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Tobacco Dependence Predicts Higher Lung Cancer and Mortality Rates and Lower Rates of Smoking Cessation in the National Lung Screening Trial 29793736 2018 07 25 1931-3543 154 1 2018 Jul Chest Chest Tobacco Dependence Predicts Higher Lung Cancer and Mortality Rates and Lower Rates of Smoking Cessation in the National Lung Screening Trial. 110-118 S0012-3692(18)30587-7 10.1016/j.chest.2018.04.016 Incorporating tobacco treatment within lung cancer screening programs has the potential to influence (...) cessation in high-risk smokers. We aimed to better understand the characteristics of smokers within a screening cohort, correlate those variables with downstream outcomes, and identify predictors of continued smoking. This study is a secondary analysis of the National Lung Screening Trial randomized clinical study. Tobacco dependence was evaluated by using the Fagerstrӧm Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Heaviness of Smoking Index, and time to first cigarette (TTFC); descriptive statistics were
Screen and Triage by Community Extension Workers to Facilitate Screen and Treat: Task-Sharing Strategy to Achieve Universal Coverage for Cervical Cancer Screening in Nigeria 30085882 2018 12 07 2378-9506 4 2018 Jul Journal of global oncology J Glob Oncol Screen and Triage by Community Extension Workers to Facilitate Screen and Treat: Task-Sharing Strategy to Achieve Universal Coverage for Cervical Cancer Screening in Nigeria. 1-10 10.1200/JGO.18.00023 Purpose Universal coverage of cervical (...) cancer screening remains elusive in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), home to the greatest burden of this preventable disease. Implementation of a cytology-based screening strategy in these countries is challenging. Also, there is shortage of health care workers (HCWs) to implement the low-technology, cheaper, but equally effective, methods like visual inspection with acetic acid. However, the implementation of HIV programs in LMICs has introduced the innovation of task shifting and task
Analysis of clinical benefit, harms, and cost-effectiveness of screening women for abdominal aortic aneurysm. BACKGROUND: A third of deaths in the UK from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are in women. In men, national screening programmes reduce deaths from AAA and are cost-effective. The benefits, harms, and cost-effectiveness in offering a similar programme to women have not been formally assessed, and this was the aim of this study. METHODS: We developed a decision model to assess (...) predefined outcomes of death caused by AAA, life years, quality-adjusted life years, costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for a population of women invited to AAA screening versus a population who were not invited to screening. A discrete event simulation model was set up for AAA screening, surveillance, and intervention. Relevant women-specific parameters were obtained from sources including systematic literature reviews, national registry or administrative databases, major AAA surgery
Rapid urine-based screening for tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients admitted to hospital in Africa (STAMP): a pragmatic, multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. BACKGROUND: Current diagnostics for HIV-associated tuberculosis are suboptimal, with missed diagnoses contributing to high hospital mortality and approximately 374 000 annual HIV-positive deaths globally. Urine-based assays have a good diagnostic yield; therefore, we aimed to assess whether urine-based (...) screening in HIV-positive inpatients for tuberculosis improved outcomes. METHODS: We did a pragmatic, multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial in two hospitals in Malawi and South Africa. We included HIV-positive medical inpatients aged 18 years or more who were not taking tuberculosis treatment. We randomly assigned patients (1:1), using a computer-generated list of random block size stratified by site, to either the standard-of-care or the intervention screening group, irrespective
Prenatal biochemical screening and long term risk of maternal cardiovascular disease: population based cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether abnormal prenatal biochemical screening results are associated with an increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease after pregnancy. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: The entire province of Ontario, Canada, where healthcare is universally available. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 12-55 years, without pre-existing cardiovascular disease (...) , who underwent prenatal screening between 1993 and 2011. One pregnancy per woman was randomly selected. EXPOSURES: Low (≤5th centile multiple of the median) serum total chorionic gonadotropin, unconjugated estriol, and pregnancy associated plasma protein A and high (≥95th centile multiple of the median) alphafetoprotein and dimeric inhibin-A. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Composite of hospital admission or revascularisation for coronary artery, cerebrovascular, or peripheral arterial disease or hospital
The Third Case of Cabergoline-Associated Valvulopathy: The Value of Routine Cardiovascular Examination for Screening 30083627 2018 11 14 2472-1972 2 8 2018 Aug 01 Journal of the Endocrine Society J Endocr Soc The Third Case of Cabergoline-Associated Valvulopathy: The Value of Routine Cardiovascular Examination for Screening. 965-969 10.1210/js.2018-00139 A decade after the alarming association of cabergoline-associated valvulopathy (CAV) in Parkinson disease, only two confirmed cases have (...) occurred in patients with prolactinoma. Routine screening for CAV by echocardiography has not proved to be of diagnostic utility, has several limitations, and is not widely practiced. We have previously highlighted the value of annual cardiovascular examination as a screening tool for CAV in patients with prolactinoma. We present a case, now the third confirmed case of CAV, to highlight the value of the cardiovascular examination. A 52-year-old woman with a 25-year history of macroprolactinoma had
Retention of Knowledge Levels of Health Care Providers in Cancer Screening Through Telementoring 30084700 2018 12 07 2378-9506 4 2018 Jul Journal of global oncology J Glob Oncol Retention of Knowledge Levels of Health Care Providers in Cancer Screening Through Telementoring. 1-7 10.1200/JGO.18.00048 Purpose Every year > 450,000 individuals are diagnosed with cancer and approximately 350,000 die of it in India. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has released an Operational Framework (...) for the Management of Common Cancers that highlights population-based cancer screening programs in primary health care facilities by health care providers (HCPs) and capacity building of HCPs. The purpose of this study is to present a low-cost training model that is highly suitable for resource-deficient settings, such as those found in India, through Extension for Community Health Outcome (ECHO), a knowledge-sharing tool, to enable high-quality training of HCPs. Materials and Methods An in-person, 3-day
Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease Using the Ankle-Brachial Index: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Importance: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is associated with a high risk for cardiovascular events and poor ambulatory function, even in the absence of symptoms. Screening for PAD with the ankle-brachial index (ABI) may identify patients in need of treatment to improve health outcomes. Objective: To systematically review evidence (...) for the US Preventive Services Task Force on PAD screening with the ABI, the diagnostic accuracy of the test, and the benefits and harms of treatment of screen-detected PAD. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for relevant English-language studies published between January 2012 and May 2, 2017. Surveillance continued through February 7, 2018. Study Selection: Studies of unselected or generally asymptomatic adults with no known cardiovascular disease. Data
Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment With the Ankle-Brachial Index: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Importance: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a manifestation of atherosclerosis in the lower limbs. It can impair walking and, in severe cases, can lead to tissue loss, infection, and amputation. In addition to morbidity directly caused by PAD, patients with PAD are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD (...) ) events, because atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that also causes coronary and cerebrovascular events. Objective: To update the 2013 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for PAD and CVD risk with the ankle-brachial index (ABI). Evidence Review: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on whether screening for PAD with the ABI in generally asymptomatic adults reduces morbidity or mortality from PAD or CVD. The current review expanded on the previous review to include
Effect of Screening With Primary Cervical HPV Testing vs Cytology Testing on High-grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia at 48 Months: The HPV FOCAL Randomized Clinical Trial. Importance: There is limited information about the relative effectiveness of cervical cancer screening with primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing alone compared with cytology in North American populations. Objective: To evaluate histologically confirmed cumulative incident cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN (...) ) grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) detected up to and including 48 months by primary HPV testing alone (intervention) or liquid-based cytology (control). Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial conducted in an organized Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Canada. Participants were recruited through 224 collaborating clinicians from January 2008 to May 2012, with follow-up through December 2016. Women aged 25 to 65 years with no history of CIN2+ in the past 5 years, no history of invasive
â€œThey Should Be Asking Usâ€: A Qualitative Decisional Needs Assessment for Women Considering Cervical Cancer Screening 30014003 2018 11 14 2333-3936 5 2018 Jan-Dec Global qualitative nursing research Glob Qual Nurs Res "They Should Be Asking Us": A Qualitative Decisional Needs Assessment for Women Considering Cervical Cancer Screening. 2333393618783632 10.1177/2333393618783632 In this study, we examine from multiple perspectives, women's shared decision-making needs when considering cervical (...) screening options: Pap testing, in-clinic human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, self-collected HPV testing, or no screening. The Ottawa Decision Support Framework guided the development of the interview schedule. We conducted semi-structured interviews with seven screen-eligible women and five health care professionals (three health care providers and two health system managers). Women did not perceive that cervical screening involves a "decision," which limited their knowledge of options, risks
Validation of a simple screening tool for early diagnosis of advanced Parkinsonâ€™s disease in daily practice: the CDEPA questionnaire 29978014 2018 11 14 2373-8057 4 2018 NPJ Parkinson's disease NPJ Parkinsons Dis Validation of a simple screening tool for early diagnosis of advanced Parkinson's disease in daily practice: the CDEPA questionnaire. 20 10.1038/s41531-018-0056-2 Early clinical diagnosis of advanced Parkinson's disease (APD) may be difficult. This study aimed to validate a simple (...) screening tool, the CDEPA questionnaire ("Cuestionario De Enfermedad de Parkinson Avanzada" [Questionnaire for Advanced Parkinson's Disease]), for the identification of APD in daily practice. The study included 173 consecutively selected patients with PD (40% were women, mean age was 68.4 ± 10.5 years), stratified according to the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale. The CDEPA questionnaire defined APD as the presence of severe disability requiring help for activities of daily living (ADL), motor fluctuations
The Association of Health Literacy with Breast Cancer Knowledge, Perception and Screening Behavior 30123879 2018 11 14 14 3 2018 Jul European journal of breast health Eur J Breast Health The Association of Health Literacy with Breast Cancer Knowledge, Perception and Screening Behavior. 144-147 10.5152/ejbh.2018.3757 The incidence of breast cancer among Iranian women is increasing, and 70% of patients are diagnosed at advanced stages. The current study aimed at evaluating the association (...) of health literacy (HL) with breast cancer knowledge, perception, and screening behavior in women. The current cross- sectional, descriptive study was conducted on 250 women who referred to health centers in Zahedan, Iran. Data collection instrument included a demographic information form, Iranian Health Literacy Questionnaire (IHLQ), and Champion's health belief model scale. The majority of participants (89.6%) had limited HL. Participants with limited HL had less breast cancer knowledge, and less
Alpha Defensin Lateral Flow Test for Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Joint Infection: Not a Screening but a Confirmatory Test 29715222 2018 05 01 1535-1386 100 9 2018 May 02 The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume J Bone Joint Surg Am Alpha Defensin Lateral Flow Test for Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Joint Infection: Not a Screening but a Confirmatory Test. 742-750 10.2106/JBJS.17.01005 Determination of alpha defensin in synovial fluid has shown promising results for diagnosing (...) %) and it should therefore not be used for screening, but rather as a confirmatory test for PJI. Diagnostic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Renz Nora N Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Berlin, Germany. Yermak Katsiaryna K Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin
Brock malignancy risk calculator for pulmonary nodules: validation outside a lung cancer screening population 29777062 2018 05 19 1468-3296 2018 May 18 Thorax Thorax Brock malignancy risk calculator for pulmonary nodules: validation outside a lung cancer screening population. thoraxjnl-2017-211372 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2017-211372 To assess the performance of the Brock malignancy risk model for pulmonary nodules detected in routine clinical setting. In two academic centres in the Netherlands, we
Cost-effectiveness of population-based vascular disease screening and intervention in men from the Viborg Vascular (VIVA) trial 29691840 2018 04 25 1365-2168 2018 Apr 25 The British journal of surgery Br J Surg Cost-effectiveness of population-based vascular disease screening and intervention in men from the Viborg Vascular (VIVA) trial. 10.1002/bjs.10872 Population-based screening and intervention for abdominal aortic aneurysm, peripheral artery disease and hypertension was recently reported (...) to reduce the relative risk of mortality among Danish men by 7 per cent. The aim of this study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of vascular screening versus usual care (ad hoc primary care-based risk assessment) from a national health service perspective. A cost-effectiveness evaluation was conducted alongside an RCT involving all men from a region in Denmark (50 156) who were allocated to screening (25 078) or no screening (25 078) and followed for up to 5 years. Mobile nurse teams provided
Osteoporosis to Prevent Fractures: Screening Final Update Summary: Osteoporosis to Prevent Fractures: Screening - US Preventive Services Task Force Search USPSTF Website Text size: Assembly version: 188.8.131.528 Last Build: 3/6/2018 4:20:40 PM You are here: Final Summary Osteoporosis to Prevent Fractures: Screening Osteoporosis to Prevent Fractures: Screening Release Date: June 2018 Recommendation Summary Population Recommendation Grade Women 65 years and older The USPSTF recommends screening (...) for osteoporosis with bone measurement testing to prevent osteoporotic fractures in women 65 years and older. Postmenopausal women younger than 65 years at increased risk of osteoporosis The USPSTF recommends screening for osteoporosis with bone measurement testing to prevent osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women younger than 65 years who are at increased risk of osteoporosis, as determined by a formal clinical risk assessment tool. See the for information on risk assessment. Men The USPSTF concludes
Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease: Screening and Risk Assessment With the Ankle-Brachial Index Final Update Summary: Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease: Screening and Risk Assessment With the Ankle-Brachial Index - US Preventive Services Task Force Search USPSTF Website Text size: Assembly version: 184.108.40.2068 Last Build: 3/6/2018 4:20:40 PM You are here: Final Summary Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease: Screening and Risk Assessment (...) With the Ankle-Brachial Index Release Date: July 2018 Recommendation Summary Population Recommendation Grade Adults The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for peripheral artery disease (PAD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk with the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in asymptomatic adults. See the for suggestions for practice regarding the I statement. To read the recommendation statement in JAMA , select . To read the evidence