Latest & greatest articles for pneumonia

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Top results for pneumonia

161. Community-acquired pneumonia as medical emergency: predictors of early deterioration

Community-acquired pneumonia as medical emergency: predictors of early deterioration 25782758 2015 05 15 2015 09 04 2015 05 15 1468-3296 70 6 2015 Jun Thorax Thorax Community-acquired pneumonia as medical emergency: predictors of early deterioration. 551-8 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-206744 Early organ dysfunction determines the prognosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and recognition of CAP as a medical emergency has been advocated. To characterise patients with 'emergency CAP' and evaluate (...) therapeutic use Community-Acquired Infections diagnosis physiopathology Cough microbiology Emergencies Emergency Treatment methods Female Fever microbiology Follow-Up Studies Germany epidemiology Hospital Mortality Humans Intensive Care Units statistics & numerical data Male Middle Aged Pneumonia diagnosis microbiology mortality physiopathology therapy Predictive Value of Tests Prognosis Prospective Studies Research Design Risk Factors Sensitivity and Specificity Severity of Illness Index Sputum

EvidenceUpdates2015

162. Polysaccharide conjugate vaccine against pneumococcal pneumonia in adults.

Polysaccharide conjugate vaccine against pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. 25785969 2015 03 19 2015 03 27 2015 07 06 1533-4406 372 12 2015 Mar 19 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Polysaccharide conjugate vaccine against pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. 1114-25 10.1056/NEJMoa1408544 Pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines prevent pneumococcal disease in infants, but their efficacy against pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia in adults 65 years of age or older (...) is unknown. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 84,496 adults 65 years of age or older, we evaluated the efficacy of 13-valent polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in preventing first episodes of vaccine-type strains of pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia, nonbacteremic and noninvasive pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia, and invasive pneumococcal disease. Standard laboratory methods and a serotype-specific urinary antigen detection assay were used

NEJM2015

163. Polysaccharide conjugate vaccine against pneumococcal pneumonia in adults.

Polysaccharide conjugate vaccine against pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines prevent pneumococcal disease in infants, but their efficacy against pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia in adults 65 years of age or older is unknown. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 84,496 adults 65 years of age or older, we evaluated the efficacy of 13-valent polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in preventing (...) first episodes of vaccine-type strains of pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia, nonbacteremic and noninvasive pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia, and invasive pneumococcal disease. Standard laboratory methods and a serotype-specific urinary antigen detection assay were used to identify community-acquired pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. RESULTS: In the per-protocol analysis of first episodes of infections due to vaccine-type strains, community-acquired pneumonia occurred

NEJM2015

164. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among U.S. children.

Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among U.S. children. BACKGROUND: Incidence estimates of hospitalizations for community-acquired pneumonia among children in the United States that are based on prospective data collection are limited. Updated estimates of pneumonia that has been confirmed radiographically and with the use of current laboratory diagnostic tests are needed. METHODS: We conducted active population-based surveillance for community-acquired pneumonia requiring (...) radiographic evidence of pneumonia. The median age of the children was 2 years (interquartile range, 1 to 6); 497 of 2358 children (21%) required intensive care, and 3 (<1%) died. Among 2222 children with radiographic evidence of pneumonia and with specimens available for bacterial and viral testing, a viral or bacterial pathogen was detected in 1802 (81%), one or more viruses in 1472 (66%), bacteria in 175 (8%), and both bacterial and viral pathogens in 155 (7%). The annual incidence of pneumonia

NEJM2015 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

165. Regulation of neutrophilic inflammation in lung injury induced by community-acquired pneumonia.

Regulation of neutrophilic inflammation in lung injury induced by community-acquired pneumonia. BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia is commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is associated with excessive neutrophilic inflammation. The high-affinity thrombin receptor, proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), has been implicated in mediating the interplay between coagulation and inflammation. However, its role during S pneumoniae-induced neutrophilic inflammation (...) , and the mechanisms for neutrophil recruitment in this context are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the role of neutrophilic inflammation and PAR1 in S pneumoniae-induced pneumonia. METHODS: We used the most clinically advanced PAR-1 antagonist, SCH530348, and performed neutrophil depletion and chemokine neutralisation studies in two murine models. We also did translational studies to examine CXC and CC chemokine receptor expression by flow cytometry on neutrophils in blood and bronchoalveolar

Lancet2015

166. Effect of corticosteroids on treatment failure among hospitalized patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia and high inflammatory response: a randomized clinical trial.

Effect of corticosteroids on treatment failure among hospitalized patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia and high inflammatory response: a randomized clinical trial. 25688779 2015 02 18 2015 03 03 2016 10 17 1538-3598 313 7 2015 Feb 17 JAMA JAMA Effect of corticosteroids on treatment failure among hospitalized patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia and high inflammatory response: a randomized clinical trial. 677-86 10.1001/jama.2015.88 In patients with severe community (...) -acquired pneumonia, treatment failure is associated with excessive inflammatory response and worse outcomes. Corticosteroids may modulate cytokine release in these patients, but the benefit of this adjunctive therapy remains controversial. To assess the effect of corticosteroids in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia and high associated inflammatory response. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 3 Spanish teaching hospitals involving patients

JAMA2015

167. Effect of corticosteroids on treatment failure among hospitalized patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia and high inflammatory response: a randomized clinical trial.

Effect of corticosteroids on treatment failure among hospitalized patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia and high inflammatory response: a randomized clinical trial. IMPORTANCE: In patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia, treatment failure is associated with excessive inflammatory response and worse outcomes. Corticosteroids may modulate cytokine release in these patients, but the benefit of this adjunctive therapy remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect (...) of corticosteroids in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia and high associated inflammatory response. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 3 Spanish teaching hospitals involving patients with both severe community-acquired pneumonia and a high inflammatory response, which was defined as a level of C-reactive protein greater than 150 mg/L at admission. Patients were recruited and followed up from June 2004 through February

JAMA2015

168. Trajectories of risk after hospitalization for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, or pneumonia: retrospective cohort study.

Trajectories of risk after hospitalization for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, or pneumonia: retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the absolute risks for older patients of readmission to hospital and death in the year after hospitalization for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, or pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 4767 hospitals caring for Medicare fee for service beneficiaries in the United States, 2008-10. PARTICIPANTS: More than 3 (...) million Medicare fee for service beneficiaries, aged 65 years or more, surviving hospitalization for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, or pneumonia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily absolute risks of first readmission to hospital and death for one year after discharge. To illustrate risk trajectories, we identified the time required for risks of readmission to hospital and death to decline 50% from maximum values after discharge; the time required for risks to approach plateau periods of minimal

BMJ2015 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

169. Association between hospitalization for pneumonia and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease.

Association between hospitalization for pneumonia and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease. IMPORTANCE: The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after infection is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hospitalization for pneumonia is associated with an increased short-term and long-term risk of CVD. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS: We examined 2 community-based cohorts: the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS, n = 5888; enrollment age, ≥65 years; enrollment period, 1989-1994 (...) ) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (ARIC, n = 15,792; enrollment age, 45-64 years; enrollment period, 1987-1989). Participants were followed up through December 31, 2010. We matched each participant hospitalized with pneumonia to 2 controls. Pneumonia cases and controls were followed for occurrence of CVD over 10 years after matching. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD at different time intervals, adjusting for demographics, CVD risk factors, subclinical CVD, comorbidities, and functional status

JAMA2015 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

170. Adjunct prednisone therapy for patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

Adjunct prednisone therapy for patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. BACKGROUND: Clinical trials yielded conflicting data about the benefit of adding systemic corticosteroids for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. We assessed whether short-term corticosteroid treatment reduces time to clinical stability in patients admitted to hospital for community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS: In this double-blind, multicentre (...) , randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older with community-acquired pneumonia from seven tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland within 24 h of presentation. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio) to receive either prednisone 50 mg daily for 7 days or placebo. The computer-generated randomisation was done with variable block sizes of four to six and stratified by study centre. The primary endpoint was time to clinical stability defined as time (days) until

Lancet2015

171. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic measures for guiding antibiotic treatment for hospital acquired pneumonia

Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic measures for guiding antibiotic treatment for hospital acquired pneumonia Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic measures for guiding antibiotic treatment for hospital acquired pneumonia Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic measures for guiding antibiotic treatment for hospital acquired pneumonia Lux LJ, Posey RE, Daniels LS, Henke DC, Durham C, Jonas DE, Lohr KN Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA (...) . No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Lux LJ, Posey RE, Daniels LS, Henke DC, Durham C, Jonas DE, Lohr KN. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic measures for guiding antibiotic treatment for hospital acquired pneumonia. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 136. 2014 Authors' objectives To conduct a systematic review of the use of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) measures or strategies

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.2015

172. PneuX for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care

PneuX for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care PneuX for pre PneuX for prev venting v enting ventilator-associated entilator-associated pneumonia in intensiv pneumonia in intensive care e care Medtech innovation briefing Published: 10 November 2015 nice.org.uk/guidance/mib45 pathways Summary Summary The PneuX tube system is intended for airway management in critically ill patients who are having mechanical ventilation. It is designed to prevent ventilator-associated (...) pneumonia by minimising the risk of pulmonary aspiration and micro-aspiration in patients having ventilation for 24 hours or more. One randomised controlled trial in high-risk cardiac patients found that the PneuX system was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia compared with a standard endotracheal tube. A PneuX endotracheal tube costs £150 and a PneuX tracheostomy tube costs £175 (both excluding VAT). © NICE 2018. All rights reserved

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice2015

173. The TaperGuard Evac oral tracheal tube for mechanically ventilated intensive care patients at risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia

The TaperGuard Evac oral tracheal tube for mechanically ventilated intensive care patients at risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia Shile Shiley Endotr y Endotracheal T acheal T ube with T ube with T aperGuard Cuff aperGuard Cuff for intensiv for intensive care patients at risk of e care patients at risk of v ventilator-associated pneumonia entilator-associated pneumonia Medtech innovation briefing Published: 2 March 2015 nice.org.uk/guidance/mib22 pathways Summary Summary The T aperGuard (...) Evac oral tracheal tube is intended for airway management in critically ill patients needing mechanical ventilation. Two randomised controlled trials comparing the use of T aperGuard Evac with conventional tubes found no statistically significant differences between the groups in the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, time to onset of ventilator-associated pneumonia, or length of intensive care unit stay. Using T aperGuard Evac costs £111.07 (for a box of 10 single-use tubes), plus

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice2015

174. Systematic review with meta-analysis: Review: does chlorhexidine prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia?

Systematic review with meta-analysis: Review: does chlorhexidine prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia? Review: does chlorhexidine prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia? | Evidence-Based Nursing This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main (...) menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Review: does chlorhexidine prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia? Article Text Nursing issues Systematic review with meta-analysis Review: does chlorhexidine prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia? Michael Klompas Statistics from Altmetric.com No Altmetric data available for this article. Commentary on : Zhang TT , Tang SS , Fu LJ

Evidence-Based Nursing (Requires free registration)2015

175. Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia (PCP): Antimicrobial prophylaxis after solid organ transplantation (SOT)

Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia (PCP): Antimicrobial prophylaxis after solid organ transplantation (SOT) Copyright © 2015 Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center; all rights reserved. Page 1 of 12 Infectious Disease/Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia (PCP)/Antimicrobial Prophylaxis/BESt 206 Best Evidence Statement – BESt Date: October 21, 2015 Title: Antimicrobial prophylaxis for pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) after solid organ transplantation (SOT) Clinical Question P (Population (...) Hospital Medical Center; all rights reserved. Page 2 of 12 Infectious Disease/Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia (PCP)/Antimicrobial Prophylaxis/BESt 206 Best Evidence Statement – BESt Note: 1. Agents are listed alphabetically. See discussion for additional information regarding organ-specific preferred alternative agent. 2. Inhaled pentamidine is not recommended in patients 2mg/kg/day) is associated with increased MHgb risk 4a De Boer et al. (2011) Retrospective, Case-control 149 Adult renal transplant

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center2015

177. Approach to the Hospitalized Patient with Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Should Procalcitonin Be Part of the Initial Evaluation?

Approach to the Hospitalized Patient with Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Should Procalcitonin Be Part of the Initial Evaluation? Approach to the Hospitalized Patient with Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Should Procalcitonin Be Part of the Initial Evaluation? | Clinical Correlations Approach to the Hospitalized Patient with Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Should Procalcitonin Be Part of the Initial Evaluation? November 21, 2014 By Matthew Light, MD Peer Reviewed A 79 year-old female, 20 pack-year ex (...) a lingular consolidation with air bronchograms. The Pneumonia Severity Index [1]. The patient is given ceftriaxone and azithromycin and admitted to the medicine service. The question arises, is there a role for checking a procalcitonin (PCT) level in this patient as part of the initial work-up or tracking PCT levels during hospitalization? Rates of hospitalization for pneumonia (PNA) in the United States, though trending down, [2]. In addition [3]. With such substantial morbidity and mortality

Clinical Correlations2014

178. Telavancin hydrochloride (Vibativ) - nosocomial pneumonia (NP)

Telavancin hydrochloride (Vibativ) - nosocomial pneumonia (NP) Published 10 November 2014 Statement of Advice: telavancin hydrochloride (Vibativ ® ) 250 mg and 750 mg powder for concentrate for solution for infusion (No: 1015/14) Clinigen Healthcare Ltd 10 October 2014 ADVICE: in the absence of a submission from the holder of the marketing authorisation telavancin hydrochloride (Vibativ ® ) is not recommended for use within NHS Scotland. Indication under review: treatment of adults (...) with nosocomial pneumonia (NP) including ventilator associated pneumonia, known or suspected to be caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The holder of the marketing authorisation has not made a submission to SMC regarding this product in this indication. As a result we cannot recommend its use within NHSScotland. Advice context: No part of this advice may be used without the whole of the advice being quoted in full. This advice represents the view of the Scottish Medicines Consortium

Scottish Medicines Consortium2014

179. Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in adult outpatients.

Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in adult outpatients. BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is the third leading cause of death worldwide and the first leading cause of death in low-income countries. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common condition that causes a significant disease burden for the community, particularly in children younger than five years, the elderly and immunocompromised people. Antibiotics are the standard treatment for CAP. However

Cochrane2014

180. The Use of Endotracheal Tubes with Subglottic Secretion Drainage to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

The Use of Endotracheal Tubes with Subglottic Secretion Drainage to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia TITLE: The Use of Endotracheal Tubes with Subglottic Secretion Drainage to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Clinical Effectiveness and Safety DATE: 15 July 2014 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What is the clinical effectiveness of endotracheal tubes with subglottic secretion drainage for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia? 2. What is the clinical evidence on the safety (...) and harms of endotracheal tubes with subglottic secretion drainage for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia? KEY FINDINGS One health technology assessment, three systematic reviews, one randomized controlled trial, and three non-randomized studies were identified regarding endotracheal tubes with subglottic secretion drainage for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. METHODS A limited literature search was conducted on key resources including PubMed, The Cochrane Library (2014

Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review2014