Latest & greatest articles for type 1 diabetes

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Top results for type 1 diabetes

1881. Effect of a diabetic environment in utero on predisposition to type 2 diabetes. (PubMed)

Effect of a diabetic environment in utero on predisposition to type 2 diabetes. BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is affected by genetics and environmental factors. We aimed to assess the effect of an in-utero diabetic environment independently of the genetic background for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We measured insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in response to oral and intravenous glucose in 15 non-diabetic adult offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes (exposed participants) and 16 offspring (...) of type 1 diabetic fathers (controls). No participants had type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies. We also measured pancreatic polypeptide, a marker of parasympathetic drive to the pancreas. FINDINGS: There was no difference between the groups with respect to percent body fat and insulin sensitivity. Five of the 15 exposed participants, but none of the controls had impaired glucose tolerance (p=0.02). Early insulin secretion after an oral glucose tolerance test was lower in exposed participants

2003 Lancet

1882. Outpatient insulin therapy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: scientific review. (PubMed)

Outpatient insulin therapy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: scientific review. CONTEXT: Newer insulin therapies, including the concept of physiologic basal-prandial insulin and the availability of insulin analogues, are changing clinical diabetes care. The key to effective insulin therapy is an understanding of principles that, when implemented, can result in improved diabetes control. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature regarding insulin use in patients with type 1 (...) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search was performed to identify all English-language articles of randomized controlled trials involving insulin use in adults with type 1 or type 2 DM from January 1, 1980, to January 8, 2003. Bibliographies and experts were used to identify additional studies. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Studies were included (199 for type 1 DM and 144 for type 2 DM, and 38 from other sources) if they involved human insulins or insulin analogues, were at least

2003 JAMA

1883. Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. (PubMed)

Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. CONTEXT: Current public health campaigns to reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes have largely focused on increasing exercise, but have paid little attention to the reduction of sedentary behaviors. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between various sedentary behaviors, especially prolonged television (TV) watching, and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in women. DESIGN (...) disease, or cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Onset of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: During 6 years of follow-up, 3757 (7.5%) of 50 277 women who had a BMI of less than 30 in 1992 became obese (BMI > or =30). Overall, we documented 1515 new cases of type 2 diabetes. Time spent watching TV was positively associated with risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the multivariate analyses adjusting for age, smoking, exercise levels, dietary factors, and other covariates, each 2-h/d

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2003 JAMA

1884. Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults: recommendations and rationale. (PubMed)

Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults: recommendations and rationale. This statement summarizes the current U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations on screening for type 2 diabetes in adults and updates the 1996 recommendations on this topic. The complete USPSTF recommendation and rationale statement on this topic, which includes a brief review of the supporting evidence, is available through the USPSTF Web site ( http://www.preventiveservices.ahrq.gov

2003 Annals of Internal Medicine

1885. Screening adults for type 2 diabetes: a review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (PubMed)

Screening adults for type 2 diabetes: a review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a heavy burden of suffering. Screening for diabetes is controversial. PURPOSE: To examine the evidence that screening and earlier treatment are effective in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, reviews, and experts, all of which addressed key questions about screening (...) , controlled trial of screening for diabetes has been performed. Type 2 diabetes mellitus includes an asymptomatic preclinical phase; the length of this phase is unknown. Screening tests can detect diabetes in its preclinical phase. Over the 10 to 15 years after clinical diagnosis, tight glycemic control probably reduces the risk for blindness and end-stage renal disease, and aggressive control of hypertension, lipid therapy, and aspirin use reduce cardiovascular events. The magnitude of the benefit

2003 Annals of Internal Medicine

1886. A new subtype of autosomal dominant diabetes attributable to a mutation in the gene for sulfonylurea receptor 1. (PubMed)

A new subtype of autosomal dominant diabetes attributable to a mutation in the gene for sulfonylurea receptor 1. BACKGROUND: ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are major regulators of glucose-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. We have described a dominant heterozygous mutation--E1506K--in the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) gene (ABCC8) in a Finnish family, which leads to congenital hyperinsulinaemia due to reduction of K(ATP)-channel activity. We aimed to characterise (...) glucose metabolism in adults heterozygous for the E1506K mutation. METHODS: Glucose tolerance was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test, insulin secretion by the intravenous glucose tolerance test and hyperglycaemic clamp, and insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp in 11 people heterozygous for the E1506K mutation and 19 controls. FINDINGS: Four people who were heterozygous for the SUR1 E1506K mutation had diabetes, five had impaired glucose tolerance, one had impaired fasting

2003 Lancet

1887. Incidence of sight-threatening retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes in the Liverpool Diabetic Eye Study: a cohort study. (PubMed)

Incidence of sight-threatening retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes in the Liverpool Diabetic Eye Study: a cohort study. BACKGROUND: Incidence data on which to base targets and protocols for screening for sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy are few. We aimed to investigate yearly and cumulative incidence of any retinopathy, maculopathy, and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes in an established systematic programme and to calculate optimum screening (...) intervals according to retinopathy grade at baseline. METHODS: We investigated all patients with type 2 diabetes registered with enrolled general practices (except those who were attending an ophthalmologist) who had retinopathy data available at baseline and at least one further screening event. To screen patients, we used non-stereoscopic three-field mydriatic photography and modified Wisconsin grading. Sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy was defined as moderate preproliferative retinopathy

2003 Lancet

1888. Adiponectin and protection against type 2 diabetes mellitus. (PubMed)

Adiponectin and protection against type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived peptide, which has anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitising properties. We designed a nested case-control study to assess whether baseline adiponectin concentrations in plasma are independently associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. We found that adiponectin concentrations in plasma were lower among individuals who later developed type 2 diabetes than among controls (mean 5.34 microg/mL [SD 3.49 (...) ] vs 6.87 microg/mL [4.58], p<0.0001). High concentrations of adiponectin were associated with a substantially reduced relative risk of type 2 diabetes after adjustment for age, sex, waist-to-hip ratio, body-mass index, smoking, exercise, alcohol consumption, education, and glycosylated haemoglobin A(1c) (odds ratio 4th vs 1st quartile 0.3 [95% CI 0.2-0.7], p=0.0051). We conclude that adiponectin is independently associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in apparently healthy individuals.

2003 Lancet

1889. A tumour that secretes glucagon-like peptide-1 and somatostatin in a patient with reactive hypoglycaemia and diabetes. (PubMed)

A tumour that secretes glucagon-like peptide-1 and somatostatin in a patient with reactive hypoglycaemia and diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an insulinotropic hormone normally synthesised in the intestinal mucosa and released in response to a meal, is essential for normal glucose homoeostasis. There is much interest in the use of GLP-1 to treat diabetes, since the risk of hypoglycaemia is thought to be low. We report an instance of a 45-year-old woman with a GLP-1 and somatostatin (...) secreting neuroendocrine tumour who presented with reactive hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, but who was subsequently cured by surgery. This case, of a neuroendocrine tumour secreting GLP-1 and causing reactive hypoglycaemia, indicates a potential adverse effect of GLP-1 therapy for diabetes.

2003 Lancet

1895. Routine hospital admission versus out-patient or home care in children at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. (PubMed)

Routine hospital admission versus out-patient or home care in children at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. BACKGROUND: In many places, children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus are admitted to hospital for metabolic stabilisation and training, even if they are not acutely ill. Out-patient or home based management of these children could avoid the stress associated with a hospital stay, could provide a more natural learning environment for the child and its family, and might (...) reduce costs for both the health care system and the families. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of routine hospital admission compared to out-patient or home-based management in children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes who are not acutely ill, on metabolic control, wellbeing and self-efficacy of the patient and his/her family. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Library (including the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register), Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and the British Nursing Index

2003 Cochrane

1896. Risk of fatal and nonfatal lactic acidosis with metformin use in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (PubMed)

Risk of fatal and nonfatal lactic acidosis with metformin use in type 2 diabetes mellitus. BACKGROUND: Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The results of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study indicate that metformin treatment is associated with a reduction in total mortality compared to other anti-hyperglycemic treatments. Metformin, however, is thought to increase the risk of lactic acidosis, and is considered to be contraindicated (...) in many chronic hypoxemic conditions that may be associated with lactic acidosis, such as cardiovascular, renal, hepatic and pulmonary disease, and advancing age. OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence of fatal and nonfatal lactic acidosis with metformin use compared to placebo and other glucose-lowering treatments in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A secondary objective was to evaluate the blood lactate levels for those on metformin treatment compared to placebo or non-metformin therapies

2003 Cochrane

1897. Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. (PubMed)

Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. 12556541 2003 01 30 2003 02 07 2010 11 18 1533-4406 348 5 2003 Jan 30 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. 383-93 Cardiovascular morbidity is a major burden in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the Steno-2 Study, we compared the effect of a targeted, intensified, multifactorial intervention (...) with that of conventional treatment on modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. The primary end point of this open, parallel trial was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, revascularization, and amputation. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to receive conventional treatment in accordance with national guidelines and 80 to receive intensive treatment, with a stepwise implementation

2003 NEJM

1898. Effects of Internet behavioral counseling on weight loss in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. (PubMed)

, the longer-term efficacy is unknown. To compare the effects of an Internet weight loss program alone vs with the addition of behavioral counseling via e-mail provided for 1 year to individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. A single-center randomized controlled trial conducted from September 2001 to September 2002 in Providence, RI, of 92 overweight adults whose mean (SD) age was 48.5 (9.4) years and body mass index, 33.1 (3.8). Participants were randomized to a basic Internet (n = 46) or to an Internet (...) Effects of Internet behavioral counseling on weight loss in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. 12684363 2003 04 09 2003 05 01 2016 10 17 0098-7484 289 14 2003 Apr 09 JAMA JAMA Effects of Internet behavioral counseling on weight loss in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. 1833-6 Weight loss programs on the Internet appear promising for short-term weight loss but have not been studied for weight loss in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes; thus

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2003 JAMA

1899. Intensive diabetes therapy and carotid intima-media thickness in type 1 diabetes mellitus. (PubMed)

Intensive diabetes therapy and carotid intima-media thickness in type 1 diabetes mellitus. 12788993 2003 06 05 2003 06 10 2016 12 03 1533-4406 348 23 2003 Jun 05 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Intensive diabetes therapy and carotid intima-media thickness in type 1 diabetes mellitus. 2294-303 Cardiovascular disease causes severe morbidity and mortality in type 1 diabetes, although the specific risk factors and whether chronic hyperglycemia has a role are unknown. We (...) examined the progression of carotid intima-media thickness, a measure of atherosclerosis, in a population with type 1 diabetes. As part of the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, the long-term follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), 1229 patients with type 1 diabetes underwent B-mode ultrasonography of the internal and common carotid arteries in 1994-1996 and again in 1998-2000. We assessed the intima-media thickness in 611 subjects who had

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2003 NEJM

1900. Screening for type 2 diabetes to prevent vascular complications: updated recommendations from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care

(CTFPHC) 2003: 31 Authors' objectives This review updates the 1994 recommendations of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Authors' conclusions Recommendations 1. There is fair evidence to recommend screening adults with hypertension for type 2 diabetes to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality (Grade B recommendation). 2. There is fair evidence to recommend screening adults with hyperlipidemia for type 2 diabetes to reduce (...) Screening for type 2 diabetes to prevent vascular complications: updated recommendations from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care Screening for type 2 diabetes to prevent vascular complications: updated recommendations from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care Screening for type 2 diabetes to prevent vascular complications: updated recommendations from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care Feig D S, Palda V A, Lipscombe L L, with the Canadian Task Force

2003 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.