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Latest & greatest articles for screening
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Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Placenta Accreta Spectrum Disorders No. 383-Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Placenta Accreta Spectrum Disorders - Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Volume 41, Issue 7, Pages 1035–1049 No. 383-Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Placenta Accreta Spectrum Disorders x Sebastian R. Hobson , MD MPH PhD Toronto, ON x John C. Kingdom , MD Toronto, ON x Ally Murji , MD (...) accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders are a potentially life-threatening complication of pregnancy that demand coordinated interdisciplinary care to achieve safer outcomes. The rising incidence of this disease is due to a growing number of uterine surgical procedures, including the rising incidence of pregnancy following Caesarean section. Objective To provide current evidence-based guidelines on the optimal methods used to effectively screen, diagnose, and manage PAS disorders. Methods Members
Strategies to Identify Women at High Risk of Advanced Breast Cancer During Routine Screening for Discussion of Supplemental Imaging Federal legislation proposes requiring that screening mammography reports to practitioners and women incorporate breast density information and that women with dense breasts discuss supplemental imaging with their practitioner given their increased risk of interval breast cancer. Instead of discussing supplemental imaging with all women with dense breasts, it may (...) be more efficient to identify women at high risk of advanced breast cancer who may benefit most from supplemental imaging.To identify women at high risk of advanced breast cancer to target woman-practitioner discussions about the need for supplemental imaging.This prospective cohort study assessed 638 856 women aged 40 to 74 years who had 1 693 163 screening digital mammograms taken at Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) imaging facilities from January 3, 2005, to December 31, 2014. Data
External Validation of Two Models to Predict Delirium in Critically Ill Adults Using Either the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU or the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist for Delirium Assessment To externally validate two delirium prediction models (early prediction model for ICU delirium and recalibrated prediction model for ICU delirium) using either the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU or the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist for delirium assessment.Prospective (...) Care Delirium Screening Checklist. Discrimination was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The predictive performance was determined for the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU and Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist cohort, and compared with both prediction models' original reported performance. A total of 1,286 Confusion Assessment Method-ICU-assessed patients and 892 Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist-assessed patients were included. Compared
Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnant Women: US Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement. Screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during pregnancy identifies women whose infants are at risk of perinatal transmission. Data from a nationally representative sample showed a prevalence of maternal HBV infection of 85.8 cases per 100 000 deliveries from 1998 to 2011 (0.09% of live-born singleton deliveries in the United States). Although (...) there are guidelines for universal infant HBV vaccination, rates of maternal HBV infection have increased annually by 5.5% since 1998. Children infected with HBV during infancy or childhood are more likely to develop chronic infection. Chronic HBV infection increases long-term morbidity and mortality by predisposing infected persons to cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer.To update the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for HBV infection in pregnant women.The USPSTF
Impact of community based screening for hypertension on blood pressure after two years: regression discontinuity analysis in a national cohort of older adults in China. To estimate the causal impact of community based blood pressure screening on subsequent blood pressure levels among older adults in China.Regression discontinuity analysis using data from a national cohort study.2011-12 and 2014 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, a national cohort of older adults (...) in China.3899 older adults who had previously undiagnosed hypertension.Community based hypertension screening among older adults in 2011-12.Blood pressure two years after initial screening.The intervention reduced systolic blood pressure: -6.3 mm Hg in the model without covariates (95% confidence interval -11.2 to -1.3) and -8.3 mm Hg (-13.6 to -3.1) in the model that adjusts additionally for demographic, social, and behavioural covariates. The impact on diastolic blood pressure was smaller and non
Towards risk-stratified colorectal cancer screening. Adding risk factors to the fecal immunochemical test: Evidence, evolution and expectations With increasing incidence and mortality, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing health problem worldwide. An effective way to address CRC is by screening for fecal (occult) blood by the fecal immunochemical test (FIT). However, there is room for improvement since precursor lesions and CRC bleed intermittent and can therefore be missed by the FIT (false
Two-view digital breast tomosynthesis versus digital mammography in a population-based breast cancer screening programme (To-Be): a randomised, controlled trial Digital breast tomosynthesis is an advancement of mammography, and has the potential to overcome limitations of standard digital mammography. This study aimed to compare first-generation digital breast tomo-synthesis including two-dimensional (2D) synthetic mammograms versus digital mammography in a population-based screening (...) programme.BreastScreen Norway offers all women aged 50-69 years two-view (craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique) mammographic screening every 2 years and does independent double reading with consensus. We asked all 32 976 women who attended the programme in Bergen in 2016-17, to participate in this randomised, controlled trial with a parallel group design. A study-specific software was developed to allocate women to either digital breast tomosynthesis or digital mammography using a 1:1 simple randomisation method
Screening for HIV Infection: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Approximately 1.1 million persons in the United States are currently living with HIV, and more than 700 000 persons have died of AIDS since the first cases were reported in 1981. There were approximately 38 300 new diagnoses of HIV infection in 2017. The estimated prevalence of HIV infection among persons 13 years and older in the United States is 0.4%, and data from the Centers for Disease Control (...) and Prevention show a significant increase in HIV diagnoses starting at age 15 years. An estimated 8700 women living with HIV give birth each year in the United States. HIV can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, labor, delivery, and breastfeeding. The incidence of perinatal HIV infection in the United States peaked in 1992 and has declined significantly following the implementation of routine prenatal HIV screening and the use of effective therapies and precautions to prevent mother
Screening for HIV Infection in Pregnant Women: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Prenatal screening for HIV can inform use of interventions to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) previously found strong evidence that prenatal HIV screening reduced risk of mother-to-child transmission. The previous evidence review was conducted in 2012.To update the 2012 review on prenatal HIV (...) screening to inform the USPSTF.Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 2012 to June 2018, with surveillance through January 2019.Pregnant persons 13 years and older; randomized clinical trials and cohort studies of screening vs no screening; risk of mother-to-child transmission or maternal or infant harms associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy; screening yield at different intervals or in different risk
Screening for HIV Infection in Asymptomatic, Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Untreated HIV infection can result in significant morbidity, mortality, and HIV transmission. A 2012 review for the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) found antiretroviral therapy (ART) associated with improved clinical outcomes and decreased transmission risk in persons with CD4 cell counts less than 500/mm3.To update (...) the 2012 review on HIV screening to inform the USPSTF.Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 2012 to June 2018, with surveillance through January 2019.Nonpregnant individuals 12 years and older; randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and controlled observational studies of screening vs no screening, alternative screening strategies, earlier vs later initiation of ART, and long-term harms of ART.One investigator abstracted data
Comparison of Universal Versus Age-Restricted Screening of Colorectal Tumors for Lynch Syndrome Using Mismatch Repair Immunohistochemistry: A Cohort Study. Guidelines recommend screening all patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) for Lynch syndrome (LS). However, the efficiency of universal LS screening in elderly populations has not been well studied.To compare the performance of age-restricted and universal LS screening using reflex mismatch repair (MMR) immunohistochemistry (...) (IHC) of CRC tumors.Retrospective cohort study.A large, diverse, community-based health care system.3891 persons with newly diagnosed CRC who had LS screening between 2011 and 2016.Diagnostic yield of different LS screening strategies.Sixty-three LS cases (diagnostic yield, 1.62%) were identified by universal screening, with only 5 (7.9%) detected after age 70 years and 1 (1.6%) detected after age 80 years. When all patients with CRC who had universal screening were used as the denominator, 58 LS
Would You Recommend Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening for This Patient?: Grand Rounds Discussion From Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Prostate cancer is the third most common cancer type in the United States overall, accounting for 9.5% of new cancer cases and 5% of cancer deaths. The goal of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening is to identify early-stage disease that can be treated successfully. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) reviewed evidence (...) on the benefits and harms of PSA-based screening and treatment of screen-detected prostate cancer. It found that PSA-based screening in men aged 55 to 69 years prevents approximately 1.3 deaths from prostate cancer over 13 years per 1000 men screened and 3 cases of metastatic cancer per 1000 men screened, with no reduction in all-cause mortality. No benefit was found for PSA-based screening in men aged 70 years and older. On the basis of its review, the USPSTF concluded that the decision for men aged 55 to 69
Screening for reducing morbidity and mortality in malignant melanoma. Screening for malignant melanoma has the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality from the disease through earlier detection, as prognosis is closely associated with the thickness of the lesion at the time of diagnosis. However, there are also potential harms from screening people without skin lesion concerns, such as overdiagnosis of lesions that would never have caused symptoms if they had remained undetected (...) . Overdiagnosis results in harm through unnecessary treatment and the psychosocial consequences of being labelled with a cancer diagnosis. For any type of screening, the benefits must outweigh the harms. Screening for malignant melanoma is currently practised in many countries, and the incidence of the disease is rising sharply, while mortality remains largely unchanged.To assess the effects on morbidity and mortality of screening for malignant melanoma in the general population.We searched the following
Accuracy of nature of call screening tool in identifying patients requiring treatment for out of hospital cardiac arrest A new pre-triage screening tool, Nature of Call (NoC), has been introduced into the telephone triage system of UK ambulance services which employ National Health Service Pathways (NHSP). Its function is to provide rapid recognition of patients who may need immediate ambulance dispatch for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and withholding dispatch for other calls while
Digital media: Promoting healthy screen use in school-aged children and adolescents Digital media are integrated into the everyday lives of children and adolescents, with potential benefits and risks for learning, mental and physical health, and for social life. This statement examines the cognitive, psychosocial, and physical effects of digital media on school-aged children and adolescents, with a focus on family routines, context, and activities. Evidence-based guidance for clinicians (...) and families involves four principles: healthy management , meaningful screen use, positive modelling , and balanced, informed monitoring of screen time and behaviours. Keywords: Adolescents; Children; Development; Digital media; Family; Health; Screen use
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening Final Update Summary: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening - US Preventive Services Task Force Search USPSTF Website Text size: Assembly version: 18.104.22.1688 Last Build: 5/9/2019 1:01:08 PM You are here: Final Summary YouTube embedded video: https://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/guahk43RkV4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening Release Date: June 2019 Recommendation Summary Population Recommendation (...) Grade Adolescents and adults aged 15 to 65 years The USPSTF recommends that clinicians screen for HIV infection in adolescents and adults aged 15 to 65 years. Younger adolescents and older adults who are at increased risk of infection should also be screened. Pregnant persons The USPSTF recommends that clinicians screen for HIV infection in all pregnant persons, including those who present in labor or at delivery whose HIV status is unknown. To read the recommendation statement in JAMA , select
Accuracy of Three Screening Tools for Prenatal Substance Use To compare and evaluate the accuracy of three screening tools in identifying illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse among a diverse sample of pregnant women.This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled a consecutive sample of 500 pregnant women, stratified by trimester, receiving care in two prenatal clinical settings in Baltimore, Maryland, from January 2017 to January 2018. All participants were administered three index (...) tests: 4P's Plus, NIDA Quick Screen-ASSIST (Modified Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test), and the SURP-P (Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy) scale, and administered reference tests (urine and hair drug testing) at the in-person baseline visit. To assess test-retest reliability of the index tests, screening tool administrations were repeated 1 week later by telephone. For each screening tool, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value
Efficacy of Per-oral Methylene Blue Formulation for Screening Colonoscopy Topically applied methylene blue dye chromoendoscopy is effective in improving detection of colorectal neoplasia. When combined with a pH- and time-dependent multimatrix structure, a per-oral methylene blue formulation (MB-MMX) can be delivered directly to the colorectal mucosa.We performed a phase 3 study of 1205 patients scheduled for colorectal cancer screening or surveillance colonoscopies (50-75 years old) at 20 (...) (83 [23.31%] of 356 patients with non-neoplastic lesions in the MB-MMX vs 97 [29.75%] of 326 patients with non-neoplastic lesions in the placebo group). Overall, 0.7% of patients had severe adverse events but there was no significant difference between groups.In a phase 3 trial of patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopies, we found MB-MMX led to an absolute 8.5% increase in ADR, compared with placebo, without increasing the removal of non-neoplastic lesions. Clinicaltrials.gov