Latest & greatest articles for tuberculosis

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Top results for tuberculosis

121. Do chain pharmacies perform better than independent pharmacies? Evidence from a standardised patient study of the management of childhood diarrhoea and suspected tuberculosis in urban India (PubMed)

Do chain pharmacies perform better than independent pharmacies? Evidence from a standardised patient study of the management of childhood diarrhoea and suspected tuberculosis in urban India Pharmacies and drug stores are frequently patients' first point of care in many low-income and middle-income countries, but their practice is often poor. Pharmacy retailing in India has traditionally been dominated by local, individually owned shops, but recent years have seen the growth of pharmacy chains (...) . In theory, lower-powered profit incentives and self-regulation to preserve brand identity may lead to higher quality in chain stores. In practice, this has been little studied.We randomly selected a stratified sample of chain and independent pharmacies in urban Bengaluru. Standardised patients (SPs) visited pharmacies and presented a scripted case of diarrhoea for a child and suspected tuberculosis (TB). SPs were debriefed immediately after the visit using a structured questionnaire. We measured

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2017 BMJ global health

122. Evaluation of a Rapid Molecular Drug-Susceptibility Test for Tuberculosis. (PubMed)

Evaluation of a Rapid Molecular Drug-Susceptibility Test for Tuberculosis. Fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs are the backbone of treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and resistance to these drugs defines extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. We assessed the accuracy of an automated, cartridge-based molecular assay for the detection, directly from sputum specimens, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides (...) , and isoniazid.We conducted a prospective diagnostic accuracy study to compare the investigational assay against phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing and DNA sequencing among adults in China and South Korea who had symptoms of tuberculosis. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay and sputum culture were performed. M. tuberculosis isolates underwent phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing and DNA sequencing of the genes katG, gyrA, gyrB, and rrs and of the eis and inhA promoter regions.Among the 308 participants who were

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2017 NEJM

123. Out-of-Pocket Expenditures, Indirect Costs and Health-Related Quality of Life of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Thailand (PubMed)

Out-of-Pocket Expenditures, Indirect Costs and Health-Related Quality of Life of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Thailand Thailand's hospitals may adopt different supervision approaches to improve tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence.The aim of this study was to compare out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures, indirect costs, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among TB patients who received pharmaceutical care (pharmacist-led patient education and telephone consultation), home visit

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2017 PharmacoEconomics open

124. High-Dose Vitamin D3 during Tuberculosis Treatment in Mongolia. A Randomized Controlled Trial

High-Dose Vitamin D3 during Tuberculosis Treatment in Mongolia. A Randomized Controlled Trial Existing trials of adjunctive vitamin D in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are variously limited by small sample sizes, inadequate dosing regimens, and high baseline vitamin D status among participants. Comprehensive analyses of the effects of genetic variation in the vitamin D pathway on response to vitamin D supplementation are lacking.To determine the effect of high-dose vitamin D3

2017 EvidenceUpdates

125. Isoniazid for preventing tuberculosis in HIV-infected children. (PubMed)

Isoniazid for preventing tuberculosis in HIV-infected children. Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of illness and death in HIV-positive children living in areas of high TB prevalence. We know that isoniazid prophylaxis prevents TB in HIV-negative children following TB exposure, but there is uncertainty related to its role in TB preventive treatment in HIV-positive children.To summarise the effects of TB preventive treatment versus placebo in HIV-positive children with no known TB contact

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2017 Cochrane

126. The prevalence of tuberculosis among prisoners in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies. (PubMed)

The prevalence of tuberculosis among prisoners in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies. Except individual studies with varying prevalence rates, there are no national prevalence studies conducted in prison settings in Ethiopia. Appropriate estimates of the disease is essential to formulate health service plans most fitted for prisoners. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to pool the results of individual studies and estimate (...) the prevalence of tuberculosis among prisoners in Ethiopia.MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochran library, and Google scholar databases were searched for potential studies on the prevalence of tuberculosis among prisoners in Ethiopia. A total of 177 titles were identified and 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. Descriptive and quantitative data of the included studies were presented in tables and forest plots. Potential sources of heterogeneity across studies were assessed using the Cochrane's Q and I2 tests. The MetaXL

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2017 Archives of public health = Archives belges de sante publique

127. Integration of Metabolomics and Transcriptomics Reveals a Complex Diet of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during Early Macrophage Infection (PubMed)

Integration of Metabolomics and Transcriptomics Reveals a Complex Diet of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during Early Macrophage Infection Nutrient acquisition from the host environment is crucial for the survival of intracellular pathogens, but conceptual and technical challenges limit our knowledge of pathogen diets. To overcome some of these technical roadblocks, we exploited an experimentally accessible model for early infection of human macrophages by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (...) , the etiological agent of tuberculosis, to study host-pathogen interactions with a multi-omics approach. We collected metabolomics and complete transcriptome RNA sequencing (dual RNA-seq) data of the infected macrophages, integrated them in a genome-wide reaction pair network, and identified metabolic subnetworks in host cells and M. tuberculosis that are modularly regulated during infection. Up- and downregulation of these metabolic subnetworks suggested that the pathogen utilizes a wide range of host-derived

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2017 mSystems

128. Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensitivity to thiol stress at acidic pH kills the bacterium and potentiates antibiotics (PubMed)

Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensitivity to thiol stress at acidic pH kills the bacterium and potentiates antibiotics Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must sense and adapt to immune pressures such as acidic pH during pathogenesis. The goal of this study was to isolate compounds that inhibit acidic pH resistance, thus defining virulence pathways that are vulnerable to chemotherapy. Here, we report that the compound AC2P36 selectively kills Mtb at acidic pH and potentiates

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2017 Cell chemical biology

129. Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: An Updated Network Meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: An Updated Network Meta-analysis. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an important component of tuberculosis (TB) control, and this study updates a previous network meta-analysis of the best LTBI treatment options to inform public health action and programmatic management of LTBI.To evaluate the comparative efficacy and harms of LTBI treatment regimens aimed at preventing active TB among adults and children.PubMed, Embase, and Web

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2017 Annals of Internal Medicine

130. Observational study to estimate the changes in the effectiveness of bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination with time since vaccination for preventing tuberculosis in the UK

Observational study to estimate the changes in the effectiveness of bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination with time since vaccination for preventing tuberculosis in the UK Observational study to estimate the changes in the effectiveness of bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination with time since vaccination for preventing tuberculosis in the UK Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page (...) you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} BCG for tuberculosis in minority ethnic groups lasted at least 10 years and at least 20 years in white school-age children. {{author}} {{($index , , , , , , , , , , , & . Punam Mangtani 1, * , Patrick Nguipdop-Djomo 1 , Ruth H Keogh 1 , Lucy Trinder 1 , Peter

2017 NIHR HTA programme

131. Evaluating clinicians’ user experience and acceptability of LearnTB, a smartphone application for tuberculosis in India (PubMed)

Evaluating clinicians’ user experience and acceptability of LearnTB, a smartphone application for tuberculosis in India Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious killer, and India accounts for 2.8 of the 10.4 million TB cases that occur each year, making it the highest TB burden country worldwide. Poor quality of TB care is a major driver of the epidemic in India. India's large private, unregulated sector manages over 50% of the TB patients, with studies showing suboptimal diagnosis (...) and treatment in the private sector. Better education of doctors using mobile applications (apps) is a possible solution. While India has seen an explosion of mobile phone services, and while the use of mobile health interventions has been gaining interest, little is known about mHealth around tuberculosis in India.Our study aimed to understand the user experience and acceptability of a smartphone application, LearnTB, amongst private sector academic clinicians in India. This study was conducted amongst 101

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2017 mHealth

132. Chronic airflow obstruction after successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (PubMed)

Chronic airflow obstruction after successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis Cross-sectional studies reveal an association between tuberculosis (TB) and chronic airflow obstruction, but cannot adequately address confounding. We hypothesised that treated pulmonary TB is an independent risk factor for chronic airflow obstruction. The Pulmones Post TB cohort study enrolled participants from Lima, Peru, aged 10-70 years with a history of drug-susceptible (DS)- or multidrug-resistant

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2017 ERJ open research

133. An evaluation of automated chest radiography reading software for tuberculosis screening among public- and private-sector patients (PubMed)

An evaluation of automated chest radiography reading software for tuberculosis screening among public- and private-sector patients Computer-aided reading (CAR) of medical images is becoming increasingly common, but few studies exist for CAR in tuberculosis (TB). We designed a prospective study evaluating CAR for chest radiography (CXR) as a triage tool before Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert).Consecutively enrolled adults in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with TB symptoms received CXR and Xpert. Each image was scored

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2017 EvidenceUpdates

134. Current and future trends in tuberculosis incidence in New York City: a dynamic modelling analysis (PubMed)

Current and future trends in tuberculosis incidence in New York City: a dynamic modelling analysis After steady decline since the 1990s, tuberculosis (TB) incidence in New York City (NYC) and the United States (US) has flattened. The reasons for this trend and the implications for the future trajectory of TB in the US remain unclear.We developed a compartmental model of TB in NYC, parameterized with detailed epidemiological data. We ran the model under five alternative scenarios representing

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2017 The Lancet. Public health

135. Meta-analysis of host response networks identifies a common core in tuberculosis. (PubMed)

Meta-analysis of host response networks identifies a common core in tuberculosis. Tuberculosis remains a major global health challenge worldwide, causing more than a million deaths annually. To determine newer methods for detecting and combating the disease, it is necessary to characterise global host responses to infection. Several high throughput omics studies have provided a rich resource including a list of several genes differentially regulated in tuberculosis. An integrated analysis (...) -protein interaction network to generate response networks in active tuberculosis, and monitor their behaviour over treatment. We report the emergence of a highly active common core in disease, showing partial reversals upon treatment. The core comprises 380 genes in which STAT1, phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1), C1QB, OAS1, GBP2 and PSMB9 are prominent hubs. This network captures the interplay between several biological processes including pro-inflammatory responses, apoptosis, complement signalling

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2017 NPJ systems biology and applications

136. Tuberculosis control, and the where and why of artificial intelligence (PubMed)

Tuberculosis control, and the where and why of artificial intelligence Countries aiming to reduce their tuberculosis (TB) burden by 2035 to the levels envisaged by the World Health Organization End TB Strategy need to innovate, with approaches such as digital health (electronic and mobile health) in support of patient care, surveillance, programme management, training and communication. Alongside the large-scale roll-out required for such interventions to make a significant impact, products

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2017 ERJ open research

137. A novel clinical sign in intraocular tuberculosis: Active chorioretinitis within chorioretinal atrophy (PubMed)

A novel clinical sign in intraocular tuberculosis: Active chorioretinitis within chorioretinal atrophy To report a novel clinical sign in patients with intraocular tuberculosis. The current study is an observational consecutive case series of patients diagnosed with intraocular tuberculosis managed at a tertiary eye care centre from June 1, 2012 to December 31, 2015.The diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis was made in 6 patients based on ocular features suggestive of tuberculosis along (...) with a positive tuberculin skin testing and chest X-ray consistent with tuberculosis. All patients presented with decreased visual acuity ranging from 20/25 to 20/400, anterior chamber reaction, vitritis, multifocal choroiditis and vasculitis. All patients had an area of active chorioretinitis within the zone of pre-existing chorioretinal atrophy, apart from various other signs suggestive of intraocular inflammation. All patients were started on anti-tubercular therapy for a period of 9 months alone

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2017 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

138. World Health Organization treatment guidelines for drug-resistant tuberculosis, 2016 update (PubMed)

World Health Organization treatment guidelines for drug-resistant tuberculosis, 2016 update Antimicrobial resistance is a major global concern. Tuberculosis (TB) strains resistant to rifampicin and other TB medicines challenge patient survival and public health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published treatment guidelines for drug-resistant TB since 1997 and last updated them in 2016 based on reviews of aggregated and individual patient data from published and unpublished studies

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2017 EvidenceUpdates

139. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor -173 G > C polymorphism and risk of tuberculosis: A meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor -173 G > C polymorphism and risk of tuberculosis: A meta-analysis. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to find out the impact of MIF -173 G > C polymorphism on risk of tuberculosis (TB). We conducted a search of case-control studies on the associations of -173 G > C variant of MIF with susceptibility to tuberculosis in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus. We extracted the data from eligible studies and achieved a meta-analysis to examine

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2017 EXCLI journal

140. User experience analysis of e-TB Manager, a nationwide electronic tuberculosis recording and reporting system in Ukraine (PubMed)

User experience analysis of e-TB Manager, a nationwide electronic tuberculosis recording and reporting system in Ukraine Ukraine has successfully implemented e-TB Manager nationwide as its mandatory national tuberculosis registry after first introducing it in 2009. Our objective was to perform an end-of-programme evaluation after formal handover of the registry administration to Ukraine's Centre for Disease Control in 2015. We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional, anonymous, 18-point user (...) received and satisfaction with the registry. Of the 5.9 million transactions over a 4-year period, nine out of 24 oblasts (regions) and Kiev city accounted for 62.5% of all transactions, and corresponded to 59% of Ukraine's tuberculosis burden. There were 437 unique active users in 486 rayons (districts) of Ukraine, demonstrating extensive reach. Our key findings complement the World Health Organization and European Respiratory Society's agenda for action on digital health to help implement the End TB

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2017 ERJ open research