Latest & greatest articles for thyroid

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Top results for thyroid

1. Repeat thyroid function tests for healthy older people are not needed. (PubMed)

Repeat thyroid function tests for healthy older people are not needed. The studyRoberts L, McCahon D, Johnson O, Haque MS, Parle J, Hobbs FR. Stability of thyroid function in older adults: the Birmingham Elderly Thyroid Study. Published on 28 August 2018 Br J Gen Pract 2018;68:e718-26.This study was funded by the National Institute for Health Research School for Primary Care Research (SPCR).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000703/repeat-thyroid

2019 BMJ

2. Toxic thyroid adenoma

Toxic thyroid adenoma Toxic thyroid adenoma - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Toxic thyroid adenoma Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary Typically a single large thyroid nodule accompanied by clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. Diagnosis confirmed by thyroid scan demonstrating a hot area and suppression of extranodular thyroid tissue. Hyperthyroidism caused by toxic (...) adenomas generally does not remit. Definitive treatment, such as radioactive iodine therapy, is usually required. Complications of untreated toxic adenomas may include sequelae of hyperthyroidism such as cardiac dysfunction or bone loss, or tracheal compression by large nodules. Definition A toxic adenoma is an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule that causes hyperthyroidism. Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management

2019 BMJ Best Practice

3. Exenatide use and incidence of pancreatic and thyroid cancer: A retrospective cohort study

Exenatide use and incidence of pancreatic and thyroid cancer: A retrospective cohort study A retrospective cohort study, supplemented with a nested case-control study, was performed using two administrative databases from commercial health plans in the United States to compare the incidence of pancreatic and thyroid cancer among users of exenatide versus other antidiabetic drugs (OADs). Patients with type 2 diabetes who initiated exenatide or OADs between 1 June 2005 and 30 June 2015 were (...) included. Pancreatic and thyroid cancers were identified using chart-validated algorithms in the cohort study. Cases in the nested case-control study were chart-confirmed pancreatic or thyroid cancers, and controls were sampled using risk-set sampling. The time-fixed analyses comparing 33 629 exenatide initiators with 49 317 propensity-score-matched OAD initiators yielded hazard ratios of 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-1.21) for pancreatic cancer and 1.46 (95% CI 0.98-2.19) for thyroid cancer

2019 EvidenceUpdates

4. Thyroid hormone treatment does not help adults with mildly abnormal thyroid tests

Thyroid hormone treatment does not help adults with mildly abnormal thyroid tests Thyroid hormone treatment does not help adults with subclinical hypothyroidism Discover Portal Discover Portal Thyroid hormone treatment does not help adults with mildly abnormal thyroid tests Published on 8 January 2019 doi: There appears to be no benefit from treating adults with subclinical hypothyroidism. Treatment has no effect on quality of life or symptoms compared with placebo or no treatment. Thyroid (...) evidence that hormone treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, gives no measurable benefit either. This may help inform practice, spare patients unnecessary treatment, and save NHS resources. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Hypothyroidism is a condition where the thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough hormones, which can have various underlying causes. Hypothyroidism is characterised by low blood levels of free thyroxine (T4) and high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

5. Repeat thyroid function tests for healthy older people are not needed

Repeat thyroid function tests for healthy older people are not needed Repeat thyroid function tests for healthy older people are not needed Discover Portal Discover Portal Repeat thyroid function tests for healthy older people are not needed Published on 2 January 2019 doi: Older adults with normal thyroid function or subclinical thyroid dysfunction show notable long-term stability of their thyroid hormone levels. This suggests that it is safe for GPs not to routinely retest older adults unless (...) they have risk factors or develop clinical symptoms of overt thyroid dysfunction. Over five years, about 0.2% older adults with normal thyroid function will develop overt hypothyroidism and about 3.5% will develop subclinical hypothyroidism. Amongst those with subclinical hypothyroidism, about 2% will develop overt hypothyroidism. The NIHR funded this study as there is a lack of consensus on the relevance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction and the need for repeat testing. This could both reduce

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

6. Treating subclinical thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy probably has no benefit

Treating subclinical thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy probably has no benefit Treating subclinical thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy probably has no benefit Discover Portal Discover Portal Treating subclinical thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy probably has no benefit Published on 8 August 2017 doi: Testing for and then treating pregnant women with mild or “subclinical” underactive thyroid did not improve pregnancy outcomes, newborn baby outcomes, or the child’s IQ at three to five years (...) . A clearly underactive thyroid (clinical hypothyroidism) in pregnancy has been linked with various adverse outcomes for the mother and baby, including pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, congenital defects and neurodevelopmental delay. This needs treatment. However, there has been debate around the harms and benefits from treating only mildly abnormal blood test results in women who do not show signs of thyroid problems, subclinical hypothyroidism. These two linked trials randomised 1,203 women with borderline

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

7. Intraoperative neuromonitoring versus visual nerve identification for prevention of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in adults undergoing thyroid surgery. (PubMed)

Intraoperative neuromonitoring versus visual nerve identification for prevention of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in adults undergoing thyroid surgery. Injuries to the recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve (RILN) remain one of the major post-operative complications after thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Damage to this nerve can result in a temporary or permanent palsy, which is associated with vocal cord paresis or paralysis. Visual identification of the RILN is a common procedure to prevent (...) nerve injury during thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Recently, intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) has been introduced in order to facilitate the localisation of the nerves and to prevent their injury during surgery. IONM permits nerve identification using an electrode, where, in order to measure the nerve response, the electric field is converted to an acoustic signal.To assess the effects of IONM versus visual nerve identification for the prevention of RILN injury in adults undergoing thyroid

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2019 Cochrane

8. Assessment of thyroid mass

Assessment of thyroid mass Assessment of thyroid mass - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of thyroid mass Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: January 2019 Summary Thyroid parenchymal expansion can result from diffuse enlargement or infiltration of the thyroid gland or from the presence of one or more thyroid nodules. A thyroid nodule is a discrete lesion distinct from the surrounding (...) thyroid parenchyma. Enlargement of other nearby anatomical structures, such as the parathyroid glands or regional lymph nodes, as well as branchial cleft and thyroglossal duct cysts, may sometimes be confused with thyroid nodules. Thyroid nodules may be palpable at presentation or may be incidentally detected during an imaging procedure (40% are self-identified, 30% are physician-identified, and 30% are incidentally discovered on imaging Mevawalla N, McMullen T, Sidhu S, et al. Presentation

2019 BMJ Best Practice

9. Thyroid Disease

Thyroid Disease New 2018 ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® 1 Thyroid Disease American College of Radiology ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® Thyroid Disease Variant 1: Palpable thyroid nodule. Not goiter. Euthyroid. Initial imaging. Procedure Appropriateness Category Relative Radiation Level US thyroid Usually Appropriate O CT neck with IV contrast May Be Appropriate ??? CT neck without IV contrast May Be Appropriate ??? MRI neck without and with IV contrast Usually Not Appropriate O MRI neck without (...) IV contrast Usually Not Appropriate O I-123 radionuclide uptake and scan neck Usually Not Appropriate ??? I-131 radionuclide uptake and Tc-99m pertechnetate scan neck Usually Not Appropriate ???? CT neck without and with IV contrast Usually Not Appropriate ??? FDG-PET/CT neck Usually Not Appropriate ???? Variant 2: Suspected goiter. Initial imaging. Procedure Appropriateness Category Relative Radiation Level US thyroid Usually Appropriate O CT neck without IV contrast Usually Appropriate ??? CT

2019 American College of Radiology

10. Management Guidelines for Children With Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Management Guidelines for Children With Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Management Guidelines for Children With Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer | From the American Academy of Pediatrics | Pediatrics '); document.write(''); } function OAS_AD(pos) { if (OAS_version >= 11 && typeof(OAS_RICH)!='undefined') { OAS_RICH(pos); } else { OAS_NORMAL(pos); } } //--> Search for this keyword Source User menu Sections Sign up for highlighting editor-chosen studies (...) with the greatest impact on clinical care. Management Guidelines for Children With Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer In July 2015, the American Academy of Pediatrics endorsed the following publication: Francis GL, Waguespack SG, Bauer AJ, et al; The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Pediatric Thyroid Cancer. Management guidelines for children with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid . 2015;25(7):716–759. doi: 10.1089/thy.2014.0460. All statements

2019 American Academy of Pediatrics

11. Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma | From the American Academy of Pediatrics | Pediatrics '); document.write(''); } function OAS_AD(pos) { if (OAS_version >= 11 && typeof(OAS_RICH)!='undefined') { OAS_RICH(pos); } else { OAS_NORMAL(pos); } } //--> Search for this keyword Source User menu Sections Sign up for highlighting editor-chosen (...) studies with the greatest impact on clinical care. Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma In May 2015, the American Academy of Pediatrics endorsed the following publication: Wells SA Jr, Asa SL, Dralle H, et al; The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. Revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid . 2015;25(6). doi: . All statements

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2019 American Academy of Pediatrics

12. Thyroid Function Testing in the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Function Disorder

Thyroid Function Testing in the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Function Disorder Guidelines & Protocols Advisory Committee Thyroid Function Testing in the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Function Disorder Effective Date: October 24, 2018 Scope This guideline outlines testing for thyroid dysfunction in patients (pediatric and adult), including pregnant women or women planning pregnancy, and the monitoring of patients treated for primary thyroid function disorders. It does not apply (...) to the BC Newborn Screening Program. This guideline outlines testing for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO). Information on other tests, including thyroglobulin/antithyroglobulin (Tg/anti Tg) and antibodies to the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TRAb), are covered in the associated BC Guideline Hormone Testing – Indications and Appropriate Use. Key Recommendations • Routine thyroid function testing

2018 Clinical Practice Guidelines and Protocols in British Columbia

13. Vandetanib for treating medullary thyroid cancer

Vandetanib for treating medullary thyroid cancer V Vandetanib for treating medullary andetanib for treating medullary th thyroid cancer yroid cancer T echnology appraisal guidance Published: 12 December 2018 nice.org.uk/guidance/ta550 © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and-conditions#notice-of- rights).Y Y our responsibility our responsibility The recommendations in this guidance represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful (...) a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible. Vandetanib for treating medullary thyroid cancer (TA550) © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 2 of 22Contents Contents 1 Recommendations 4 2 Information about vandetanib 5 3 Committee discussion 6 The condition and current

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Technology Appraisals

14. Tocilizumab for thyroid eye disease. (PubMed)

Tocilizumab for thyroid eye disease. Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an autoimmune disorder that constitutes a major clinical and therapeutic challenge. Current treatment options for moderate-to-severe TED include immunotherapy, orbital radiotherapy and decompression surgery. Limited drugs of proven efficacy are available for the treatment of people with TED. Given the role in the pathogenesis of TED of interleukin (IL)-6 expression in adipocytes, fibroblasts and macrophages, the proposed theory

2018 Cochrane

15. Thyroid hormone levels and temperature during development alter thermal tolerance and energetics of Xenopus laevis larvae (PubMed)

Thyroid hormone levels and temperature during development alter thermal tolerance and energetics of Xenopus laevis larvae Environmental variation induced by natural and anthropogenic processes including climate change may threaten species by causing environmental stress. Anuran larvae experiencing environmental stress may display altered thyroid hormone (TH) status with potential implications for physiological traits. Therefore, any capacity to adapt to environmental changes through plastic

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2018 Conservation physiology

16. Network meta-analysis of topical haemostatic agents in thyroid surgery

Network meta-analysis of topical haemostatic agents in thyroid surgery The objective of this study was to investigate the potential benefit of local haemostatic agents for the prevention of postoperative bleeding after thyroidectomy.A systematic literature search was performed, and RCTs involving adult patients who underwent thyroid surgery using either active (AHA) or passive (PHA) haemostatic agents were included in the review. The main outcome was the rate of cervical haematoma that required

2018 EvidenceUpdates

17. Re-Evaluation of 162 Malignant Thyroid Nodules that were Interpreted as Benign Based on Ultrasound Findings (PubMed)

Re-Evaluation of 162 Malignant Thyroid Nodules that were Interpreted as Benign Based on Ultrasound Findings The goal of this study was to estimate the risk of malignant thyroid nodules being interpreted as benign based on ultrasound findings and to clarify the pathological features of these malignant nodules.We retrospectively re-evaluated ultrasound and pathological findings for 162 malignant thyroid nodules that were initially interpreted as benign based on ultrasound findings at Kuma (...) Hospital between April 2012 and June 2015.The incidences of malignancy among "benign" thyroid nodules were 0.5% overall and 6.2% among resected nodules. In addition, 82.7% of thyroid nodules that were originally judged to have low or very low suspicion patterns were subsequently re-categorized as having high or intermediate suspicion patterns. The incidences of irregular margins (63.6%) and low echogenicity (36.4%) were higher than those of punctate microcalcification (17.9%) and the taller-than-wide

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2018 Ultrasound international open

18. Sonographic Volumetric Assessment Is a More Accurate Measure Than Maximum Diameter Alone in Papillary Thyroid Cancer (PubMed)

Sonographic Volumetric Assessment Is a More Accurate Measure Than Maximum Diameter Alone in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Tumor size is an important prognostic factor in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Management guidelines, staging systems, and pathological definitions use maximum diameter (Dmax) as a surrogate marker of tumor size. However, PTC nodules are three-dimensional (3D) structures, with behavior reflective of tumor cell count, which is directly proportional to volume. We explored

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2018 Journal of the Endocrine Society

19. Overview of thyroid dysfunction

Overview of thyroid dysfunction Overview of thyroid dysfunction - Summary of relevant conditions | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Overview of thyroid dysfunction Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: October 2018 Introduction The thyroid gland produces, stores, and secretes thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) through a negative feedback process involving the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Thyroid dysfunction can result when (...) any part of this process is affected, and is usually characterised by the presence of high or low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, secreted by the pituitary gland) and free thyroid hormones. Causes of thyroid disorders include autoimmunity (e.g., Graves' disease), infections (e.g., post-viral inflammation), other systemic medical conditions, medications (e.g., lithium, amiodarone), nutritional excesses or deficiencies (e.g., of iodine), tumours (thyroid, or rarely pituitary), trauma

2018 BMJ Best Practice

20. Oral L‐thyroxine liquid versus tablet in patients submitted to total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer (without malabsorption): A prospective study (PubMed)

Oral L‐thyroxine liquid versus tablet in patients submitted to total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer (without malabsorption): A prospective study No consistent data are present in literature about the effectiveness of Levothyroxine (L-T4) liquid formulation in patients without malabsorption after thyroidectomy. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of L-T4 liquid formulation, with L-T4 tablets, in thyroid cancer patients after thyroidectomy (without malabsorption or drug

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2018 Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology