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Latest & greatest articles for tuberculosis
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Interventions to improve contact tracing for tuberculosis in specific groups and in wider populations: an evidence synthesis Interventions to improve contact tracing for tuberculosis in specific groups and in wider populations: an evidence synthesis Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search
The effect of tuberculosis control in China. China has 1.4 million new cases of tuberculosis every year, more than any country except India. A new tuberculosis control project based on short-course chemotherapy was introduced in half the country in 1991, after a national survey of tuberculosis prevalence in 1990. Another survey was done in 2000 to re-evaluate the national tuberculosis burden, providing the opportunity to assess the effect of the control project.The survey in 2000 identified (...) 375599 eligible individuals at 257 investigation points chosen from all 31 mainland provinces by stratified random sampling. Children (aged 0-14 years) were suspected of having tuberculosis if they had an induration of 10 mm or greater after a tuberculin skin test, and an abnormal fluorograph. Adults were suspected if they had a persistent cough, abnormal fluorograph, or both. Tuberculosis was diagnosed by chest radiograph, sputum-smear microscopy, and culture.365097 people were examined (97
Efficacy of direct hemoperfusion with a polymyxin Bâ€immobilized fiber column in miliary tuberculosis A 75-year-old woman presented with a 10-day history of intermittent fever, general fatigue, and progressive dyspnea. Although she had a low PaO2/FIO2 ratio, the cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome was not clear until day 9 in hospital.We treated the patient with direct hemoperfusion with a polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column incidentally; the PaO2/FIO2 ratio improved following (...) this therapy. Acid-fast bacilli, which were not seen in the sputum on admission, were detected in cultures from sputum, urine, bone marrow, liver biopsy, and blood samples, with a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay confirming tuberculosis. She was immediately transferred to a specialized tuberculosis hospital, and after a 3-month treatment, was discharged.Treatment with polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column may provide good results for pulmonary oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome
Providers' knowledge of diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis using vignettes: evidence from rural Bihar, India Almost 25% of all new cases of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide are in India, where drug resistance and low quality of care remain key challenges.We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study of healthcare providers' knowledge of diagnosis and treatment of TB in rural Bihar, India, from June to September 2012. Using data from vignette-based interviews with 395 most commonly
Potential impact of spatially targeted adult tuberculosis vaccine in Gujarat, India. Some of the most promising vaccines in the pipeline for tuberculosis (TB) target adolescents and adults. Unlike for childhood vaccines, high-coverage population-wide vaccination is significantly more challenging for adult vaccines. Here, we aimed to estimate the impact of vaccine delivery strategies that were targeted to high-incidence geographical 'hotspots' compared with randomly allocated vaccination. We
Peritoneal tuberculosis with elevated CA-125 mimicking ovarian cancer with carcinomatosis peritonei: Crucial CT findings Preoperative diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis is often difficult because of confusion with ovarian cancer. A 56-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with abdominal fullness. Ascites, prominent bilateral ovaries, and elevated CA-125 were noted. Computed tomography showed thickened peritoneum and strandings in the mesentery and omentum. Exploratory laparotomy (...) was performed under the provisional diagnosis of ovarian cancer, but the final diagnosis was peritoneal tuberculosis. Careful evaluation of bilateral fallopian tubes and ovaries and peritoneum are helpful for correct diagnosis.
Six-month therapy for abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) of the gastrointestinal tract and any other organ within the abdominal cavity is abdominal TB, and most guidelines recommend the same six-month regimen used for pulmonary TB for people with this diagnosis. However, some physicians are concerned whether a six-month treatment regimen is long enough to prevent relapse of the disease, particularly in people with gastrointestinal TB, which may sometimes cause antituberculous drugs
Diabetes Mellitus as Hub for Tuberculosis Infection: A Snapshot Tuberculosis (TB) still remains the thorn in the flesh of efficient therapeutics affecting one-third of global population annually. There are several factors that enhance the susceptibility to TB infections including malnutrition, smoking, and immunocompromised conditions such as AIDS. In the recent years, growing body of evidence has gained considerable prominence which suggests that Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is individual risk
Tuberculosis in migrants moving from high-incidence to low-incidence countries: a population-based cohort study of 519 955 migrants screened before entry to England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Tuberculosis elimination in countries with a low incidence of the disease necessitates multiple interventions, including innovations in migrant screening. We examined a cohort of migrants screened for tuberculosis before entry to England, Wales, and Northern Ireland and tracked the development (...) of disease in this group after arrival.As part of a pilot pre-entry screening programme for tuberculosis in 15 countries with a high incidence of the disease, the International Organization for Migration screened all applicants for UK visas aged 11 years or older who intended to stay for more than 6 months. Applicants underwent a chest radiograph, and any with results suggestive of tuberculosis underwent sputum testing and culture testing (when available). We tracked the development of tuberculosis
Psychosocial wellbeing of patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis voluntarily confined to long-term hospitalisation in Nigeria Patient isolation, which is a widely successful treatment strategy for tuberculosis (TB), has been suspected to have effects on patient psychosocial wellbeing. We assessed the psychosocial wellbeing of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients in voluntary and isolated long-term hospitalisation in Nigeria.98 accessible and consenting patients in four drug
Cost-effectiveness of triage testing for facility-based systematic screening of tuberculosis among Ugandan adults Systematic screening is often proposed as a way to improve case finding for tuberculosis (TB), but the cost-effectiveness of specific strategies for systematic screening remains poorly studied.We constructed a Markov-based decision analytic model to analyse the cost-effectiveness of triage testing for TB in Uganda, compared against passive case detection with Xpert MTB/RIF. We
Hematological and liver toxicity of anti-tuberculosis drugs Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem, and anti-tuberculosis drugs can cause severe adverse reactions. The aim of this study was to determine hematological and biochemical changes and associated risk factors in smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients undergoing treatment with standard protocols.In a descriptive study, a total of 40 tuberculosis patients aged between 15-60 years were collected from hospitals (...) , HCT, MCV, MCH, and MCHC), except platelet count, were changed significantly (p ≤ 0.001). Liver enzyme activities (ALT, AST, and ALP) were decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) after treatment.In this study, changes of hematological and biochemical parameters have been observed in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. It can be concluded that the anti-tuberculosis treatment is associated with changes of hematological parameters and liver enzymes.
GenoType® MTBDRsl assay for resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Genotype® MTBDRsl (MTBDRsl) is a rapid DNA-based test for detecting specific mutations associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs (SLIDs) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. MTBDRsl version 2.0 (released in 2015) identifies the mutations detected by version 1.0, as well as additional mutations. The test may be performed on a culture isolate or a patient specimen (...) , which eliminates delays associated with culture. Version 1.0 requires a smear-positive specimen, while version 2.0 may use a smear-positive or -negative specimen. We performed this updated review as part of a World Health Organization process to develop updated guidelines for using MTBDRsl.To assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of MTBDRsl for: 1. fluoroquinolone resistance, 2. SLID resistance, and 3. extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, indirectly on a M. tuberculosis isolate grown from
Primary Care Screening and Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Adults: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Five to ten percent of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) progress to active tuberculosis (TB) disease. Identifying and treating LTBI is a key component of the strategy for reducing the burden of TB disease.To review the evidence about targeted screening and treatment for LTBI among adults in primary care settings
Screening for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Tuberculosis remains an important preventable disease in the United States. An effective strategy for reducing the transmission, morbidity, and mortality of active disease is the identification and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to prevent progression to active disease.To issue a current US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening
Chronic heel pain: It could be tuberculosis Heel pain is a common presentation at a primary care setting. The majority of these cases are benign and self limiting in nature. Common differential diagnoses include plantar fasciitis and peroneal muscle sprains. However, certain conditions-if undetected early-may cause significant morbidity to the patient. A high index of suspicion and early referral for further investigations are needed to prevent long-term morbidities.A clinical review (...) of a patient with chronic left heel pain was performed. Blood parameters and imaging investigations indicated chronic infection of the calcaneum. Histopathological examination was highly suggestive of tuberculosis.The patient responded well to antituberculous therapy. She was pain free and showed no signs of recurrence at final follow-up.Here, we report a case of chronic heel pain, which was later diagnosed as tuberculosis of the calcaneum and successfully treated with antituberculous therapy.
Head and neck tuberculosis: The great mimic 28461859 2018 11 13 1985-207X 11 2-3 2016 Malaysian family physician : the official journal of the Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia Malays Fam Physician Head and neck tuberculosis: The great mimic. 38 Mohamad I I MD, M.Med (ORL-HNS), School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Kelantan, Malaysia, email:firstname.lastname@example.org. Nik Hassan Nfh N MD, M.Med (ORL-HNS), School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health (...) Campus, Kelantan, Malaysia. Nik Othman N A NA MBChB, M.Med (ORL-HNS), School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Kelantan, Malaysia. eng Journal Article 2016 08 31 Malaysia Malays Fam Physician 101466855 1985-2274 Otolaryngology TuberculosisTuberculosis vaccines 2017 5 3 6 0 2017 5 4 6 0 2017 5 4 6 1 epublish 28461859 PMC5408878 J Laryngol Otol. 2009 Jul;123(7):764-7 18845038 Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Aug;9(8):1763-73 23584253 Acta Med Indones. 2006 Jan-Mar;38(1):29-32
HIV and tuberculosis in prisons in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the dual epidemics of HIV and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa and evidence suggesting a disproportionate burden of these diseases among detainees in the region, we aimed to investigate the epidemiology of HIV and tuberculosis in prison populations, describe services available and challenges to service delivery, and identify priority areas for programmatically relevant research in sub-Saharan African prisons. To this end, we (...) reviewed literature on HIV and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan African prisons published between 2011 and 2015, and identified data from only 24 of the 49 countries in the region. Where data were available, they were frequently of poor quality and rarely nationally representative. Prevalence of HIV infection ranged from 2·3% to 34·9%, and of tuberculosis from 0·4 to 16·3%; detainees nearly always had a higher prevalence of both diseases than did the non-incarcerated population in the same country. We