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Maternal thyroid function and child educational attainment: prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To determine if first trimester maternal thyroid dysfunction is a critical determinant of child scholastic performance and overall educational attainment. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 4615 mother-child pairs with an available first trimester sample (median 10 weeks gestation, interquartile range 8-12 (...) ). EXPOSURES: Free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies assessed as continuous measures and the seven clinical categories of maternal thyroid function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five age-specific national curriculum assessments in 3580 children at entry stage assessment at 54 months, increasing up to 4461 children at their final school assessment at age 15. RESULTS: No strong evidence of clinically meaningful associations of first trimester free thyroxine and thyroid
Patients With Antithyroid Antibodies Are Prone To Develop Destructive Thyroiditis by Nivolumab: A Prospective Study ISSN 2472-1972 Patients With Antithyroid Antibodies Are ProneToDevelopDestructiveThyroiditis by Nivolumab: A Prospective Study Tomoko Kobayashi, 1 Shintaro Iwama, 1,2 Yoshinori Yasuda, 1 Norio Okada, 1 Taku Tsunekawa, 1 Takeshi Onoue, 1 Hiroshi Takagi, 1 Daisuke Hagiwara, 1 Yoshihiro Ito, 1 Yoshiaki Morishita, 1 Motomitsu Goto, 1 Hidetaka Suga, 1 Ryoichi Banno, 1 Kenji Yokota, 3 (...) ,thyroidfunction,antithyroid antibodies (Abs), and glucose levels every 6 weeks after the initiation of nivolumab for 24 weeks. Results: Four out of 66 patients developed destructive thyroiditis, and three patients developed hypo- thyroidismrequiringlevothyroxinereplacement.Theprevalenceofpositiveanti-thyroglobulinAbs(TgAbs) and/oranti–thyroidperoxidaseAbs(TPOAbs)atbaselinewassignificantlyhigherinthegroupthatdeveloped destructivethyroiditis(3/4)comparedwiththegroupthatdidnotdevelopthyroiditis(3/62;P=0.002
From Consternation to Revelation: Discovery of a Role for IGSF1 in Pituitary Control of Thyroid Function ISSN 2472-1972 From Consternation to Revelation: Discovery ofaRoleforIGSF1inPituitaryControlof Thyroid Function Daniel J. Bernard, 1,2 Emilie Brˆ ul´ e, 2 Courtney L. Smith, 1 Sjoerd D. Joustra, 3 and Jan M. Wit 3 1 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montr´ eal, Qu´ ebec H3G 1Y6, Canada; 2 Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montr´ eal, Qu (...) nearly ground to a halt until 2011, when next-generation sequencing identified mutationsintheX-linkedIGSF1geneinboysandmenwithcongenitalcentralhypothyroidism.IGSF1 was localized to thyrotrope cells, implicating the protein in pituitary control of the thyroid. In- vestigations in two Igsf1 knockout mouse models converged to show that IGSF1 deficiency leads to reduced expression of the receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and impaired TRH stimulation ofthyrotropin secretion
Overview of thyroid dysfunction Overview of thyroid dysfunction - Summary of relevant conditions | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Overview of thyroid dysfunction Last reviewed: August 2018 Last updated: June 2018 Introduction The thyroid gland produces, stores, and secretes thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) through a negative feedback process involving the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Thyroid dysfunction can result when any (...) part of this process is affected, and is usually characterised by the presence of high or low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, secreted by the pituitary gland) and free thyroid hormones. Causes of thyroid disorders include autoimmunity (e.g., Graves' disease), infections (e.g., post-viral inflammation), other systemic medical conditions, medications (e.g., lithium, amiodarone), nutritional excesses or deficiencies (e.g., of iodine), tumours (thyroid, or rarely pituitary), trauma
Painless lymphocytic thyroiditis Painless lymphocytic thyroiditis - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Painless lymphocytic thyroiditis Last reviewed: August 2018 Last updated: May 2018 Summary Autoimmune-mediated inflammation of the thyroid gland with release of thyroid hormone resulting in transient hyperthyroidism, frequently followed by a hypothyroid phase before recovery of normal thyroid function (...) -mediated lymphocytic inflammation of the thyroid gland resulting in a destructive thyroiditis with release of thyroid hormone and transient thyrotoxicosis (hyperthyroidism). Woolf PD. Transient painless thyroiditis with hyperthyroidism: a variant of lymphocytic thyroiditis? Endocr Rev. 1980 Fall;1(4):411-20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7018893?tool=bestpractice.com Samuels MH. Subacute, silent and postpartum thyroiditis. Med Clin North Am. 2012 Mar;96(2):223-33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis Last reviewed: August 2018 Last updated: March 2018 Summary Inflammation of the thyroid characterised by a triphasic course of transient thyrotoxicosis, followed by hypothyroidism, followed by a return to euthyroidism. The thyrotoxic phase is due to thyroid (...) follicular damage and release of preformed hormone and is characterised by low thyroid uptake on nuclear scan and elevated ESR or CRP. Thyroid pain and tenderness, which may be migratory and affect different areas of the gland at different times, is typical of the thyrotoxic phase. Thyroid is often enlarged, firm, and tender to palpation. Ultrasound of the thyroid shows areas of hypoechoic echotexture with decreased or normal vascular flow by Doppler. The condition is self-limited, and no specific
Thyroid function testing Thyroid function testing - Medical information | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Thyroid function testing Last reviewed: August 2018 Last updated: February 2018 Summary Thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) are produced, stored, and secreted by the thyroid gland. These hormones, particularly T3, play a major role in multiple biological and metabolic processes. They act by binding to thyroid (...) receptors that are distributed in almost every organ. Typically, this process regulates gene transcription and the subsequent production of various proteins that are involved in development, growth, and cellular metabolism. Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, et al, eds. Williams textbook of endocrinology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier; 2011. Thyroid function tests (TFTs) are the most commonly used endocrine test. Details Thyroid hormone production Thyroid hormone-binding proteins
Assessment of thyroid mass Assessment of thyroid mass - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Assessment of thyroid mass Last reviewed: August 2018 Last updated: June 2018 Summary Thyroid parenchymal expansion can result from diffuse enlargement or infiltration of the thyroid gland or from the presence of one or more thyroid nodules. A thyroid nodule is a discrete lesion distinct from the surrounding thyroid (...) parenchyma. Enlargement of other nearby anatomical structures, such as the parathyroid glands or regional lymph nodes, as well as branchial cleft and thyroglossal duct cysts, may sometimes be confused with thyroid nodules. Thyroid nodules may be palpable at presentation or may be incidentally detected during an imaging procedure (40% are self-identified, 30% are physician-identified, and 30% are incidentally discovered on imaging Mevawalla N, McMullen T, Sidhu S, et al. Presentation of clinically
Effect of Levothyroxine on Miscarriage Among Women With Normal Thyroid Function and Thyroid Autoimmunity Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Importance: Presence of thyroid autoantibodies in women with normal thyroid function is associated with increased risk of miscarriage. Whether levothyroxine treatment improves pregnancy outcomes among women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is unknown. Objective: To determine (...) the effect of levothyroxine on miscarriage among women undergoing IVF-ET who had normal thyroid function and tested positive for thyroid autoantibodies. Design, Setting, and Participants: An open-label, randomized clinical trial involving 600 women who tested positive for the antithyroperoxidase antibody and were being treated for infertility at Peking University Third Hospital from September 2012 to March 2017. Interventions: The intervention group (n = 300) received either a 25-μg/d or 50-μg/d dose
Ventricular Fibrillation Associated With Dynamic Changes in J-Point Elevation in a Patient With Silent Thyroiditis ISSN 2472-1972 Ventricular Fibrillation Associated With Dynamic Changes in J-Point Elevation in a Patient With Silent Thyroiditis Shigehiro Karashima, 1 *ToyonobuTsuda, 2 * Yusuke Wakabayashi, 1 Mitsuhiro Kometani, 1 Masashi Demura, 1,3 Taro Ichise, 2 Masa-aki Kawashiri, 2 Yoshiyu Takeda, 1 Kenshi Hayashi, 2 and Takashi Yoneda 1,4 1 DivisionofEndocrinologyandMetabolism (...) electrocardiographic finding in the general population. Individuals with prominentJwavesinmultipleelectrocardiogram(ECG)leadshaveahigherriskoflethalarrhythmias thanthosewithlow-amplitudeJwaves.There arefewreports abouttherelationshipbetweenthyroid functionandJ-waveamplitude.Wereportthecaseofa45-year-oldmanwhohadunexpectedventricular fibrillation(VF).HehaddynamicJ-pointelevationinmultipleECGleads.Possibleearlyrepolarization syndrome was diagnosed. He also had thyrotoxicosis caused by silent thyroiditis, and his J
Aberrant Iodine Autoregulation Induces Hypothyroidism in a Mouse Strain in the Absence of Thyroid Autoimmunity ISSN 2472-1972 Aberrant Iodine Autoregulation Induces Hypothyroidism in a Mouse Strain in the Absence of Thyroid Autoimmunity Sandra M. McLachlan, 1,2 Holly A. Aliesky, 1 and Basil Rapoport 1,2 1 Thyroid Autoimmune Disease Unit, Cedars-Sinai Research Institute, Los Angeles, California 90048; and 2 UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095 (...) WeinvestigatedfactorsunderlyingthevaryingeffectsofahighdietaryiodideintakeonserumT4levels inawidespectrumofmousestrains,includingthyroiditis-susceptibleNOD.H2 h4 ,NOD.H2 k ,andNOD mice,aswellasotherstrains(BALB/c,C57BL/6,NOD.Lc7,andB10.A4R)notpreviouslyinvestigated. Mice were maintained for up to 8 months on control or iodide-supplemented water (NaI 0.05%). On iodizedwater,serumT4wasreducedinBALB/c(malesandfemales)inassociationwithcolloidgoiters but was not significantly changed in mice that developed thyroiditis, namely NOD.H2 h4 (males and females) or male NOD.H2 k mice. Neither
Multiple steroid and thyroid hormones detected in baleen from eight whale species Volume 5 ? 2017 10.1093/conphys/cox061 Toolbox Multiple steroid and thyroid hormones detected in baleen from eight whale species Kathleen E. Hunt 1, * , Nadine S. Lysiak 2 , Jooke Robbins 3 , Michael J. Moore 4 , Rosemary E. Seton 5 , Leigh Torres 6 and C. Loren Buck 1 1 Biological Sciences & Center for Bioengineering Innovation, Northern Arizona University, Flagsta?, AZ, USA 2 University of Massachusetts-Boston (...) demonstrated that some hormones are present in baleen powder from bowhead (Balaena mysticetus) and North Atlantic right (Eubalaena glacialis) whales. To test the potential generalizability of this technique for studies of stress and reproduction in large whales, we sought to determine whether all major classes of steroid and thyroid hormones are detectable in baleen, and whether these hormones are detectable in other mysticetes. Powdered baleen samples were recovered from single specimens of North Atlantic
Lenvatinib (Lenvima) - thyroid carcinoma AWMSG ADVICE SUPERSEDED BY NICE GUIDANCE (TA535) NICE GUIDANCE ISSUED JULY 2018 (Refer to NICE website for full guidance on NICE recommendations, including any specific restrictions on the use of the technology) Final Appraisal Recommendation Advice No: 1817 – October 2017 Lenvatinib (Lenvima ® ) 4 mg and 10 mg hard capsules Submission by Eisai Ltd Additional note(s): ? AWMSG considered that lenvatinib (Lenvima ® ) satisfied the AWMSG criteria for orphan (...) perspective. This recommendation has been ratified by Welsh Government and will be considered for review every three years. Recommendation of AWMSG Lenvatinib (Lenvima ® ) is recommended as an option for use within NHS Wales for the treatment of adult patients with progressive, locally advanced or metastatic, differentiated (papillary/follicular/Hürthle cell) thyroid carcinoma (DTC), refractory to radioactive iodine (RAI). This recommendation applies only in circumstances where the approved Wales Patient
Ectopic Thyroid Tissue in the Adrenal Gland Mimicking a Pheochromocytoma 29098199 2018 11 13 2379-9889 3 1 2017 Journal of endourology case reports J Endourol Case Rep Ectopic Thyroid Tissue in the Adrenal Gland Mimicking a Pheochromocytoma. 149-151 10.1089/cren.2017.0080 Ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland (ETTAG) usually presents as a well-circumscribed cystic mass on a CT scan. However, the MRI features of ETTAG are incompletely understood. We report a case of ectopic thyroid tissue (...) , Taiwan, ROC. Ho Hao-Chung HC Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC. Ou Yen-Chuan YC Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC. Yang Cheng-Kuang CK Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC. eng Journal Article 2017 10 01 United States J Endourol Case Rep 101684114 2379-9889 Thyroid. 2013 Dec;23(12):1644-50 23510370 Int
Effects of Inorganic Iodine Therapy Administered to Lactating Mothers With Graves Disease on Infant Thyroid Function 29264454 2018 11 13 2472-1972 1 10 2017 Oct 01 Journal of the Endocrine Society J Endocr Soc Effects of Inorganic Iodine Therapy Administered to Lactating Mothers With Graves Disease on Infant Thyroid Function. 1293-1300 10.1210/js.2017-00297 The effects of maternal inorganic iodine therapy on infant thyroid function are not well known. This study investigated the effects (...) on infant thyroid function of maternal inorganic iodine therapy when administered to lactating mothers with Graves disease. This study was a prospective case series performed at the Tajiri Thyroid Clinic, Kumamoto, Japan. Subjects were 26 infants of lactating mothers with Graves disease treated with potassium iodide (KI) for postpartum thyrotoxicosis. Infant blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine were measured using the dried filter-paper method. Iodine concentrations
Ectopic thyroid cancer diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasoundâ€guided transbronchial needle aspiration 28881088 2018 03 20 2018 11 13 1759-7714 8 6 2017 11 Thoracic cancer Thorac Cancer Ectopic thyroid cancer diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration. 703-705 10.1111/1759-7714.12486 We report a case of papillary carcinoma in a mediastinal ectopic thyroid diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). In this case (...) , the tumor was adjacent to the central airway; therefore, we attempted to perform EBUS-TBNA to obtain specimens for a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Surgical resection was conducted, and histological evaluation of the resected specimen confirmed ectopic papillary thyroid carcinoma, consistent with the histology from the EBUS-TBNA specimen. As a safe and minimally invasive procedure, EBUS-TBNA may be considered for the diagnosis of mediastinal lesions, including papillary carcinoma
An association of myasthenia gravis with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in a patient with a multinodular goitre 29423128 2018 11 13 1985-207X 12 2 2017 Malaysian family physician : the official journal of the Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia Malays Fam Physician An association of myasthenia gravis with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in a patient with a multinodular goitre. 29-31 The association of myasthenia gravis (MG) with other autoimmune diseases including autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) is well (...) recognised, although rare. The occurrence of both diseases can occur in two ways: either disease preceding the other, or concurrently. The presentation of MG in association with ATD can range from ocular to generalised disease. A 26-year-old Malay female with persistent hyperthyroidism secondary to Hashimoto's thyroiditis in multinodular goitre was diagnosed with generalised MG after 2 years. She presented with right eye ptosis (ocular) and difficulty in swallowing and chewing (bulbar). The diagnosis
Thyroid Cancer Incidences From Selected South America Population-Based Cancer Registries: An Age-Period-Cohort Study 30241178 2018 12 07 2378-9506 4 2018 Sep Journal of global oncology J Glob Oncol Thyroid Cancer Incidences From Selected South America Population-Based Cancer Registries: An Age-Period-Cohort Study. 1-11 10.1200/JGO.17.00024 The incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) has increased substantially worldwide. However, there is a lack of knowledge about age-period-cohort (APC) effects (...) 11770759 Br J Cancer. 2001 Nov 2;85(9):1335-9 11720471 Surgery. 2008 Dec;144(6):1038-43; discussion 1043 19041015 JAMA. 2006 May 10;295(18):2164-7 16684987 Thyroid. 2009 Oct;19(10):1061-6 19732011 Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Oct 1;138(7):482-91 8213752 Thyroid. 2015 Oct;25(10):1127-36 26133012 Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2002;101(1-4):201-4 12382735 Thyroid. 2006 Jan;16(1):47-53 16487013 N Engl J Med. 2009 Aug 27;361(9):849-57 19710483 J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 May 18;97(10):724-32 15900042 Annu Rev Public Health