Latest & greatest articles for thyroid

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Top results for thyroid

21. Exenatide use and incidence of pancreatic and thyroid cancer: A retrospective cohort study (Abstract)

Exenatide use and incidence of pancreatic and thyroid cancer: A retrospective cohort study A retrospective cohort study, supplemented with a nested case-control study, was performed using two administrative databases from commercial health plans in the United States to compare the incidence of pancreatic and thyroid cancer among users of exenatide versus other antidiabetic drugs (OADs). Patients with type 2 diabetes who initiated exenatide or OADs between 1 June 2005 and 30 June 2015 were (...) included. Pancreatic and thyroid cancers were identified using chart-validated algorithms in the cohort study. Cases in the nested case-control study were chart-confirmed pancreatic or thyroid cancers, and controls were sampled using risk-set sampling. The time-fixed analyses comparing 33 629 exenatide initiators with 49 317 propensity-score-matched OAD initiators yielded hazard ratios of 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-1.21) for pancreatic cancer and 1.46 (95% CI 0.98-2.19) for thyroid cancer

2019 EvidenceUpdates

22. Recurrence after low-dose radioiodine ablation and recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone for differentiated thyroid cancer (HiLo): long-term results of an open-label, non-inferiority randomised controlled trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recurrence after low-dose radioiodine ablation and recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone for differentiated thyroid cancer (HiLo): long-term results of an open-label, non-inferiority randomised controlled trial Two large randomised trials of patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer reported in 2012 (HiLo and ESTIMABL1) found similar post-ablation success rates at 6-9 months between a low administered radioactive iodine (131I) dose (1·1 GBq) and the standard high dose (3·7 GBq (...) ). However, recurrence rates following radioactive iodine ablation have previously only been reported in observational studies, and recently in ESTIMABL1. We aimed to compare recurrence rates between radioactive iodine doses in HiLo.HiLo was a non-inferiority, parallel, open-label, randomised controlled factorial trial done at 29 centres in the UK. Eligible patients were aged 16-80 years with histological confirmation of differentiated thyroid cancer requiring radioactive iodine ablation (performance

2019 EvidenceUpdates

23. Toxic thyroid adenoma

Toxic thyroid adenoma Toxic thyroid adenoma - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Toxic thyroid adenoma Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary Typically a single large thyroid nodule accompanied by clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. Diagnosis confirmed by thyroid scan demonstrating a hot area and suppression of extranodular thyroid tissue. Hyperthyroidism caused by toxic (...) adenomas generally does not remit. Definitive treatment, such as radioactive iodine therapy, is usually required. Complications of untreated toxic adenomas may include sequelae of hyperthyroidism such as cardiac dysfunction or bone loss, or tracheal compression by large nodules. Definition A toxic adenoma is an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule that causes hyperthyroidism. Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management

2019 BMJ Best Practice

24. Assessment of thyroid mass

Assessment of thyroid mass Assessment of thyroid mass - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of thyroid mass Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: January 2019 Summary Thyroid parenchymal expansion can result from diffuse enlargement or infiltration of the thyroid gland or from the presence of one or more thyroid nodules. A thyroid nodule is a discrete lesion distinct from the surrounding (...) thyroid parenchyma. Enlargement of other nearby anatomical structures, such as the parathyroid glands or regional lymph nodes, as well as branchial cleft and thyroglossal duct cysts, may sometimes be confused with thyroid nodules. Thyroid nodules may be palpable at presentation or may be incidentally detected during an imaging procedure (40% are self-identified, 30% are physician-identified, and 30% are incidentally discovered on imaging Mevawalla N, McMullen T, Sidhu S, et al. Presentation

2019 BMJ Best Practice

25. Thyroid Disease

Thyroid Disease New 2018 ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® 1 Thyroid Disease American College of Radiology ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® Thyroid Disease Variant 1: Palpable thyroid nodule. Not goiter. Euthyroid. Initial imaging. Procedure Appropriateness Category Relative Radiation Level US thyroid Usually Appropriate O CT neck with IV contrast May Be Appropriate ??? CT neck without IV contrast May Be Appropriate ??? MRI neck without and with IV contrast Usually Not Appropriate O MRI neck without (...) IV contrast Usually Not Appropriate O I-123 radionuclide uptake and scan neck Usually Not Appropriate ??? I-131 radionuclide uptake and Tc-99m pertechnetate scan neck Usually Not Appropriate ???? CT neck without and with IV contrast Usually Not Appropriate ??? FDG-PET/CT neck Usually Not Appropriate ???? Variant 2: Suspected goiter. Initial imaging. Procedure Appropriateness Category Relative Radiation Level US thyroid Usually Appropriate O CT neck without IV contrast Usually Appropriate ??? CT

2019 American College of Radiology

26. Management Guidelines for Children With Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Management Guidelines for Children With Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Management Guidelines for Children With Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer | From the American Academy of Pediatrics | Pediatrics '); document.write(''); } function OAS_AD(pos) { if (OAS_version >= 11 && typeof(OAS_RICH)!='undefined') { OAS_RICH(pos); } else { OAS_NORMAL(pos); } } //--> Search for this keyword Source User menu Sections Sign up for highlighting editor-chosen studies (...) with the greatest impact on clinical care. Management Guidelines for Children With Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer In July 2015, the American Academy of Pediatrics endorsed the following publication: Francis GL, Waguespack SG, Bauer AJ, et al; The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Pediatric Thyroid Cancer. Management guidelines for children with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid . 2015;25(7):716–759. doi: 10.1089/thy.2014.0460. All statements

2019 American Academy of Pediatrics

27. Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Full Text available with Trip Pro

Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma | From the American Academy of Pediatrics | Pediatrics '); document.write(''); } function OAS_AD(pos) { if (OAS_version >= 11 && typeof(OAS_RICH)!='undefined') { OAS_RICH(pos); } else { OAS_NORMAL(pos); } } //--> Search for this keyword Source User menu Sections Sign up for highlighting editor-chosen (...) studies with the greatest impact on clinical care. Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma In May 2015, the American Academy of Pediatrics endorsed the following publication: Wells SA Jr, Asa SL, Dralle H, et al; The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. Revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid . 2015;25(6). doi: . All statements

2019 American Academy of Pediatrics

28. Thyroid Function Testing in the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Function Disorder

Thyroid Function Testing in the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Function Disorder Guidelines & Protocols Advisory Committee Thyroid Function Testing in the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Function Disorder Effective Date: October 24, 2018 Scope This guideline outlines testing for thyroid dysfunction in patients (pediatric and adult), including pregnant women or women planning pregnancy, and the monitoring of patients treated for primary thyroid function disorders. It does not apply (...) to the BC Newborn Screening Program. This guideline outlines testing for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO). Information on other tests, including thyroglobulin/antithyroglobulin (Tg/anti Tg) and antibodies to the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TRAb), are covered in the associated BC Guideline Hormone Testing – Indications and Appropriate Use. Key Recommendations • Routine thyroid function testing

2018 Clinical Practice Guidelines and Protocols in British Columbia

29. Vandetanib for treating medullary thyroid cancer

Vandetanib for treating medullary thyroid cancer V Vandetanib for treating medullary andetanib for treating medullary th thyroid cancer yroid cancer T echnology appraisal guidance Published: 12 December 2018 nice.org.uk/guidance/ta550 © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and-conditions#notice-of- rights).Y Y our responsibility our responsibility The recommendations in this guidance represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful (...) a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible. Vandetanib for treating medullary thyroid cancer (TA550) © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 2 of 22Contents Contents 1 Recommendations 4 2 Information about vandetanib 5 3 Committee discussion 6 The condition and current

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Technology Appraisals

30. Tocilizumab for thyroid eye disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tocilizumab for thyroid eye disease. Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an autoimmune disorder that constitutes a major clinical and therapeutic challenge. Current treatment options for moderate-to-severe TED include immunotherapy, orbital radiotherapy and decompression surgery. Limited drugs of proven efficacy are available for the treatment of people with TED. Given the role in the pathogenesis of TED of interleukin (IL)-6 expression in adipocytes, fibroblasts and macrophages, the proposed theory

2018 Cochrane

31. Thyroid hormone levels and temperature during development alter thermal tolerance and energetics of Xenopus laevis larvae Full Text available with Trip Pro

Thyroid hormone levels and temperature during development alter thermal tolerance and energetics of Xenopus laevis larvae Environmental variation induced by natural and anthropogenic processes including climate change may threaten species by causing environmental stress. Anuran larvae experiencing environmental stress may display altered thyroid hormone (TH) status with potential implications for physiological traits. Therefore, any capacity to adapt to environmental changes through plastic

2018 Conservation physiology

32. Re-Evaluation of 162 Malignant Thyroid Nodules that were Interpreted as Benign Based on Ultrasound Findings Full Text available with Trip Pro

Re-Evaluation of 162 Malignant Thyroid Nodules that were Interpreted as Benign Based on Ultrasound Findings The goal of this study was to estimate the risk of malignant thyroid nodules being interpreted as benign based on ultrasound findings and to clarify the pathological features of these malignant nodules.We retrospectively re-evaluated ultrasound and pathological findings for 162 malignant thyroid nodules that were initially interpreted as benign based on ultrasound findings at Kuma (...) Hospital between April 2012 and June 2015.The incidences of malignancy among "benign" thyroid nodules were 0.5% overall and 6.2% among resected nodules. In addition, 82.7% of thyroid nodules that were originally judged to have low or very low suspicion patterns were subsequently re-categorized as having high or intermediate suspicion patterns. The incidences of irregular margins (63.6%) and low echogenicity (36.4%) were higher than those of punctate microcalcification (17.9%) and the taller-than-wide

2018 Ultrasound international open

33. Sonographic Volumetric Assessment Is a More Accurate Measure Than Maximum Diameter Alone in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sonographic Volumetric Assessment Is a More Accurate Measure Than Maximum Diameter Alone in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Tumor size is an important prognostic factor in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Management guidelines, staging systems, and pathological definitions use maximum diameter (Dmax) as a surrogate marker of tumor size. However, PTC nodules are three-dimensional (3D) structures, with behavior reflective of tumor cell count, which is directly proportional to volume. We explored

2018 Journal of the Endocrine Society

34. Overview of thyroid dysfunction

Overview of thyroid dysfunction Overview of thyroid dysfunction - Summary of relevant conditions | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Overview of thyroid dysfunction Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: October 2018 Introduction The thyroid gland produces, stores, and secretes thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) through a negative feedback process involving the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Thyroid dysfunction can result when (...) any part of this process is affected, and is usually characterised by the presence of high or low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, secreted by the pituitary gland) and free thyroid hormones. Causes of thyroid disorders include autoimmunity (e.g., Graves' disease), infections (e.g., post-viral inflammation), other systemic medical conditions, medications (e.g., lithium, amiodarone), nutritional excesses or deficiencies (e.g., of iodine), tumours (thyroid, or rarely pituitary), trauma

2018 BMJ Best Practice

35. Oral L‐thyroxine liquid versus tablet in patients submitted to total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer (without malabsorption): A prospective study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oral L‐thyroxine liquid versus tablet in patients submitted to total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer (without malabsorption): A prospective study No consistent data are present in literature about the effectiveness of Levothyroxine (L-T4) liquid formulation in patients without malabsorption after thyroidectomy. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of L-T4 liquid formulation, with L-T4 tablets, in thyroid cancer patients after thyroidectomy (without malabsorption or drug

2018 Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology

36. Clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of thyroid cancer in northwest China: A population‐based retrospective study of 2490 patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of thyroid cancer in northwest China: A population‐based retrospective study of 2490 patients The specific clinical features of thyroid cancer patients in northwest China are unclear; therefore, we analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of this population.Clinical characteristics including age, gender, blood type, histological type, and BRAFV600E gene mutation; and incidence; risk factors; surgical treatment (...) ; and prognosis were recorded.A total of 2490 thyroid cancer patients were included; 98% were diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Weight, blood type, histological type, and BRAFV600E gene mutation rates were significantly different. Pediatric thyroid cancer patients had higher lymph node metastasis, lower BRAFV600E mutation, and 6.2-9.2% greater recurrence rates than adult patients. PTC and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma displayed similar features, while in other types, such as follicular

2018 Thoracic cancer

37. Intravenously Administered Lidocaine and Magnesium During Thyroid Surgery in Female Patients for Better Quality of Recovery After Anesthesia (Abstract)

Intravenously Administered Lidocaine and Magnesium During Thyroid Surgery in Female Patients for Better Quality of Recovery After Anesthesia Although systemic lidocaine and magnesium have been widely studied as perioperative analgesic adjuvants, they have been rarely evaluated with respect to recovery quality under the same conditions. We compared the quality of recovery 40 (QoR-40) scores of female patients who received intravenous lidocaine, magnesium, and saline during thyroidectomy

2018 EvidenceUpdates

38. Contributions of Thyroid Hormone to Cancer Metastasis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Contributions of Thyroid Hormone to Cancer Metastasis Acting at a cell surface receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin αvβ3, thyroid hormone analogues regulate downstream the expression of a large panel of genes relevant to cancer cell proliferation, to cancer cell survival pathways, and to tumor-linked angiogenesis. Because αvβ3 is involved in the cancer cell metastatic process, we examine here the possibility that thyroid hormone as l-thyroxine (T4) and the thyroid hormone antagonist (...) , tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), may respectively promote and inhibit metastasis. Actions of T4 and tetrac that are relevant to cancer metastasis include the multitude of synergistic effects on molecular levels such as expression of matrix metalloproteinase genes, angiogenesis support genes, receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR/ERBB2) genes, specific microRNAs, the epithelial⁻mesenchymal transition (EMT) process; and on the cellular level are exemplified by effects on macrophages. We conclude that the thyroid hormone

2018 Biomedicines

39. Educational Case: Thyroid Neoplasms: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment Full Text available with Trip Pro

Educational Case: Thyroid Neoplasms: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment The following fictional case is intended as a learning tool within the Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME), a set of national standards for teaching pathology. These are divided into three basic competencies: Disease Mechanisms and Processes, Organ System Pathology, and Diagnostic Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology. For additional information, and a full list of learning objectives for all three

2018 Academic pathology

40. Navigating Systemic Therapy in Advanced Thyroid Carcinoma: From Standard of Care to Personalized Therapy and Beyond Full Text available with Trip Pro

Navigating Systemic Therapy in Advanced Thyroid Carcinoma: From Standard of Care to Personalized Therapy and Beyond Thyroid cancer, with the exception of anaplastic thyroid cancer, typically has very favorable outcomes with the standard therapy. However, those that persist, recur, or metastasize are associated with a worse prognosis. Targeted therapy with kinase inhibitors has shown promise in advanced cases of thyroid cancer, and currently five drug regimens are approved for use in clinical (...) practice in the treatment of differentiated, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer, with more options in the pipeline. However, one of the greatest dilemmas is when and how to initiate one of these drugs, and this is discussed herein.

2018 Journal of the Endocrine Society