Latest & greatest articles for tuberculosis

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on tuberculosis and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Top results for tuberculosis

1. Prednisone for the Prevention of Paradoxical Tuberculosis-Associated IRIS.

Prednisone for the Prevention of Paradoxical Tuberculosis-Associated IRIS. BACKGROUND: Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who have tuberculosis reduces mortality among patients with low CD4 counts, but it increases the risk of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). METHODS: We conducted this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess whether prophylactic (...) prednisone can safely reduce the incidence of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated IRIS in patients at high risk for the syndrome. We enrolled HIV-infected patients who were initiating ART (and had not previously received ART), had started tuberculosis treatment within 30 days before initiating ART, and had a CD4 count of 100 cells or fewer per microliter. Patients received either prednisone (at a dose of 40 mg per day for 14 days, then 20 mg per day for 14 days) or placebo. The primary end point

NEJM2018

2. Two interferon gamma release assays for predicting active tuberculosis: the UK PREDICT TB prognostic test study

Two interferon gamma release assays for predicting active tuberculosis: the UK PREDICT TB prognostic test study Two interferon gamma release assays for predicting active tuberculosis: the UK PREDICT TB prognostic test study Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information (...) you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} This study found modest differences between tests in identifying individuals who would go on to develop active tuberculosis, but a two-step approach was the most cost-effective testing option. {{author}} {{($index , , , , , , , , , , , , & . Ibrahim Abubakar 1, * , Ajit Lalvani 2 , Jo Southern 3 , Alice Sitch 4 , Charlotte Jackson 1 , Oluchukwu Onyimadu 5 , Marc Lipman 6 , Jonathan J

NIHR HTA programme2018

3. Rapid tests for diagnosing drug resistant tuberculosis are accurate and may be cost effective

Rapid tests for diagnosing drug resistant tuberculosis are accurate and may be cost effective Signal - Rapid tests for diagnosing drug resistant tuberculosis are accurate and may be cost effective Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Rapid tests for diagnosing drug resistant tuberculosis are accurate and may be cost effective Published on 9 November 2015 This NIHR funded systematic review and economic evaluation found that three rapid tests for diagnosing drug resistant (...) tuberculosis were highly accurate and likely to be cost effective in the UK. These tests produce results within one day of obtaining a sample. This is a significant reduction compared with the standard tests which can take about six weeks or even longer to grow the bacteria. Adding rapid testing to current diagnostic pathways could speed up access to the best treatment and shorten the time people without the disease are kept in isolation as a precaution. This could save money, reduce the spread to others

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

4. What constitutes an effective and efficient package of services for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care of tuberculosis among refugees and migrants in the WHO European Region? Themed issues on migration and health

What constitutes an effective and efficient package of services for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care of tuberculosis among refugees and migrants in the WHO European Region? Themed issues on migration and health

WHO Health Evidence Network2018

5. Prediction of Susceptibility to First-Line Tuberculosis Drugs by DNA Sequencing.

Prediction of Susceptibility to First-Line Tuberculosis Drugs by DNA Sequencing. BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends drug-susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex for all patients with tuberculosis to guide treatment decisions and improve outcomes. Whether DNA sequencing can be used to accurately predict profiles of susceptibility to first-line antituberculosis drugs has not been clear. METHODS: We obtained whole-genome sequences and associated phenotypes (...) profiles (89.5%) were correctly predicted. Among the 4037 phenotypic profiles that were predicted to be pansusceptible, 3952 (97.9%) were correctly predicted. CONCLUSIONS: Genotypic predictions of the susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to first-line drugs were found to be correlated with phenotypic susceptibility to these drugs. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and others.).

NEJM2018

6. Phase 2b Controlled Trial of M72/AS01<sub>E</sub> Vaccine to Prevent Tuberculosis.

Phase 2b Controlled Trial of M72/AS01E Vaccine to Prevent Tuberculosis. BACKGROUND: A vaccine to interrupt the transmission of tuberculosis is needed. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial of the M72/AS01 E tuberculosis vaccine in Kenya, South Africa, and Zambia. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative adults 18 to 50 years of age with latent M. tuberculosis infection (by interferon-γ release assay) were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 (...) ratio) to receive two doses of either M72/AS01 E or placebo intramuscularly 1 month apart. Most participants had previously received the bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine. We assessed the safety of M72/AS01 E and its efficacy against progression to bacteriologically confirmed active pulmonary tuberculosis disease. Clinical suspicion of tuberculosis was confirmed with sputum by means of a polymerase-chain-reaction test, mycobacterial culture, or both. RESULTS: We report the primary analysis (conducted

NEJM2018

7. Sensitivity and specificity of using trial-of-antibiotics versus sputum mycobacteriology for diagnosis of tuberculosis: protocol for a systematic literature review.

Sensitivity and specificity of using trial-of-antibiotics versus sputum mycobacteriology for diagnosis of tuberculosis: protocol for a systematic literature review. BACKGROUND: Suboptimal diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) drives use of 'trial-of-antibiotics (non-tuberculosis)' in an attempt to distinguish PTB patients from those with bacterial lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The underlying assumption-that patients with LRTI will report 'response' to broad-spectrum

Systematic Reviews2018

8. Treatment correlates of successful outcomes in pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

Treatment correlates of successful outcomes in pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: an individual patient data meta-analysis. BACKGROUND: Treatment outcomes for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis remain poor. We aimed to estimate the association of treatment success and death with the use of individual drugs, and the optimal number and duration of treatment with those drugs in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. METHODS: In this individual patient data meta-analysis, we (...) searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify potentially eligible observational and experimental studies published between Jan 1, 2009, and April 30, 2016. We also searched reference lists from all systematic reviews of treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis published since 2009. To be eligible, studies had to report original results, with end of treatment outcomes (treatment completion [success], failure, or relapse) in cohorts of at least 25 adults (aged >18 years). We

Lancet2018

11. Bacterial Factors That Predict Relapse after Tuberculosis Therapy.

Bacterial Factors That Predict Relapse after Tuberculosis Therapy. BACKGROUND: Approximately 5% of patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis have a relapse after 6 months of first-line therapy, as do approximately 20% of patients after 4 months of short-course therapy. We postulated that by analyzing pretreatment isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis obtained from patients who subsequently had a relapse or were cured, we could determine any correlations between the minimum inhibitory (...) concentration (MIC) of a drug below the standard resistance breakpoint and the relapse risk after treatment. METHODS: Using data from the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 22 (development cohort), we assessed relapse and cure isolates to determine the MIC values of isoniazid and rifampin that were below the standard resistance breakpoint (0.1 μg per milliliter for isoniazid and 1.0 μg per milliliter for rifampin). We combined this analysis with clinical, radiologic, and laboratory data to generate

NEJM2018

12. Xpert<sup>®</sup> MTB/RIF assay for extrapulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance.

Xpert® MTB/RIF assay for extrapulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the world's leading infectious cause of death. Extrapulmonary TB accounts for 15% of TB cases, but the proportion is increasing, and over half a million people were newly diagnosed with rifampicin-resistant TB in 2016. Xpert ® MTB/RIF (Xpert) is a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended, rapid, automated, nucleic acid amplification assay that is used widely (...) for simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and rifampicin resistance in sputum specimens. This Cochrane Review assessed the accuracy of Xpert in extrapulmonary specimens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert a) for extrapulmonary TB by site of disease in people presumed to have extrapulmonary TB; and b) for rifampicin resistance in people presumed to have extrapulmonary TB. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register

Cochrane2018

13. Four Months of Rifampin or Nine Months of Isoniazid for Latent Tuberculosis in Adults.

Four Months of Rifampin or Nine Months of Isoniazid for Latent Tuberculosis in Adults. BACKGROUND: A 9-month regimen of isoniazid can prevent active tuberculosis in persons with latent tuberculosis infection. However, the regimen has been associated with poor adherence rates and with toxic effects. METHODS: In an open-label trial conducted in nine countries, we randomly assigned adults with latent tuberculosis infection to receive treatment with a 4-month regimen of rifampin or a 9-month (...) regimen of isoniazid for the prevention of confirmed active tuberculosis within 28 months after randomization. Noninferiority and potential superiority were assessed. Secondary outcomes included clinically diagnosed active tuberculosis, adverse events of grades 3 to 5, and completion of the treatment regimen. Outcomes were adjudicated by independent review panels. RESULTS: Among the 3443 patients in the rifampin group, confirmed active tuberculosis developed in 4 and clinically diagnosed active

NEJM2018

14. Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis Top results for tuberculosis - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Liberating the literature My query is: English Français Deutsch Čeština Español Magyar Svenska ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document This EXACT phrase: Title only Anywhere in the document EXCLUDING words: Title only Anywhere in the document Timeframe: to: Combine searches by placing the search numbers in the top search box and pressing (...) the search button. An example search might look like (#1 or #2) and (#3 or #4) Loading history... Population: Intervention: Comparison: Outcome: Population: Intervention: Latest & greatest articles for tuberculosis The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines

Trip Latest and Greatest2018

15. Rapid urine-based screening for tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients admitted to hospital in Africa (STAMP): a pragmatic, multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

Rapid urine-based screening for tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients admitted to hospital in Africa (STAMP): a pragmatic, multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. BACKGROUND: Current diagnostics for HIV-associated tuberculosis are suboptimal, with missed diagnoses contributing to high hospital mortality and approximately 374 000 annual HIV-positive deaths globally. Urine-based assays have a good diagnostic yield; therefore, we aimed to assess whether urine-based (...) screening in HIV-positive inpatients for tuberculosis improved outcomes. METHODS: We did a pragmatic, multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial in two hospitals in Malawi and South Africa. We included HIV-positive medical inpatients aged 18 years or more who were not taking tuberculosis treatment. We randomly assigned patients (1:1), using a computer-generated list of random block size stratified by site, to either the standard-of-care or the intervention screening group, irrespective

Lancet2018

16. Prevention of M. tuberculosis Infection with H4:IC31 Vaccine or BCG Revaccination.

Prevention of M. tuberculosis Infection with H4:IC31 Vaccine or BCG Revaccination. BACKGROUND: Recent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection confers a predisposition to the development of tuberculosis disease, the leading killer among global infectious diseases. H4:IC31, a candidate subunit vaccine, has shown protection against tuberculosis disease in preclinical models, and observational studies have indicated that primary bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may offer partial protection (...) against infection. METHODS: In this phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned 990 adolescents in a high-risk setting who had undergone neonatal BCG vaccination to receive the H4:IC31 vaccine, BCG revaccination, or placebo. All the participants had negative results on testing for M. tuberculosis infection on the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube assay (QFT) and for the human immunodeficiency virus. The primary outcomes were safety and acquisition of M. tuberculosis infection, as defined by initial conversion

NEJM2018

17. Isoniazid-Rifapentine for Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Isoniazid-Rifapentine for Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis 29910114 2018 06 18 1873-2607 2018 Jun 11 American journal of preventive medicine Am J Prev Med Isoniazid-Rifapentine for Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. S0749-3797(18)31737-9 10.1016/j.amepre.2018.04.030 Latent tuberculosis infection diagnosis and treatment is a strategic priority for eliminating tuberculosis in the U.S. The Centers for Disease Control (...) and Prevention has recommended the short-course regimen of 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine administered by directly observed therapy. However, longer-duration regimens remain the most widely prescribed latent tuberculosis infection treatments. Limitation on adoption of 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine in the U.S. might be because of patients' preference for self-administered therapy, providers' lack of familiarity with 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine, or lack of resources to support directly observed therapy

EvidenceUpdates2018

18. Rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by combined molecular and immunological methods

Rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by combined molecular and immunological methods 29599184 2018 05 04 1399-3003 51 5 2018 May The European respiratory journal Eur. Respir. J. Rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by combined molecular and immunological methods. 1702189 10.1183/13993003.02189-2017 Diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) may be delayed until culture results become available.We ascertained the accuracy of a stepwise diagnostic algorithm for the rapid diagnosis (...) of pulmonary TB by GeneXpert from sputum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) followed by a Mycobacterium tuberculosis- specific BAL ELISPOT assay in patients with a suspected diagnosis of pulmonary TB at a clinical referral centre in Germany.Among 166 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of pulmonary TB, 81 cases were confirmed by M. tuberculosis culture from sputum and/or BAL. In 66 out of 81 (81.5%) cases, patients initially had M. tuberculosis detected by GeneXpert from sputum; in addition, six out

EvidenceUpdates2018

19. Rapid tests for diagnosing drug resistant tuberculosis are accurate and may be cost effective

Rapid tests for diagnosing drug resistant tuberculosis are accurate and may be cost effective NIHR DC | Signal - Rapid tests for diagnosing drug resistant tuberculosis are accurate and may be cost effective Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover NIHR Signal Rapid tests for diagnosing drug resistant tuberculosis are accurate and may be cost effective Published on 9 November 2015 This NIHR funded systematic review and economic evaluation found that three rapid tests for diagnosing (...) drug resistant tuberculosis were highly accurate and likely to be cost effective in the UK. These tests produce results within one day of obtaining a sample. This is a significant reduction compared with the standard tests which can take about six weeks or even longer to grow the bacteria. Adding rapid testing to current diagnostic pathways could speed up access to the best treatment and shorten the time people without the disease are kept in isolation as a precaution. This could save money, reduce

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

20. Daily vs Intermittent Antituberculosis Therapy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients With HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Daily vs Intermittent Antituberculosis Therapy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients With HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial 29507938 2018 04 19 2168-6114 178 4 2018 Apr 01 JAMA internal medicine JAMA Intern Med Daily vs Intermittent Antituberculosis Therapy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients With HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial. 485-493 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.0141 The benefit of daily over thrice-weekly antituberculosis therapy among HIV-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (...) (TB) who are receiving antiretroviral therapy remains unproven. To compare the efficacy and safety of daily, part-daily, and intermittent antituberculosis therapy regimens in the treatment of HIV-associated pulmonary TB. This open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted by the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, south India. Adults infected with HIV with newly diagnosed, culture-positive, pulmonary TB were enrolled between September 14, 2009, and January 18, 2016. Patients were

EvidenceUpdates2018