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Latest & greatest articles for pneumonia
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Adult Outpatients With Acute Cough Due to Suspected Pneumonia or Influenza: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report 30296418 2019 01 16 1931-3543 155 1 2019 Jan Chest Chest Adult Outpatients With Acute Cough Due to Suspected Pneumonia or Influenza: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report. 155-167 S0012-3692(18)32499-1 10.1016/j.chest.2018.09.016 Patients commonly present to primary care services with upper and lower respiratory tract infections, and guidelines to help physicians investigate (...) and treat acute cough due to suspected pneumonia and influenza are needed. A systematic search was carried out with eight patient, intervention, comparison, outcome questions related to acute cough due to suspected pneumonia or influenza. There was a lack of randomized controlled trials in the setting of outpatients presenting with acute cough due to suspected pneumonia or influenza who were not hospitalized. Both clinical suggestions and research recommendations were made on the evidence available
Association of Prescribed Opioids With Increased Risk of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Among Patients With and Without HIV 30615036 2019 01 07 2168-6114 2019 Jan 07 JAMA internal medicine JAMA Intern Med Association of Prescribed Opioids With Increased Risk of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Among Patients With and Without HIV. 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.6101 Some opioids are known immunosuppressants; however, the association of prescribed opioids with clinically relevant immune-related outcomes (...) is understudied, especially among people living with HIV. To assess the association of prescribed opioids with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) by opioid properties and HIV status. This nested case-control study used data from patients in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2012. Participants in VACS included patients living with and without HIV who received care in Veterans Health Administration (VA) medical centers across the United States. Patients with CAP
Pneumococcal vaccines for people with COPD reduce their chance of catching pneumonia Signal - Pneumococcal vaccines for people with COPD reduce their chance of catching pneumonia Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Pneumococcal vaccines for people with COPD reduce their chance of catching pneumonia Published on 30 May 2017 Pneumococcal vaccines reduce the risk of community-acquired pneumonia in people with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (...) ). Pneumococcal vaccination is currently recommended for people with COPD and other respiratory diseases. However, until now there has been a lack of data whether it actually improves outcomes in these groups. This updated Cochrane review identified 12 trials including 2171 adults with COPD, comparing those who did and did not receive pneumococcal vaccination. One episode of community-acquired pneumonia was prevented for every 21 people vaccinated. There was also evidence that vaccination reduced the risk
Ultrasound shows potential for confirming the diagnosis of pneumonia in children Diagnosis of pneumonia in children may be confirmed by ultrasound Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Ultrasound shows potential for confirming the diagnosis of pneumonia in children Published on 24 July 2018 doi: Ultrasound scans of the lungs can be more accurate than chest X-rays for diagnosing pneumonia in children in some circumstances. A review of the published evidence found that lung (...) ultrasound was more sensitive (missed fewer cases) and about as specific (gave about the same number of false alarms) as chest X-ray, when used to confirm suspected community-acquired pneumonia in children. While pneumonia is a clinical diagnosis, X-ray is often used for confirmation. Ultrasound also spares the child from the radiation associated with X-ray imaging. Many emergency departments already use ultrasound, so it might be practical to train paediatric staff to use it as a first-line test
Chest physiotherapy for pneumonia in children. BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a lung infection that causes more deaths in children aged under five years than any other single cause. Chest physiotherapy is widely used as adjuvant treatment for pneumonia. Physiotherapy is thought to help remove inflammatory exudates, tracheobronchial secretions, and airway obstructions, and reduce airway resistance to improve breathing and enhance gas exchange. This is an update of a review published in 2013 (...) . OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of chest physiotherapy with regard to time until clinical resolution in children (from birth to 18 years) of either gender with any type of pneumonia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 1), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE (22 February 2018), Embase (22 February 2018), CINAHL (22 February 2018), LILACS (22 February 2018), Web of Science (22
A Multivariable Prediction Model for Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Hematology Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure 29995433 2018 12 14 1535-4970 198 12 2018 Dec 15 American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. A Multivariable Prediction Model for Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Hematology Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure. 1519-1526 10.1164/rccm.201712-2452OC The incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PjP) is rising. Longer
Association of the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program With Mortality Among Medicare Beneficiaries Hospitalized for Heart Failure, Acute Myocardial Infarction, and Pneumonia. Importance: The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) has been associated with a reduction in readmission rates for heart failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and pneumonia. It is unclear whether the HRRP has been associated with change in patient mortality. Objective: To determine whether the HRRP (...) was associated with a change in patient mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of hospitalizations for HF, AMI, and pneumonia among Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged at least 65 years across 4 periods from April 1, 2005, to March 31, 2015. Period 1 and period 2 occurred before the HRRP to establish baseline trends (April 2005-September 2007 and October 2007-March 2010). Period 3 and period 4 were after HRRP announcement (April 2010 to September 2012) and HRRP
Pneumonia Vaccine for Adults: Is the efficacy as effective as the effort? Tools for Practice is proudly sponsored by the Alberta College of Family Physicians (ACFP). ACFP is a provincial, professional voluntary organization, representing more than 4,800 family physicians, family medicine residents, and medical students in Alberta. Established over sixty years ago, the ACFP strives for excellence in family practice through advocacy, continuing medical education and primary care research (...) . www.acfp.ca Reviewed: August 27, 2018 Evidence Updated: Slight change to first systematic review ’s population and vaccine subtypes Bottom Line: No Change First Published: July 30, 2018 Pneumonia Vaccine for Adults: Is the efficacy as effective as the effort? Clinical Question: How effective is the pneumococcal vaccine in preventing pneumonia or other clinically important outcomes in adults? Bottom Line: At best, pneumococcal vaccines may prevent pneumonia for an additional 1 in 55 adults and 1 in 20 COPD
Community-acquired pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Community-acquired pneumonia Last reviewed: October 2018 Last updated: November 2018 Summary Risk factors relate to environment, lifestyle factors, patient status, and comorbidities. Typically characterised by a new lung infiltrate on chest x-ray, together with one or more of the following: fever, chills, cough (...) , sputum production, dyspnoea, myalgia, arthralgia, pleuritic pain. Diagnosis should include a chest x-ray, although this has been challenged by studies using CT scanning. Initial treatment is empirical with antibiotics, following international guidelines and local epidemiology. Definition Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is defined as pneumonia acquired outside hospital or healthcare facilities. Clinical diagnosis is based on a group of signs and symptoms related to lower
Omadacycline (Nuzyra) - To treat community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections Drug Approval Package: NUZYRA U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Search FDA Submit search Drug Approval Package: NUZYRA Company: Paratek Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Application Number: 209816 & 209817 Approval Date: 10/02/2018 Persons with disabilities having problems accessing the PDF files below may call (301) 796-3634 for assistance. FDA Approval Letter
Multimodality respiratory physiotherapy reduces mortality but may not prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia or reduce length of stay in the intensive care unit: a systematic review 30220625 2018 09 30 1836-9561 64 4 2018 Oct Journal of physiotherapy J Physiother Multimodality respiratory physiotherapy reduces mortality but may not prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia or reduce length of stay in the intensive care unit: a systematic review. 222-228 S1836-9553(18)30116-4 10.1016/j.jphys (...) .2018.08.005 In intubated adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation, does multimodality respiratory physiotherapy prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, shorten length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and reduce mortality? A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Intubated adult patients undergoing mechanical ventilation who were admitted to an intensive care unit. More than two respiratory physiotherapy techniques such as positioning or postural drainage, manual
Microbiological testing of adults hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia: an international study 30474036 2018 11 28 2312-0541 4 4 2018 Oct ERJ open research ERJ Open Res Microbiological testing of adults hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia: an international study. 00096-2018 10.1183/23120541.00096-2018 This study aimed to describe real-life microbiological testing of adults hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and to assess concordance with the 2007 (...) Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) and 2011 European Respiratory Society (ERS) CAP guidelines. This was a cohort study based on the Global Initiative for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia (GLIMP) database, which contains point-prevalence data on adults hospitalised with CAP across 54 countries during 2015. In total, 3702 patients were included. Testing was performed in 3217 patients, and included blood culture (71.1%), sputum culture (61.8
Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in newborns. 30099417 2018 10 05 2018 10 05 0043-5147 71 4 2018 Wiadomosci lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960) Wiad. Lek. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in newborns. 821-823 The aim of the study is to optimize the prevention of the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia in newborns by developing a method for tracheal rehabilitation and assessment of its effectiveness. Materials and methods: A prospective cohort randomized (...) -cuff structure of the intubation tube was used; preventive tracheal sanation on the outer wall of the intubation tube was not carried out. Results and conclusions: Preventive tracheal sanation on the outer surface of the intubation tube in newborns units that undergo artificial ventilation of the lungs exhibit high efficiency against the main types of microorganisms that are dangerous from the point of view of the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The use of prophylactic tracheal
New evidence available on corticosteroids added to antibiotics in severe pneumonia Signal - New evidence available on corticosteroids added to antibiotics in severe pneumonia Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover New evidence available on corticosteroids added to antibiotics in severe pneumonia Published on 9 November 2015 For adults admitted to hospital with severe pneumonia, this review found that adding corticosteroids to the usual antibiotic treatment may be beneficial (...) . The evidence was less supportive of using corticosteroids in people with less severe pneumonia. Results showed modest benefits in allowing patients to reach a clinically stable recovery and leave hospital an average of one day earlier. Reduced need for artificial breathing support was the main benefit for people with non-severe pneumonia. The review showed that using corticosteroids increased levels of blood sugar. This and other potential adverse events were not well investigated, as people at risk
Oral care measures for preventing nursing home-acquired pneumonia. BACKGROUND: Pneumonia occurring in residents of long-term care facilities and nursing homes can be termed 'nursing home-acquired pneumonia' (NHAP). NHAP is the leading cause of mortality among residents. NHAP may be caused by aspiration of oropharyngeal flora into the lung, and by failure of the individual's defence mechanisms to eliminate the aspirated bacteria. Oral care measures to remove or disrupt oral plaque might (...) be effective in reducing the risk of NHAP. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of oral care measures for preventing nursing home-acquired pneumonia in residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities. SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 15 November 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2017, Issue 10), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 15 November 2017
Effect of Piperacillin-Tazobactam vs Meropenem on 30-Day Mortality for Patients With E coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae Bloodstream Infection and Ceftriaxone Resistance: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Importance: Extended-spectrum β-lactamases mediate resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (eg, ceftriaxone) in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Significant infections caused by these strains are usually treated with carbapenems, potentially selecting for carbapenem resistance (...) . Piperacillin-tazobactam may be an effective "carbapenem-sparing" option to treat extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers. Objectives: To determine whether definitive therapy with piperacillin-tazobactam is noninferior to meropenem (a carbapenem) in patients with bloodstream infection caused by ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible E coli or K pneumoniae. Design, Setting, and Participants: Noninferiority, parallel group, randomized clinical trial included hospitalized patients enrolled from 26 sites in 9 countries
Short-course versus long-course therapy of the same antibiotic for community-acquired pneumonia in adolescent and adult outpatients. BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a lung infection that can be acquired during day-to-day activities in the community (not while receiving care in a hospital). Community-acquired pneumonia poses a significant public health burden in terms of mortality, morbidity, and costs. Shorter antibiotic courses for CAP may limit treatment costs and adverse
Pneumonia induced by benzodiazepines Page xvi · MED CHECK - TIP August 2018/ Vol.4 No.11 -The Informed Prescriber C N o 11 M ED HECK A u g u s t 2 0 1 8 What we learned from epidemiological studies on drug-induced pneumonia Japanese Guideline for Hypertension is for disease mongering Editorial What we learned from epidemiological studies on drug-induced pneumonia New Products A new cholesterol lowering agent: lomitapide is highly toxic Reviews Japanese Guideline for Hypertension is for disease (...) mongering Medical checkups create “patients” and shorten their lifespan by “treatment” Adverse Reactions Pneumonia induced by benzodiazepines Evidence shows causal relations CONTENTS (August 2018, Vol. 4, No. 11 ) 16 17 20 24 Volume 4 Page 16 · MED CHECK - TIP August 2018/ Vol.4 No.11 What we learned from epidemiological studies on drug-induced pneumonia It is well known that corticosteroids and cytotoxic anticancer agents cause infections. The labels of non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs