Latest & greatest articles for tuberculosis

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Top results for tuberculosis

21. Challenges and controversies in childhood tuberculosis. (Abstract)

Challenges and controversies in childhood tuberculosis. Children bear a substantial burden of suffering when it comes to tuberculosis. Ironically, they are often left out of the scientific and public health advances that have led to important improvements in tuberculosis diagnosis, treatment, and prevention over the past decade. This Series paper describes some of the challenges and controversies in paediatric tuberculosis, including the epidemiology and treatment of tuberculosis in children (...) . Two areas in which substantial challenges and controversies exist (ie, diagnosis and prevention) are explored in more detail. This Series paper also offers possible solutions for including children in all efforts to end tuberculosis, with a focus on ensuring that the proper financial and human resources are in place to best serve children exposed to, infected with, and sick from all forms of tuberculosis.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2019 Lancet

22. Contact tracing strategies in household and congregate environments to identify cases of tuberculosis in low- and moderate-incidence populations. (Abstract)

Contact tracing strategies in household and congregate environments to identify cases of tuberculosis in low- and moderate-incidence populations. Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease that is spread via respiratory droplets from infected individuals to susceptible contacts. To eliminate this disease from low- and medium-incidence settings, people who are most likely to be infected (contacts) must be identified. Recently, study authors have examined alternate approaches to contact

2019 Cochrane

23. Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults. Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert MTB/RIF) and Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra), the newest version, are the only World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended rapid tests that simultaneously detect tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in persons with signs and symptoms of tuberculosis, at lower health system levels. A previous Cochrane Review found Xpert MTB/RIF sensitive and specific for tuberculosis (...) (Steingart 2014). Since the previous review, new studies have been published. We performed a review update for an upcoming WHO policy review.To determine diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra for tuberculosis in adults with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and for rifampicin resistance in adults with presumptive rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis.We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index, Web of Science, Latin

2019 Cochrane

24. Tuberculosis (TB): information for discipline and wing staff

Tuberculosis (TB): information for discipline and wing staff Tuberculosis (TB): Information for discipline and wing staff 2019 Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infectious disease that spreads through prolonged contact. TB rates in the UK are on the increase and vulnerable groups, such as people who are in prisons may be at risk. Not all individuals with TB can infect others, only TB affecting the lungs is infectious. Late diagnosis, inadequate treatment, overcrowding, poor ventilation (...) and repeated prison transfers of infectious individuals encourages the spread of TB infection. The prison healthcare staff and your local CCDC are there to support and inform you. Think TB! There are many causes of a persistent cough, the most common of which include viral infection and smoking. A persistent cough can also be a sign of drug misuse (or coming off drugs), tuberculosis or other serious health problems. If an individual in your care has a cough which seems to get worse over a period lasting

2019 Public Health England

25. Interferon gamma release assays for Diagnostic Evaluation of Active tuberculosis (IDEA): test accuracy study and economic evaluation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interferon gamma release assays for Diagnostic Evaluation of Active tuberculosis (IDEA): test accuracy study and economic evaluation Interferon gamma release assays for Diagnostic Evaluation of Active tuberculosis (IDEA): test accuracy study and economic evaluation Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try (...) , Christopher Partlett 1 , Nathan Green 5, 6, 7, 8 , Aime Boakye 2, 4 , Heather Lambie 2 , Luigi Marongiu 2 , Mark Jit 8, 9 , Peter White 5, 6, 7, 8 , Jonathan J Deeks 1 , Onn Min Kon 2, 4, 10 , Ajit Lalvani 2, 4, * 1 Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK 2 Tuberculosis Research Centre, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK 3 Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK 4 National Institute

2019 NIHR HTA programme

26. MVA85A vaccine to enhance BCG for preventing tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

MVA85A vaccine to enhance BCG for preventing tuberculosis. Tuberculosis causes more deaths than any other infectious disease globally. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only available vaccine, but protection is incomplete and variable. The modified Vaccinia Ankara virus expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A) is a viral vector vaccine produced to prevent tuberculosis.To assess and summarize the effects of the MVA85A vaccine boosting BCG in humans.We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group (...) Specialized Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE (PubMed); Embase (Ovid); and four other databases. We searched the WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov. All searches were run up to 10 May 2018.We evaluated randomized controlled trials of MVA85A vaccine given with BCG in people regardless of age or HIV status.Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of trials, and extracted and analyzed data. The primary outcome was active tuberculosis disease

2019 Cochrane

27. Tuberculosis. (Abstract)

Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death from an infectious disease among adults worldwide, with more than 10 million people becoming newly sick from tuberculosis each year. Advances in diagnosis, including the use of rapid molecular testing and whole-genome sequencing in both sputum and non-sputum samples, could change this situation. Although little has changed in the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, data on increased efficacy with new and repurposed drugs have (...) led WHO to recommend all-oral therapy for drug-resistant tuberculosis for the first time ever in 2018. Studies have shown that shorter latent tuberculosis prevention regimens containing rifampicin or rifapentine are as effective as longer, isoniazid-based regimens, and there is a promising vaccine candidate to prevent the progression of infection to the disease. But new tools alone are not sufficient. Advances must be made in providing high-quality, people-centred care for tuberculosis. Renewed

2019 Lancet

28. Yield and Efficiency of Novel Intensified Tuberculosis Case-Finding Algorithms for People Living with HIV Full Text available with Trip Pro

Yield and Efficiency of Novel Intensified Tuberculosis Case-Finding Algorithms for People Living with HIV The recommended tuberculosis (TB) intensified case finding (ICF) algorithm for people living with HIV (symptom-based screening followed by Xpert MTB/RIF [Xpert] testing) is insufficiently sensitive and results in unnecessary Xpert testing.To evaluate whether novel ICF algorithms combining C-reactive protein (CRP)-based screening with urine Determine TB-LAM (TB-LAM), sputum Xpert

2019 EvidenceUpdates

29. Linezolid for drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Linezolid for drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Linezolid was recently re-classified as a Group A drug by the World Health Organization (WHO) for treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), suggesting that it should be included in the regimen for all patients unless contraindicated. Linezolid use carries a considerable risk of toxicity, with the optimal dose and duration remaining unclear. Current guidelines are mainly based (...) on evidence from observational non-comparative studies.To assess the efficacy of linezolid when used as part of a second-line regimen for treating people with MDR and XDR pulmonary tuberculosis, and to assess the prevalence and severity of adverse events associated with linezolid use in this patient group.We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Specialized Register; CENTRAL; MEDLINE; Embase; and LILACS up to 13 July 2018. We also checked article reference lists and contacted

2019 Cochrane

30. One Month of Rifapentine plus Isoniazid to Prevent HIV-Related Tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

One Month of Rifapentine plus Isoniazid to Prevent HIV-Related Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is the leading killer of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Preventive therapy is effective, but current regimens are limited by poor implementation and low completion rates.We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 noninferiority trial comparing the efficacy and safety of a 1-month regimen of daily rifapentine plus isoniazid (1-month group) with 9 months of isoniazid alone (9 (...) -month group) in HIV-infected patients who were living in areas of high tuberculosis prevalence or who had evidence of latent tuberculosis infection. The primary end point was the first diagnosis of tuberculosis or death from tuberculosis or an unknown cause. Noninferiority would be shown if the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the between-group difference in the number of events per 100 person-years was less than 1.25.A total of 3000 patients were enrolled and followed for a median

2019 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

31. A Trial of a Shorter Regimen for Rifampin-Resistant Tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Trial of a Shorter Regimen for Rifampin-Resistant Tuberculosis. Cohort studies in Bangladesh showed promising cure rates among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis who received existing drugs in regimens shorter than that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011.We conducted a phase 3 noninferiority trial in participants with rifampin-resistant tuberculosis that was susceptible to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Participants were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 (...) ratio, to receive a short regimen (9 to 11 months) that included high-dose moxifloxacin or a long regimen (20 months) that followed the 2011 WHO guidelines. The primary efficacy outcome was a favorable status at 132 weeks, defined by cultures negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at 132 weeks and at a previous occasion, with no intervening positive culture or previous unfavorable outcome. An upper 95% confidence limit for the between-group difference in favorable status that was 10 percentage

2019 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

32. Smartphone-enabled video-observed versus directly observed treatment for tuberculosis: a multicentre, analyst-blinded, randomised, controlled superiority trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Smartphone-enabled video-observed versus directly observed treatment for tuberculosis: a multicentre, analyst-blinded, randomised, controlled superiority trial. Directly observed treatment (DOT) has been the standard of care for tuberculosis since the early 1990s, but it is inconvenient for patients and service providers. Video-observed therapy (VOT) has been conditionally recommended by WHO as an alternative to DOT. We tested whether levels of treatment observation were improved with VOT.We (...) did a multicentre, analyst-blinded, randomised controlled superiority trial in 22 clinics in England (UK). Eligible participants were patients aged at least 16 years with active pulmonary or non-pulmonary tuberculosis who were eligible for DOT according to local guidance. Exclusion criteria included patients who did not have access to charging a smartphone. We randomly assigned participants to either VOT (daily remote observation using a smartphone app) or DOT (observations done three to five

2019 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

33. Risk of tuberculosis in patients with immune-mediated diseases on biological therapies: a population-based study in a tuberculosis endemic region (Abstract)

Risk of tuberculosis in patients with immune-mediated diseases on biological therapies: a population-based study in a tuberculosis endemic region Real-world epidemiological data on the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with immune-mediated diseases treated with biologics are scarce in TB endemic areas. We investigated the incidence of TB in a population-based setting and stratified the risk of TB among different biological therapies.We collected medical data from a territory-wide

2019 EvidenceUpdates

34. Short-course regimens of rifapentine plus isoniazid to treat latent tuberculosis infection in older Chinese patients: a randomised controlled study (Abstract)

Short-course regimens of rifapentine plus isoniazid to treat latent tuberculosis infection in older Chinese patients: a randomised controlled study Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) management is now a critical component of the World Health Organization's End TB Strategy.In this randomised controlled trial (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry identifier ChiCTR-IOR-15007202), two short-course regimens with rifapentine plus isoniazid (a 3-month once-weekly regimen and a 2-month twice-weekly

2019 EvidenceUpdates

35. Six versus 12 Months of Anti Tubercular Therapy in Patients With Biopsy Proven Spinal Tuberculosis: A Single Center, Open Labeled, Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial-A Pilot study (Abstract)

Six versus 12 Months of Anti Tubercular Therapy in Patients With Biopsy Proven Spinal Tuberculosis: A Single Center, Open Labeled, Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial-A Pilot study A single center pilot study, open labeled, prospective randomized clinical trial.To compare six versus 12 months of anti TB therapy in patients with biopsy proven spinal TB.There is no clear consensus or evidence based guidelines for the duration of treatment of spinal tuberculosis. We studied if 6 and 12 months (...) of anti tubercular therapy (ATT) had equivalent outcomes at 24 months from completion of therapy.A prospective randomized open labeled clinical trial of 6 versus 12 months ATT in patients with biopsy proven spinal-vertebral tuberculosis. The primary end point was absence of recurrence 24 months after completing therapy. Secondary end points were clinical cure at the end of therapy, significant adverse effect of ATT, need for delayed surgery, and residual neurological dysfunction.Hundred patients

2019 EvidenceUpdates

36. Can community pharmacists improve tuberculosis case finding? A mixed methods intervention study in India. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Can community pharmacists improve tuberculosis case finding? A mixed methods intervention study in India. India has the world's highest burden of tuberculosis (TB). Private retail pharmacies are the preferred provider for 40% of patients with TB symptoms and up to 25% of diagnosed patients. Engaging pharmacies in TB screening services could improve case detection.A novel TB screening and referral intervention was piloted over 18 months, under the pragmatic staggered recruitment of 105

2019 BMJ global health Controlled trial quality: uncertain

37. Home-based tuberculosis contact investigation in Uganda: a household randomised trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Home-based tuberculosis contact investigation in Uganda: a household randomised trial. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends household tuberculosis (TB) contact investigation in low-income countries, but most contacts do not complete a full clinical and laboratory evaluation.We performed a randomised trial of home-based, SMS-facilitated, household TB contact investigation in Kampala, Uganda. Community health workers (CHWs) visited homes of index patients with pulmonary TB to screen

2019 ERJ open research Controlled trial quality: predicted high

38. Programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in the European Union

Programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in the European Union SCIENTIFIC ADVICE Programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in the European Union www.ecdc.europa.euECDC SCIENTIFIC ADVICE Programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in the European Union ii This guidance was commissioned by ECDC and coordinated by Senia Rosales Klintz, Netta Beer and Marieke J. van der Werf with the support of Helena de Carvalho Gomes (ECDC). The inventory of expert (...) Kingdom), and its members: Judith Bruchfeld (Sweden); Josie Garrett (United Kingdom); Walter Haas (Germany); Einar Heldal (Norway); Rein Houben (United Kingdom); Philip LoBue (USA); Mike Mandelbaum (United Kingdom); Alberto Matteelli (Italy); Giovanni Battista Migliori (Italy); Ivan Solovic (Slovakia); and Martina Vašáková (Czech Republic). Suggested citation: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in the European Union. Stockholm

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

39. Approaches to detecting tuberculosis in children and youth

Approaches to detecting tuberculosis in children and youth This practice point provides a framework for initiating investigation in children suspected of having infection with  Mycobacterium tuberculosis  (Mtb). Some areas in Canada have a high burden of tubercular disease, with Indigenous populations being most at risk. Tuberculosis (TB) can present either as an acute or subacute illness and both primary or reactivation infection can cause pulmonary or multisystem disease (...) . Tuberculin skin tests and interferon-γ release assays can be used to support a suspected diagnosis. TB elimination in Canada is possible but requires improving social determinants of health, one of the major factors contributing to the spread of TB in populations at risk. Keywords: Bacille-Calmette-Guérin; Break of contact; Latent tuberculosis infection; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Tuberculosis  

2019 Canadian Paediatric Society

40. Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis Tuberculosis - NICE CKS Share Tuberculosis: Summary Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. People are infected by inhaling the bacterium in respiratory droplets that are released when a person with pulmonary or laryngeal TB coughs. Active disease describes symptomatic or progressive disease of the lung (most common) and/or other organs (extrapulmonary TB). Latent disease occurs when there is no clinically active TB (...) will be arranged by the local specialist team. Advising on symptoms suggesting relapse after treatment completion, and the need to inform the local specialist team or primary care immediately. Have I got the right topic? Have I got the right topic? From age 1 month onwards. This CKS topic is largely based on the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline Tuberculosis. Prevention, diagnosis, management and service organisation [ ]. This CKS topic covers the assessment, referral

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries