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Latest & greatest articles for pneumonia
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Epidemiology and Long-term Clinical and Biologic Risk Factors for Pneumonia in Community-Dwelling Older Americans: Analysis of Three Cohorts 23744106 2013 09 06 2014 01 07 2016 12 03 1931-3543 144 3 2013 Sep Chest Chest Epidemiology and long-term clinical and biologic risk factors for pneumonia in community-dwelling older Americans: analysis of three cohorts. 1008-17 10.1378/chest.12-2818 Preventing pneumonia requires better understanding of incidence, mortality, and long-term clinical (...) and biologic risk factors, particularly in younger individuals. This was a cohort study in three population-based cohorts of community-dwelling individuals. A derivation cohort (n = 16,260) was used to determine incidence and survival and develop a risk prediction model. The prediction model was validated in two cohorts (n = 8,495). The primary outcome was 10-year risk of pneumonia hospitalization. The crude and age-adjusted incidences of pneumonia were 6.71 and 9.43 cases/1,000 person-years (10-year risk
Diagnosing pneumonia in patients with acute cough: clinical judgment compared to chest radiography 23349450 2013 10 01 2014 05 22 2016 11 25 1399-3003 42 4 2013 Oct The European respiratory journal Eur. Respir. J. Diagnosing pneumonia in patients with acute cough: clinical judgment compared to chest radiography. 1076-82 10.1183/09031936.00111012 Pneumonia is often diagnosed and treated empirically. We set out to determine the diagnostic accuracy of clinical judgment based on signs and symptoms (...) to detect radiographic pneumonia in patients presenting with acute cough in primary care. In 2810 European patients with acute cough, general practitioners (GPs) recorded whether they considered pneumonia to be present ("yes" or "no") immediately after history and physical examination. Chest radiography was performed within 1 week by local radiologists blind to other patient characteristics. 140 patients had radiographic pneumonia (5%), of whom 41 (29%) had been diagnosed as such. 31 (1%) patients had
Effect of Statin Therapy on Mortality in Patients With Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. IMPORTANCE: Observational studies have reported that statin use may be associated with improved outcomes of various infections. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with substantial mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether statin therapy can decrease day-28 mortality in patients with VAP. DESIGN
Chest physiotherapy for pneumonia in children. BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is an inflammatory lung disease and it is the greatest cause of deaths in children younger than five years of age worldwide. Chest physiotherapy is widely used in the treatment of pneumonia because it can help to eliminate inflammatory exudates and tracheobronchial secretions, remove airway obstructions, reduce airway resistance, enhance gas exchange and reduce the work of breathing. Thus, chest physiotherapy may contribute (...) to patient recovery as an adjuvant treatment even though its indication remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of chest physiotherapy in relation to time until clinical resolution in children (from birth up to 18 years old) of either gender with any type of pneumonia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 4; MEDLINE (1946 to May week 4, 2013); EMBASE (1974 to May 2013); CINAHL (1981 to May 2013); LILACS (1982 to May 2013); Web of Science (1950 to May 2013); and PEDro
Type of stress ulcer prophylaxis and risk of nosocomial pneumonia in cardiac surgical patients: cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between the type of stress ulcer prophylaxis administered and the risk of postoperative pneumonia in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Premier Research Database. PARTICIPANTS: 21,214 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery between 2004 and 2010; 9830 (46.3%) started (...) proton pump inhibitors and 11,384 (53.7%) started H2 receptor antagonists in the immediate postoperative period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Occurrence of postoperative pneumonia, assessed using appropriate diagnostic codes. RESULTS: Overall, 492 (5.0%) of the 9830 patients receiving a proton pump inhibitor and 487 (4.3%) of the 11,384 patients receiving an H2 receptor antagonist developed postoperative pneumonia during the index hospital admission. After propensity score adjustment, an elevated risk of pneumonia
Prediction of in-hospital death from community-acquired pneumonia by varying CRB-age groups 22903962 2013 04 01 2013 11 13 2013 04 01 1399-3003 41 4 2013 Apr The European respiratory journal Eur. Respir. J. Prediction of in-hospital death from community-acquired pneumonia by varying CRB-age groups. 917-22 10.1183/09031936.00065212 C(U)RB-65 (confusion, (urea >7 mol · L(-1),) respiratory frequency ≥ 30 breaths · min(-1), systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≤60 mmHg (...) and age ≥ 65 years) is now the generally accepted severity score for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Europe. In an observational study based on the large database from the German nationwide performance measurement programme in healthcare quality, including data from all hospitalised patients with CAP during 2008-2010, different CRB-age groups (≥ 50 and ≥ 60 years) across the total CAP population and three entities of CAP (younger population aged <65 years, patients aged ≥ 65 years
U.S. hospitalizations for pneumonia after a decade of pneumococcal vaccination. BACKGROUND: The introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into the U.S. childhood immunization schedule in 2000 has substantially reduced the incidence of vaccine-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease in young children and in unvaccinated older children and adults. By 2004, hospitalizations associated with pneumonia from any cause had also declined markedly among young children. Because (...) of concerns about increases in disease caused by nonvaccine serotypes, we wanted to determine whether the reduction in pneumonia-related hospitalizations among young children had been sustained through 2009 and whether such hospitalizations in older age groups had also declined. METHODS: We estimated annual rates of hospitalization for pneumonia from any cause using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. The reason for hospitalization was classified as pneumonia if pneumonia was the first listed
Use of serum C reactive protein and procalcitonin concentrations in addition to symptoms and signs to predict pneumonia in patients presenting to primary care with acute cough: diagnostic study. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the diagnostic accuracy of selected inflammatory markers in addition to symptoms and signs for predicting pneumonia and to derive a diagnostic tool. DESIGN: Diagnostic study performed between 2007 and 2010. Participants had their history taken, underwent physical examination (...) and measurement of C reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin in venous blood on the day they first consulted, and underwent chest radiography within seven days. SETTING: Primary care centres in 12 European countries. PARTICIPANTS: Adults presenting with acute cough. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pneumonia as determined by radiologists, who were blind to all other information when they judged chest radiographs. RESULTS: Of 3106 eligible patients, 286 were excluded because of missing or inadequate chest radiographs
Ending of preventable deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea: an achievable goal. Global under-5 mortality has fallen rapidly from 12 million deaths in 1990, to 6·9 million in 2011; however, this number still falls short of the target of a two-thirds reduction or a maximum of 4 million deaths by 2015. Acceleration of reductions in deaths due to pneumonia and diarrhoea, which together account for about 2 million child deaths every year, is essential if the target is to be met. Scaling up (...) of existing interventions against the two diseases to 80% and immunisation to 90% would eliminate more than two-thirds of deaths from these two diseases at a cost of US$6·715 billion by 2025. Modelling in this report shows that if all countries could attain the rates of decline of the regional leaders, then cause-specific death rates of fewer than three deaths per 1000 livebirths from pneumonia and less than one death per 1000 livebirths from diarrhoea could be achieved by 2025. These rates are those
Interventions to address deaths from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea equitably: what works and at what cost? Global mortality in children younger than 5 years has fallen substantially in the past two decades from more than 12 million in 1990, to 6·9 million in 2011, but progress is inconsistent between countries. Pneumonia and diarrhoea are the two leading causes of death in this age group and have overlapping risk factors. Several interventions can effectively address these problems (...) , but are not available to those in need. We systematically reviewed evidence showing the effectiveness of various potential preventive and therapeutic interventions against childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia, and relevant delivery strategies. We used the Lives Saved Tool model to assess the effect on mortality when these interventions are applied. We estimate that if implemented at present annual rates of increase in each of the 75 Countdown countries, these interventions and packages of care could save 54
Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea. Diarrhoea and pneumonia are the leading infectious causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. We comprehensively reviewed the epidemiology of childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia in 2010-11 to inform the planning of integrated control programmes for both illnesses. We estimated that, in 2010, there were 1·731 billion episodes of diarrhoea (36 million of which progressed to severe episodes) and 120 million episodes of pneumonia (14 million (...) of which progressed to severe episodes) in children younger than 5 years. We estimated that, in 2011, 700,000 episodes of diarrhoea and 1·3 million of pneumonia led to death. A high proportion of deaths occurs in the first 2 years of life in both diseases--72% for diarrhoea and 81% for pneumonia. The epidemiology of childhood diarrhoea and that of pneumonia overlap, which might be partly because of shared risk factors, such as undernutrition, suboptimum breastfeeding, and zinc deficiency. Rotavirus
Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study. Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infe... preview & related info | Mendeley E-mail address Password ( ) Remember me …or sign in with Search Main Navigation › Short URL Annals of Internal Medicine ( 1992 ) Volume: 116 , Issue: 4 , Publisher: Am Coll Physicians , Pages: 273-278 PubMed: Available from or Find this paper at: Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate in the prospective Helsinki Heart (...) Study, whether chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, indicated by elevated antibody titers against the pathogen, chlamydial lipopolysaccharide-containing immune complexes, or both, is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Helsinki Heart Study was a randomized, double-blind, 5-year clinical trial to test the efficacy of gemfibrozil in reducing the risk for coronary heart disease. Participants were randomized to receive either gemfibrozil (2046 patients) or placebo (2035
Income inequality and 30 day outcomes after acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia: retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between income inequality and the risk of mortality and readmission within 30 days of hospitalization. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries in the United States. Hierarchical, logistic regression models were developed to estimate the association between income inequality (measured at the US state level (...) ) and a patient's risk of mortality and readmission, while sequentially controlling for patient, hospital, other state, and patient socioeconomic characteristics. We considered a 0.05 unit increase in the Gini coefficient as a measure of income inequality. SETTING: US acute care hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 65 years and older, and hospitalized in 2006-08 with a principal diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or pneumonia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of death within 30 days
Relationship between hospital readmission and mortality rates for patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or pneumonia. IMPORTANCE: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services publicly reports hospital 30-day, all-cause, risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs) and 30-day, all-cause, risk-standardized readmission rates (RSRRs) for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The evaluation of hospital performance as measured by RSMRs and RSRRs (...) has not been well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between hospital RSMRs and RSRRs overall and within subgroups defined by hospital characteristics. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We studied Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries discharged with acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or pneumonia between July 1, 2005, and June 30, 2008 (4506 hospitals for acute myocardial infarction, 4767 hospitals for heart failure, and 4811 hospitals for pneumonia). We quantified
Acute pneumonia and the cardiovascular system. Although traditionally regarded as a disease confined to the lungs, acute pneumonia has important effects on the cardiovascular system at all severities of infection. Pneumonia tends to affect individuals who are also at high cardiovascular risk. Results of recent studies show that about a quarter of adults admitted to hospital with pneumonia develop a major acute cardiac complication during their hospital stay, which is associated with a 60 (...) % increase in short-term mortality. These findings suggest that outcomes of patients with pneumonia can be improved by prevention of the development and progression of associated cardiac complications. Before this hypothesis can be tested, however, an adequate mechanistic understanding of the cardiovascular changes that occur during pneumonia, and their role in the trigger of various cardiac complications, is needed. In this Review, we summarise knowledge about the burden of cardiac complications