin degludec), DUAL V (vs. insulin glargine 100 units/mL) and DUAL VII (vs. basal-bolus therapy) trials, grouped (...) by sex, age (<65 years, ≥65 years) and diabetes duration (<10 years, ≥10 years). Treatment contrasts were in favour of IDegLira in many subgroups for changes from baseline in glycated haemoblogin (DUAL II, DUAL V), body weight (all three trials), systolic blood pressure (BP; all three trials), HDL cholesterol (DUAL VII) and LDL cholesterol (DUAL II, DUAL V). Higher heart rates were seen with IDegLira versus comparators (all three trials) plus significantly higher diastolic BP in men (DUAL V
Superior efficacy of insulin degludec/liraglutide versus insulin glargine U100 as add-on to sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor therapy: A randomized clinical trial in people with uncontrolled type2diabetes To investigate the efficacy and safety of insulin degludec/liraglutide (IDegLira) versus insulin glargine 100 units/mL (IGlar U100) as add-on to sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor therapy.In this 26-week, phase IIIb, open-label, parallel-group, treat-to-target trial (...) , conducted at 74 sites in 11 countries, insulin-naïve people aged ≥18 years with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 53-97 mmol/mol (7.0-11.0%), body mass index 20-40 kg/m2 and inadequately controlled type2diabetes (T2D) on SGLT2 inhibitor ± oral antidiabetic drugs were randomized 1:1 to once-daily IDegLira or IGlar U100, both as add-on to existing therapy. The primary endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline to week 26.A total of 210 participants were randomized to each treatment arm. Mean HbA1c reductions
The Effect of Liquid Meal Replacements on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight/Obese Individuals With Type2Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials The evidence for liquid meal replacements in diabetes has not been summarized. Our objective was to synthesize the evidence of the effect of liquid meal replacements on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese individuals with type2 diabetes.Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE (...) , and the Cochrane Library through 10 December 2018. We included randomized trials of ≥2 weeks assessing the effect of liquid meal replacements in weight loss diets compared with traditional weight loss diets on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese subjects with type2diabetes. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data and assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled using the inverse variance method. The overall certainty of the evidence was evaluated using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations
Comparison of the Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide Receptor Agonists and Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for Prevention of Major Adverse Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes in Type2Diabetes Mellitus Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RA) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have emerged as 2 new classes of antihyperglycemic agents that also reduce cardiovascular risk. The relative benefits in patients with and without established atherosclerotic (...) when treating patients with type2diabetes mellitus.
Glucose Variables in Type 1 Diabetes Studies With Dapagliflozin: Pooled Analysis of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Data From DEPICT-1 and -2 This pooled analysis assessed continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with inadequately controlled type 1 diabetes (HbA1c ≥7.7 to ≤11.0% [≥61 to ≤97 mmol/mol]) who received dapagliflozin as an adjunct to adjustable insulin.CGM data were pooled from two 24-week, double-blind, randomized, phase 3 studies: Dapagliflozin Evaluation in Patients (...) with Inadequately Controlled Type 1 Diabetes (DEPICT-1 and DEPICT-2). These studies comprised 1,591 patients receiving dapagliflozin 5 mg (n = 530), dapagliflozin 10 mg (n = 529), or placebo (n = 532).Baseline characteristics were balanced between treatment groups. Patients receiving dapagliflozin 5 mg or 10 mg both spent more time with blood glucose in the range >3.9 to ≤10.0 mmol/L (>70 to ≤180 mg/dL) over 24 h than those receiving the placebo. The adjusted mean (SE) change from baseline at week 24 was 6.48
Semaglutide once weekly as add-on to SGLT-2 inhibitor therapy in type2diabetes (SUSTAIN 9): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial Semaglutide is a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue for type2diabetes. Few clinical trials have reported on the concomitant use of GLP-1 receptor agonists with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of semaglutide when added to SGLT-2 inhibitor therapy in patients with inadequately (...) controlled type2 diabetes.The SUSTAIN 9 double-blind, parallel-group trial was done at 61 centres in six countries (Austria, Canada, Japan, Norway, Russia, and the USA). Adults with type2diabetes and HbA1c 7·0-10·0% (53-86 mmol/mol), despite at least 90 days of treatment with an SGLT-2 inhibitor, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive subcutaneous semaglutide 1·0 mg or volume-matched placebo once weekly for 30 weeks, after a dose-escalation schedule of 4 weeks of 0·25 mg semaglutide or placebo and 4
Efficacy and safety of insulin degludec/insulin aspart versus biphasic insulin aspart 30 in Chinese adults with type2diabetes: A phase III, open-label, 2:1 randomized, treat-to-target trial To assess the efficacy and safety of twice-daily insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) versus biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) twice daily, both ± metformin, in Chinese adults (N = 543) with type2diabetes (T2D) inadequately controlled on premixed/self-mixed or basal insulin ± metformin.We (...) conducted a 26-week, phase III, open-label, treat-to-target, 2:1 randomized trial. Hierarchical testing was used with non-inferiority of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) change from baseline to week 26 as the primary endpoint and superiority for the confirmatory secondary endpoints which were as follows: change from baseline in fasting plasma glucose (FPG); nocturnal confirmed hypoglycaemic episodes (12:01-5:59 am, inclusive); total confirmed hypoglycaemic episodes (severe or plasma glucose <3.1 mmol/L
Antihyperglycemic and Blood Pressure Effects of Empagliflozin in Black Patients With Type2Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor indicated for type2diabetes mellitus (T2DM), can lower blood pressure (BP) and reduce cardiovascular mortality in patients with T2DM and preexisting cardiovascular disease. Its effects in blacks have been understudied.In this 24-week study, 150 blacks with T2DM and hypertension had glycohemoglobin (primary end (...) point), office and 24-hour ambulatory BP, body weight, and safety assessments. After a 2-week, open-label, placebo run-in, patients were randomly assigned to once daily empagliflozin (10 mg for the first 4 weeks, then force-titrated to 25 mg until week 24) or placebo. A mixed-effects model for repeated measures was performed on the primary and 2 key secondary end points, and an analysis of covariance for nonrepeated measures with last observation carried forward was performed for 2 other key
Efficacy of low- and very-low-energy diets in people with type2diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventional studies To review systematically and quantify the weight loss achieved through low- (LEDs) and very-low-energy diets (VLEDs) in people with type2diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Studies reporting the effects of diet-only interventions of up to 1600 kcal/d in people with T2DM were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL up to July 2018. Changes in the primary (body (...) weight and body mass index [BMI]) and secondary outcomes (glycated haemoglobin, blood lipids) according to energy restriction and duration of diet were modelled using restricted cubic splines.Forty-four studies (3817 participants) were included. The overall quality of the evidence was moderate and limited to short-term interventions up to 4 months. Baseline mean weight and BMI were 92.1 kg and 36.6 kg/m2 . VLEDs of 400 kcal/d led to 5.4% weight loss at 2 weeks, increasing to 17.9% at 3 months. More
Take Control: A randomized trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of self- versus physician-managed titration of insulin glargine 300 U/mL in patients with uncontrolled type2diabetes To compare the efficacy and safety of self- versus physician-managed titration of insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300) in people with inadequately controlled type2 diabetes.Take Control (EudraCT number: 2015-001626-42) was a 24-week, multi-national, open-label, controlled, two-arm, parallel-group study (...) incidence was similar in each group. No safety concerns were reported. In both groups, similar PRO improvements were observed for distress related to diabetes disease burden and for confidence in diabetes self-management, with even more individuals achieving a clinically relevant reduction in emotional burden and fewer individuals with high emotional burden in the self-managed group.Self-managed titration of Gla-300 was superior to physician-managed titration in terms of HbA1c reduction, accompanied
Durability of a primary care-led weight-management intervention for remission of type2diabetes: 2-year results of the DiRECT open-label, cluster-randomised trial The DiRECT trial assessed remission of type2diabetes during a primary care-led weight-management programme. At 1 year, 68 (46%) of 149 intervention participants were in remission and 36 (24%) had achieved at least 15 kg weight loss. The aim of this 2-year analysis is to assess the durability of the intervention effect.DiRECT (...) assistants were aware of allocation. We recruited individuals aged 20-65 years, with less than 6 years' duration of type2diabetes, BMI 27-45 kg/m2, and not receiving insulin between July 25, 2014, and Aug 5, 2016. The intervention consisted of withdrawal of antidiabetes and antihypertensive drugs, total diet replacement (825-853 kcal per day formula diet for 12-20 weeks), stepped food reintroduction (2-8 weeks), and then structured support for weight-loss maintenance. The coprimary outcomes, analysed
and why it is authorised in the EU What is Zynquista and what is it used for? Zynquista is a diabetes medicine used with insulin to treat adults with type 1 diabetes. It is used in overweight patients (body mass index of at least 27 kg/m 2 ) when insulin on its own does not control blood sugar well enough. Zynquista contains the active substance sotagliflozin. How is Zynquista used? Zynquista is available as 200 mg tablets. The recommended dose is 1 tablet once a day before the first meal of the day (...) . After 3 months, the doctor may increase the dose to 2 tablets once a day if additional blood sugar control is needed. The medicine should be used with precautions to reduce the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (a serious complication of diabetes with high levels of ketones in the blood). Zynquista can only be obtained with a prescription and treatment should be started and supervised by a doctor experienced in managing type 1 diabetes. For more information about using Zynquista, see the package leaflet
Liraglutide in Children and Adolescents with Type2Diabetes. Metformin is the regulatory-approved treatment of choice for most youth with type2diabetes early in the disease. However, early loss of glycemic control has been observed with metformin monotherapy. Whether liraglutide added to metformin (with or without basal insulin treatment) is safe and effective in youth with type2diabetes is unknown.Patients who were 10 to less than 17 years of age were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio (...) %] with liraglutide and 55 [80.9%] with placebo), but the overall rates of adverse events and gastrointestinal adverse events were higher with liraglutide.In children and adolescents with type2diabetes, liraglutide, at a dose of up to 1.8 mg per day (added to metformin, with or without basal insulin), was efficacious in improving glycemic control over 52 weeks. This efficacy came at the cost of an increased frequency of gastrointestinal adverse events. (Funded by Novo Nordisk; Ellipse ClinicalTrials.gov number
Maternal Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes and the Risk for Preterm Birth: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Maternal type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been linked to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. How these risks vary with glycated hemoglobin (or hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]) levels is unclear.To examine preterm birth risk according to periconceptional HbA1c levels in women with T1D.Population-based cohort study.Sweden, 2003 to 2014.2474 singletons born to women with T1D and 1 165 216 (...) reference infants born to women without diabetes.Risk for preterm birth (<37 gestational weeks). Secondary outcomes were neonatal death, large for gestational age, macrosomia, infant birth injury, hypoglycemia, respiratory distress, 5-minute Apgar score less than 7, and stillbirth.Preterm birth occurred in 552 (22.3%) of 2474 infants born to mothers with T1D versus 54 287 (4.7%) in 1 165 216 infants born to mothers without diabetes. The incidence of preterm birth was 13.2% in women
Metformin and second- or third-generation sulphonylurea combination therapy for adults with type2diabetes mellitus. The number of people with type2diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. The combination of metformin and sulphonylurea (M+S) is a widely used treatment. Whether M+S shows better or worse effects in comparison with other antidiabetic medications for people with T2DM is still controversial.To assess the effects of metformin and sulphonylurea (second- or third-generation (...) ) combination therapy for adults with type2diabetes mellitus.We updated the search of a recent systematic review from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). The updated search included CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO ICTRP. The date of the last search was March 2018. We searched manufacturers' websites and reference lists of included trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and health technology assessment reports. We asked investigators of the included trials
Canagliflozin and Renal Outcomes in Type2Diabetes and Nephropathy. Type2diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of kidney failure worldwide, but few effective long-term treatments are available. In cardiovascular trials of inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), exploratory results have suggested that such drugs may improve renal outcomes in patients with type2 diabetes.In this double-blind, randomized trial, we assigned patients with type2diabetes and albuminuric chronic (...) had a lower risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.95; P = 0.01) and hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.80; P<0.001). There were no significant differences in rates of amputation or fracture.In patients with type2diabetes and kidney disease, the risk of kidney failure and cardiovascular events was lower in the canagliflozin group than in the placebo group at a median follow-up of 2.62 years
Atrasentan and renal events in patients with type2diabetes and chronic kidney disease (SONAR): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Short-term treatment for people with type2diabetes using a low dose of the selective endothelin A receptor antagonist atrasentan reduces albuminuria without causing significant sodium retention. We report the long-term effects of treatment with atrasentan on major renal outcomes.We did this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial (...) at 689 sites in 41 countries. We enrolled adults aged 18-85 years with type2diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min per 1·73 m2 of body surface area, and a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) of 300-5000 mg/g who had received maximum labelled or tolerated renin-angiotensin system inhibition for at least 4 weeks. Participants were given atrasentan 0·75 mg orally daily during an enrichment period before random group assignment. Those with a UACR decrease of at least 30
2019LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high