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Conditional Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transactivator of Transcription Protein Expression Induces Depression-like Effects and Oxidative Stress 29057370 2018 11 13 2451-9030 2 7 2017 Oct Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging Conditional Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transactivator of Transcription Protein Expression Induces Depression-like Effects and Oxidative Stress. 599-609 10.1016/j.bpsc.2017.04.002 The prevalence of major (...) depression in those with HIV/AIDS is substantially higher than in the general population. Mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are poorly understood. HIV-transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein, produced and excreted by HIV, could be involved. We determined whether conditional Tat protein expression in mice is sufficient to induce depression-like behaviors and oxidative stress. Further, as oxidative stress is associated with depression, we determined whether decreasing or increasing oxidative
Altered Pituitary Gland Structure and Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 29264511 2018 11 13 2472-1972 1 6 2017 Jun 01 Journal of the Endocrine Society J Endocr Soc Altered Pituitary Gland Structure and Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. 577-587 10.1210/js.2017-00069 Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stressors, but links to neurophysiological and neuroanatomical changes are unclear. The purpose (...) of this study was to determine whether stress-induced cortisol alters negative feedback on pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume. Prospective controlled study in an outpatient clinic. Subjects with PTSD and matched control subjects underwent pituitary volume measurement on magnetic resonance imaging, with pituitary function assessed by 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), 8:00 am cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and ACTH levels after 2-day dexamethasone/corticotropin
F2-Isoprostanes Reflect Oxidative Stress Correlated With Lean Mass and Bone Density but Not Insulin Resistance 29264499 2018 11 13 2472-1972 1 5 2017 May 01 Journal of the Endocrine Society J Endocr Soc F2-Isoprostanes Reflect Oxidative Stress Correlated With Lean Mass and Bone Density but Not Insulin Resistance. 436-448 10.1210/js.2017-00006 F2-isoprostanes (F2-isoPs) are biomarkers for oxidative stress in humans and have been shown to be elevated in obesity, cardiovascular disease (...) , and diabetes. Therefore, F2-isoPs are often implicated in oxidative stress contributing to insulin resistance, although this has not been rigorously examined. To determine whether urinary F2-isoPs are predictive of insulin sensitivity and other clinical metabolic parameters. Sedentary, weight-stable, nondiabetic adults equilibrated on a standard isocaloric diet. Insulin sensitivity via hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, urinary F2-isoPs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and body composition by dual
Habitat disturbance results in chronic stress and impaired health status in forest-dwelling paleotropical bats 28421138 2018 11 13 2051-1434 5 1 2017 Conservation physiology Conserv Physiol Habitat disturbance results in chronic stress and impaired health status in forest-dwelling paleotropical bats. cox020 10.1093/conphys/cox020 Anthropogenic habitat disturbance is a major threat to biodiversity worldwide. Yet, before population declines are detectable, individuals may suffer from chronic (...) stress and impaired immunity in disturbed habitats, making them more susceptible to pathogens and adverse weather conditions. Here, we tested in a paleotropical forest with ongoing logging and fragmentation, whether habitat disturbance influences the body mass and immunity of bats. We measured and compared body mass, chronic stress (indicated by neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios) and the number of circulating immune cells between several bat species with different roost types living in recovering areas
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Antipsychotic Use and Risk of Dementia in Veterans 28306156 2017 03 17 2017 03 17 1532-5415 2017 Mar 17 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society J Am Geriatr Soc Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Antipsychotic Use and Risk of Dementia in Veterans. 10.1111/jgs.14837 To examine the risk of dementia associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the contribution of antipsychotic use to this risk. Retrospective cohort study SETTING: Australia. Administrative (...) claims data from the Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs were used. Male Vietnam veterans aged 55 to 65 at baseline (2001-02) with no preexisting dementia diagnosis (N = 15,612). The association between PTSD and dementia was assessed over 12 years of follow-up. Dementia was identified as a hospital diagnosis, dementia record in service disability data, or dispensing of medicines for dementia. Cox-proportional hazards models were used, with age as the time-scale. Results were
Disrupted ERâ€toâ€Golgi trafficking underlies antiâ€HIV drugs and alcoholâ€induced cellular stress and hepatic injury 28626835 2018 11 13 2471-254X 1 2 2017 Apr Hepatology communications Hepatol Commun Disrupted ER-to-Golgi Trafficking Underlies Anti-HIV Drugs and Alcohol-Induced Cellular Stress and Hepatic Injury. 122-139 10.1002/hep4.1030 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) are involved in anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drugs and alcohol-induced (...) liver disease in a significant number of patients infected with HIV. However, the precise mechanism by which the drugs and alcohol cause ER stress remains elusive. We found that ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (RL) activated two canonical UPR branches without activation of the third canonical activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) branch in either HepG2 cells or primary mouse hepatocytes. In the RL-treated cells, ATF6 localization in the Golgi apparatus required for its activation was reduced
The Chemical Chaperone, PBA, Reduces ER Stress and Autophagy and Increases Collagen IV Î±5 Expression in Cultured Fibroblasts From Men With X-Linked Alport Syndrome and Missense Mutations 29142990 2018 11 13 2468-0249 2 4 2017 Jul Kidney international reports Kidney Int Rep The Chemical Chaperone, PBA, Reduces ER Stress and Autophagy and Increases Collagen IV α5 Expression in Cultured Fibroblasts From Men With X-Linked Alport Syndrome and Missense Mutations. 739-748 10.1016/j.ekir.2017.03.004 X (...) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. COL4A5 mRNA was measured using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) size was measured on electron micrographs and after HSP47 immunostaining. Markers of ER stress (ATF6, HSPA5, DDIT3), autophagy (ATG5, BECN1, ATG7), and apoptosis (CASP3, BAD, BCL 2 ) were also quantitated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Measurements were repeated after 48 hours of incubation with 10 mM sodium 4
The influence of metabolic imbalances and oxidative stress on the outcome of critically ill polytrauma patients: a review 28286784 2018 11 13 2321-3868 5 2017 Burns & trauma Burns Trauma The influence of metabolic imbalances and oxidative stress on the outcome of critically ill polytrauma patients: a review. 8 10.1186/s41038-017-0073-0 The critically ill polytrauma patient presents with a series of associated pathophysiologies secondary to the traumatic injuries. The most important include (...) systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis, oxidative stress (OS), metabolic disorders, and finally multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death. The poor outcome of these patients is related to the association of the aforementioned pathologies. The nutrition of the critically ill polytrauma patient is a distinct challenge because of the rapid changes in terms of energetic needs associated with hypermetabolism, sepsis, SIRS, and OS. Moreover, it has been proven that inadequate
Stress response to handling is short lived but may reflect personalities in a wild, Critically Endangered tortoise species 28360999 2018 11 13 2051-1434 5 1 2017 Conservation physiology Conserv Physiol Stress response to handling is short lived but may reflect personalities in a wild, Critically Endangered tortoise species. cox008 10.1093/conphys/cox008 We investigated the acute stress response associated with animal personalities by measuring plasma glucocorticoids throughout handling (...) and collected ~2 years of movement and behavioural data in a wild, Critically Endangered animal, Astrochelys radiata (radiated tortoise). To determine whether our standard, brief conscientious handling procedures induce a stress response in our target species, we applied a stressor by way of initial animal processing and deployment of telemetry equipment. During surveys and processing, we sampled animals immediately upon detection, again after completing transmitter attachment and processing, and a final
Evidence Brief: Effectiveness of Stellate Ganglion Block for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 4 Department of Veterans Affairs Health Services Research & Development Service Evidence-based Synthesis Program Evidence Brief: Effectiveness of Stellate Ganglion Block for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) February 2017 Prepared for: Department of Veterans Affairs Veterans Health Administration Quality Enhancement Research Initiative Health Services Research (...) & Development Service Washington, DC 20420 Prepared by: Evidence-based Synthesis Program (ESP) Coordinating Center Portland VA Health Care System Portland, OR Mark Helfand, MD, MPH, MS, Director Investigators: Kim Peterson, MS Donald Bourne, BS Johanna Anderson, MPH Katherine Mackey, MD Mark Helfand, MD, MS, MPH Evidence Brief: Stellate Ganglion Block for PTSD Evidence-based Synthesis Program i PREFACE The VA Evidence-based Synthesis Program (ESP) was established in 2007 to provide timely and accurate
Increased Cardiac Sympathetic Activity and Oxidative Stress in Habitual Electronic Cigarette Users: Implications for Cardiovascular Risk 28146259 2018 11 13 2380-6591 2 3 2017 Mar 01 JAMA cardiology JAMA Cardiol Increased Cardiac Sympathetic Activity and Oxidative Stress in Habitual Electronic Cigarette Users: Implications for Cardiovascular Risk. 278-284 10.1001/jamacardio.2016.5303 Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have gained unprecedented popularity, but virtually nothing is known about (...) their cardiovascular risks. To test the hypothesis that an imbalance of cardiac autonomic tone and increased systemic oxidative stress and inflammation are detectable in otherwise healthy humans who habitually use e-cigarettes. Cross-sectional case-control study of habitual e-cigarette users and nonuser control individuals from 2015 to 2016 at the University of California, Los Angeles. Otherwise healthy habitual e-cigarette users between the ages of 21 and 45 years meeting study criteria, including no current
Physiological effects of environmentally relevant, multi-day thermal stress on wild juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) 28413684 2018 11 13 2051-1434 5 1 2017 Conservation physiology Conserv Physiol Physiological effects of environmentally relevant, multi-day thermal stress on wild juvenile Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ). cox014 10.1093/conphys/cox014 The frequency of extreme thermal events in temperate freshwater systems is expected to increase alongside global surface temperature (...) in liver glycogen, and no significant cumulative effect on either blood glucose or lactate. However, comparison between thermally taxed treatments suggested the diel thermal minima had little influence on the physiological or energetic response of juvenile salmon, despite the variable thermal cycling condition. Our results suggest that relatively cooler night temperatures in the summer months may play a limited role in mitigating physiological stress throughout warm diel cycle events. Corey Emily E
Early stress, parental motivation, and reproductive decision-making: applications of life history theory to parental behavior 28813248 2018 11 13 2352-2518 15 2017 Jun Current opinion in psychology Curr Opin Psychol Early stress, parental motivation, and reproductive decision-making: applications of life history theory to parental behavior. 1-6 S2352-250X(16)30166-X 10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.02.005 This review focuses on the impact of parental behavior on child development, as interpreted from
Human Growth Hormone for Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, or Fibromyalgia: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Human Growth Hormone for Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, or Fibromyalgia: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Human Growth Hormone for Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, or Fibromyalgia: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Human Growth Hormone for Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, or Fibromyalgia (...) : Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Published on: February 8, 2017 Project Number: RA0891-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Reference List Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness of human growth hormone for patients with depression? What is the clinical effectiveness of human growth hormone for patients with post-traumatic stress disorder? What is the clinical effectiveness of human growth hormone for patients with fibromyalgia? What are the evidence
Adult Attachment, Stress, and Romantic Relationships 27135049 2018 11 13 2352-250X 13 2017 Feb Current opinion in psychology Curr Opin Psychol Adult Attachment, Stress, and Romantic Relationships. 19-24 In this article, we discuss theory and research on how individuals who have insecure adult romantic attachment orientations typically think, feel, and behave when they or their romantic partners encounter certain types of chronic or acute stress. We first review basic principles of attachment (...) theory and then discuss how two forms of attachment insecurity-anxiety and avoidance-are associated with unique patterns of emotion regulation in response to certain types of threatening/distressing situations. We then discuss a diathesis-stress process model that has guided our research, highlighting studies that provide support for certain pathways of the model. Simpson Jeffry A JA University of Minnesota. Steven Rholes W W Texas A&M University. eng R01 MH049599 MH NIMH NIH HHS United States
Acknowledging the Elephant in the Room: How Stressful Environmental Contexts Shape Relationship Dynamics 27766285 2018 11 13 2352-250X 13 2017 Feb Current opinion in psychology Curr Opin Psychol Acknowledging the Elephant in the Room: How Stressful Environmental Contexts Shape Relationship Dynamics. 107-110 Compared to affluent marriages, lower income marriages develop within a context filled with negative stressors that may prove quite toxic for marital stability. The current paper argues (...) that stressful contexts may undermine marital well-being through two routes. First, external stressors create additional problems within the marriage by diverting time and attention away from activities that promote intimacy between partners. Second, external stress may render spouses ill-equipped to cope with this increase in problems by draining spouses of the energy and resources necessary for responding to marital challenges in a constructive manner. In acknowledging the role of the marital context
Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Bellâ€™s Palsy 28680345 2018 11 13 1452-8258 36 1 2017 Jan Journal of medical biochemistry J Med Biochem Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Bell's Palsy. 18-22 10.1515/jomb-2016-0033 Bell's palsy (BP) is the most common acute mononeuropathy of unilateral facial paralysis. Immune, infective and ischaemic mechanisms are potential contributors to the development of BP, but the precise cause remains unclear. Recently (...) , oxidative stress has been proposed as a risk factor of various idiopathic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of oxidative stress in patients with BP. Thirty-two patients with BP and 30 healthy controls were included in this study. Serum total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured by the Erel method. Serum TOS activities and OSI values were significantly higher in patients with BP compared with the control
Functionally and morphologically damaged mitochondria observed in auditory cells under senescence-inducing stress 28649420 2018 11 13 2056-3973 3 2017 NPJ aging and mechanisms of disease NPJ Aging Mech Dis Functionally and morphologically damaged mitochondria observed in auditory cells under senescence-inducing stress. 2 10.1038/s41514-017-0002-2 We aimed at determining the mitochondrial function in premature senescence model of auditory cells. Short exposure to H 2 O 2 (1 h, 0.1 mM) induced