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Latest & greatest articles for stroke
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on stroke or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Priming With 1-Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over Contralesional Leg Motor Cortex Does Not Increase the Rate of Regaining Ambulation Within 3 Months of Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The potential benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), applied either alone or as a combination treatment, on recovery of lower limbs after stroke have been insufficiently studied.The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of priming with 1-Hz repetitive (...) transcranial magnetic stimulation over contralesional leg motor area with a double-cone coil before physical therapy on regaining ambulation.Thirty-eight subacute stroke patients with significant leg disabilities were randomly assigned into the experimental group or control group to receive a 15-min real or sham 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, respectively, over the contralesional motor cortex representing the quadriceps muscle followed by 45-min physical therapy for 15 sessions for 3
Calcium antagonists for acute ischemic stroke. The sudden loss of blood supply in ischemic stroke is associated with an increase of calcium ions within neurons. Inhibiting this increase could protect neurons and might reduce neurological impairment, disability, and handicap after stroke.To assess the effects of calcium antagonists for reducing the risk of death or dependency after acute ischemic stroke. We investigated the influence of different drugs, dosages, routes of administration, time (...) intervals after stroke, and trial design on the outcomes.The evidence is current to 6 February 2018. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (6 February 2018), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 2), MEDLINE Ovid (1950 to 6 February 2018), Embase Ovid (1980 to 6 February 2018), and four Chinese databases (6 February 2018): Chinese Biological Medicine Database (CBM-disc), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Periodical Database
Intensive blood pressure reduction with intravenous thrombolysis therapy for acute ischaemic stroke (ENCHANTED): an international, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint, phase 3 trial. Systolic blood pressure of more than 185 mm Hg is a contraindication to thrombolytic treatment with intravenous alteplase in patients with acute ischaemic stroke, but the target systolic blood pressure for optimal outcome is uncertain. We assessed intensive blood pressure lowering compared with guideline (...) -recommended blood pressure lowering in patients treated with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke.We did an international, partial-factorial, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial of thrombolysis-eligible patients (age ≥18 years) with acute ischaemic stroke and systolic blood pressure 150 mm Hg or more, who were screened at 110 sites in 15 countries. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1, by means of a central, web-based program) within 6 h of stroke onset to receive intensive (target systolic blood
Prehospital transdermal glyceryl trinitrate in patients with ultra-acute presumed stroke (RIGHT-2): an ambulance-based, randomised, sham-controlled, blinded, phase 3 trial. High blood pressure is common in acute stroke and is a predictor of poor outcome; however, large trials of lowering blood pressure have given variable results, and the management of high blood pressure in ultra-acute stroke remains unclear. We investigated whether transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN; also known (...) as nitroglycerin), a nitric oxide donor, might improve outcome when administered very early after stroke onset.We did a multicentre, paramedic-delivered, ambulance-based, prospective, randomised, sham-controlled, blinded-endpoint, phase 3 trial in adults with presumed stroke within 4 h of onset, face-arm-speech-time score of 2 or 3, and systolic blood pressure 120 mm Hg or higher. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive transdermal GTN (5 mg once daily for 4 days; the GTN group) or a similar sham
Effect of low-sodium salt substitutes on blood pressure, detected hypertension, stroke and mortality A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy of low-sodium salt substitutes (LSSS) as a potential intervention to reduce cardiovascular (CV) diseases.Five engines and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception to May 2018. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) enrolling adult hypertensive or general populations that compared detected hypertension, systolic blood (...) pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), overall mortality, stroke and other CV risk factors in those receiving LSSS versus regular salt were included. Effects were expressed as risk ratios or mean differences (MD) and their 95% CIs. Quality of evidence assessment followed GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology.21 RCTs (15 in hypertensive (n=2016), 2 in normotensive (n=163) and 4 in mixed populations (n=5224)) were evaluated. LSSS formulations were
Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Total Cerebrovascular Disease in Familial Hypercholesterolemia Background and Purpose- Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common autosomal dominant disease leading to increased level of serum LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease. Whether FH increases the risk of cerebrovascular disease, including ischemic stroke, is debated. Accordingly, we studied the incidence of cerebrovascular disease in a cohort of people (...) with genetically verified FH compared with the entire Norwegian population and examined whether people in this cohort with previous cohort had increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. Methods- Incidence rates of hospitalization for cerebrovascular disease (among 3144 people with FH) and ischemic stroke (among 3166 people with FH) were estimated by linkage of FH people to Cardiovascular Disease in Norway-a nationwide database of cardiovascular disease hospitalizations (2001-2009). We calculated standardized
Prescription of Pharmacotherapy and the Incidence of Stroke in Patients With Symptoms of Peripheral Artery Disease Background and Purpose- Current guidelines recommend prescription of a number of medications to prevent cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). The impact that these medications have on the incidence of stroke in PAD patients has not been thoroughly investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association of prescription of antihypertensive (...) drugs, antiplatelet medications, and statins, as well as cardiovascular disease risk factors, with stroke incidence in patients with symptoms of PAD. Methods- A database search was completed to identify studies reporting the incidence of stroke and prescription of antihypertensive drugs, antiplatelet medications, and statins in patients with PAD symptoms. A random-effects model was used to meta-analyze the incidence of stroke in patients with symptoms of PAD and in subgroups with intermittent
CHA2DS2-VASc Score and Stroke Prediction in Atrial Fibrillation in Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics Background and Purpose- Despite modest predictive ability for ischemic stroke (IS), the CHA2DS2-VASc score is widely used for stroke prediction in atrial fibrillation. Among patients with atrial fibrillation, we aimed to (1) compare the IS or transient ischemic attack (TIA) incidence by CHA2DS2-VASc in blacks and Hispanics versus whites; (2) compare predictive ability of CHA2DS2-VASc score
Early Prediction of Malignant Brain Edema After Ischemic Stroke Background and Purpose- Malignant brain edema after ischemic stroke has high mortality but limited treatment. Therefore, early prediction is important, and we systematically reviewed predictors and predictive models to identify reliable markers for the development of malignant edema. Methods- We searched Medline and Embase from inception to March 2018 and included studies assessing predictors or predictive models for malignant (...) brain edema after ischemic stroke. Study quality was assessed by a 17-item tool. Odds ratios, mean differences, or standardized mean differences were pooled in random-effects modeling. Predictive models were descriptively analyzed. Results- We included 38 studies (3278 patients) with 24 clinical factors, 7 domains of imaging markers, 13 serum biomarkers, and 4 models. Generally, the included studies were small and showed potential publication bias. Malignant edema was associated with younger age (n
Stride management assist exoskeleton vs functional gait training in stroke: A randomized trial To test the hypothesis that gait training with a hip-assistive robotic exoskeleton improves clinical outcomes and strengthens the descending corticospinal drive to the lower limb muscles in persons with chronic stroke.Fifty participants completed the randomized, single-blind, parallel study. Participants received over-ground gait training with the Honda Stride Management Assist (SMA) exoskeleton (...) had greater improvement in walking endurance (46.0% ± 27.4% vs 35.7% ± 20.8%, p = 0.033), took more steps during therapy days (4,366 ± 2,426 vs 3,028 ± 1,510; p = 0.013), and demonstrated larger changes in CME of the paretic rectus femoris (178% ± 75% vs 33% ± 32%, p = 0.010). Participants with hemorrhagic stroke demonstrated greater improvement in balance when using the SMA (24.7% ± 20% vs 6.8% ± 6.7%, p = 0.029).Gait training with the SMA improved walking speed in persons with chronic stroke
Refining Prediction of Atrial Fibrillation-Related Stroke Using the P2-CHA2DS2-VASc Score In people with atrial fibrillation (AF), periods of sinus rhythm present an opportunity to detect prothrombotic atrial remodeling through measurement of P-wave indices (PWIs)-prolonged P-wave duration, abnormal P-wave axis, advanced interatrial block, and abnormal P-wave terminal force in lead V1. We hypothesized that the addition of PWIs to the CHA2DS2-VASc score would improve its ability to predict AF (...) -related ischemic stroke.We included 2229 participants from the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) and 700 participants from MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) with incident AF who were not on anticoagulants within 1 year of AF diagnosis. PWIs were obtained from study visit ECGs before development of AF. AF was ascertained using study visit ECGs and hospital records. Ischemic stroke cases were based on physician adjudication of hospital records. We used Cox proportional hazards
Interventions for treating urinary incontinence after stroke in adults. Urinary incontinence can affect 40% to 60% of people admitted to hospital after a stroke, with 25% still having problems when discharged from hospital and 15% remaining incontinent after one year.This is an update of a review published in 2005 and updated in 2008.To assess the effects of interventions for treating urinary incontinence after stroke in adults at least one-month post-stroke.We searched the Cochrane (...) Incontinence and Cochrane Stroke Specialised Registers (searched 30 October 2017 and 1 November 2017 respectively), which contain trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, MEDLINE Epub Ahead of Print, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP and handsearched journals and conference proceedings.We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials.Two review authors independently undertook data extraction, risk of bias assessment
Decreasing Fear of Falling in Chronic Stroke Survivors Through Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Task-Oriented Training Background and Purpose- Research has shown that balance training is effective for reducing the fear of falling in individuals with a history of stroke. In this study, we evaluated (1) whether cognitive behavior therapy could augment the beneficial effects of task-oriented balance training (TOBT) in reducing the fear of falling in chronic stroke survivors and (2) whether it could (...) in balance and independent daily living than the general health education + TOBT participants. Conclusions- Cognitive behavior therapy should be considered as an adjuvant therapy to standard physiotherapy for cognitively intact individuals with a history of stroke. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02937532.
Dual-Task Exercise Reduces Cognitive-Motor Interference in Walking and Falls After Stroke Background and Purpose- Functional community ambulation requires the ability to perform mobility and cognitive task simultaneously (dual-tasking). This single-blinded randomized controlled study aimed to examine the effects of dual-task exercise in chronic stroke patients. Methods- Eighty-four chronic stroke patients (24 women; age, 61.2±6.4 years; time since stroke onset, 75.3±64.9 months) with mild (...) during serial-3-subtractions and verbal fluency task. Secondary outcomes included the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, Frenchay Activities Index, and Stroke-specific Quality of Life Scale. The above outcomes were measured at baseline, immediately after, and 8 weeks after training. Fall incidence was recorded for a 6-month period posttraining. Results- Only the dual-task group exhibited reduced dual-task interference in walking time posttraining (forward walking combined with verbal
Canagliflozin and Stroke in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Background and Purpose- This study reports the detailed effects of canagliflozin on stroke, stroke subtypes, and vascular outcomes in participants with and without cerebrovascular disease (stroke or transient ischemic attack) at baseline from the CANVAS (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study) Program. Methods- The CANVAS Program, comprising 2 similarly designed and conducted clinical trials, randomly assigned 10 142 participants (...) with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk to canagliflozin or placebo. Its primary outcome was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events. The main outcome of interest for this report was fatal or nonfatal stroke. Additional exploratory outcomes were stroke subtypes and other vascular outcomes defined according to standard criteria. Results- There were 1 958 (19%) participants with prior stroke or transient ischemic attack at baseline. These individuals were older, more
Giving oxygen routinely after a stroke does not improve outcomes Giving oxygen routinely after a stroke does not improve outcomes Discover Portal Discover Portal Giving oxygen routinely after a stroke does not improve outcomes Published on 3 January 2018 doi: There was no benefit to routinely giving oxygen to people who have had a stroke. Oxygen given continuously, or just overnight, did not reduce disability or death and it did not improve people’s ability to do everyday tasks or live (...) independently. There were no oxygen-related adverse events reported. Strokes occur when the blood supply to the brain is disrupted by either a blocked or burst blood vessel. They can lead to death or disability as parts of the brain are deprived of blood. Therefore, giving oxygen to reduce the potential damage may appear to make sense. Guidelines from NICE and the British Thoracic Society recommend that people are not routinely given oxygen after a stroke unless their oxygen levels drop. This large NIHR
Rivaroxaban plus aspirin may reduce heart attack and strokes in people with peripheral arterial disease, but with an added risk of bleeding Rivaroxaban plus aspirin may reduce heart attack and strokes in people with peripheral arterial disease, but with an added risk of bleeding Discover Portal Discover Portal Rivaroxaban plus aspirin may reduce heart attack and strokes in people with peripheral arterial disease, but with an added risk of bleeding Published on 14 February 2018 doi: People (...) with peripheral arterial disease who took rivaroxaban plus aspirin daily over an average of 21 months reduced their risk of cardiovascular death, heart attack or stroke from seven to five in every 100 people treated compared with those given aspirin alone. The rivaroxaban plus aspirin group also reduced their risk of major limb problems or amputation but increased their risk of bleeding from one to two for every hundred people treated. Peripheral arterial disease is a condition in which the arteries
Mechanical clot removal for stroke reduces disability at two years Mechanical clot removal for stroke reduces disability at two years Discover Portal Discover Portal Mechanical clot removal for stroke reduces disability at two years Published on 1 August 2017 doi: Timely mechanical removal of the blood clots from inside vessels in the brain after a stroke reduces disability and improves quality of life at two years compared with usual care. Over a third of those in the thrombectomy group had (...) signs of stroke enables early medical attention. The procedure is currently planned for 24 specialist centres in England and will be available around the clock to facilitate urgent diagnosis and effective treatment. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in the UK and the leading cause of disability. There are over 100,000 strokes in the UK each year, costing the NHS in England around £1.7 billion. Eighty five per cent of strokes