Latest & greatest articles for phenytoin

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Top results for phenytoin

1. A multicentre randomised controlled trial of levetiracetam versus phenytoin for convulsive status epilepticus in children (protocol): Convulsive Status Epilepticus Paediatric Trial (ConSEPT) - a PREDICT study. (Full text)

A multicentre randomised controlled trial of levetiracetam versus phenytoin for convulsive status epilepticus in children (protocol): Convulsive Status Epilepticus Paediatric Trial (ConSEPT) - a PREDICT study. Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is the most common life-threatening childhood neurological emergency. Despite this, there is a lack of high quality evidence supporting medication use after first line benzodiazepines, with current treatment protocols based solely on non-experimental (...) evidence and expert opinion. The current standard of care, phenytoin, is only 60% effective, and associated with considerable adverse effects. A newer anti-convulsant, levetiracetam, can be given faster, is potentially more efficacious, with a more tolerable side effect profile. The primary aim of the study presented in this protocol is to determine whether intravenous (IV) levetiracetam or IV phenytoin is the better second line treatment for the emergency management of CSE in children.200 children

2017 BMC Pediatrics PubMed

2. Phenytoin versus levetiracetam as prophylaxis for postcraniotomy seizure in patients with no history of seizures: systematic review and meta-analysis

Phenytoin versus levetiracetam as prophylaxis for postcraniotomy seizure in patients with no history of seizures: systematic review and meta-analysis OBJECTIVEDe novo seizure following craniotomy (DSC) for nontraumatic pathology may adversely affect medical and neurological outcomes in patients with no history of seizures who have undergone craniotomies. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are commonly used prophylactically in patients undergoing craniotomy; however, evidence supporting this practice (...) is limited and mixed. The authors aimed to collate the available evidence on the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam monotherapy and compare it with that of the classic AED, phenytoin, for DSC.METHODSPubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies that compared levetiracetam with phenytoin for DSC prevention. Inclusion criteria were adult patients with no history of epilepsy who underwent craniotomy with prophylactic usage of phenytoin, a comparator group

2018 EvidenceUpdates

3. Sodium valproate versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (PubMed)

Sodium valproate versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free, and to go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug (...) in monotherapy.Worldwide, sodium valproate and phenytoin are commonly used antiepileptic drugs for monotherapy treatment. It is generally believed that phenytoin is more effective for focal onset seizures, and that sodium pvalproate is more effective for generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types). This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons. This is the latest updated version of the review first published in 2001

2018 Cochrane

4. Comparative trial of Aloe vera/olive oil combination cream versus phenytoin cream in the treatment of chronic wounds. (PubMed)

Comparative trial of Aloe vera/olive oil combination cream versus phenytoin cream in the treatment of chronic wounds. Aloe vera is a medicinal plant that has been traditionally used to accelerate wound healing. Olive oil is also a natural product that may contribute to wound healing owing to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an Aloe vera-olive oil (AVO) combination cream on the healing process of chronic wounds.In this randomised (...) , double-blind, comparator-controlled, parallel-group trial, patients with chronic wounds were treated with either AVO cream or phenytoin cream as the standard treatment for a period of 30 days. Wound healing was evaluated using Bates-Jensen assessment tool and the severity of pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS).After initial assessment, 60 patients with chronic wounds (41 with pressure ulcer, 13 with diabetic wounds and 6 with venous ulcers), were recruited and randomised into 2

2015 Journal of wound care

5. Topical phenytoin for treating pressure ulcers. (PubMed)

Topical phenytoin for treating pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcers are common in clinical practice and pose a significant health problem worldwide. Apart from causing suffering to patients, they also result in longer hospital stays and increase the cost of health care. A variety of methods are used for treating pressure ulcers, including pressure relief, patient repositioning, biophysical strategies, nutritional supplementation, debridement, topical negative pressure, and local treatments (...) including dressings, ointments and creams such as bacitracin, silver sulphadiazine, neomycin, and phenytoin. Phenytoin is a drug more commonly used in the treatment of epilepsy, but may play an important role in accelerating ulcer healing.To assess the effects of topical phenytoin on the rate of healing of pressure ulcers of any grade, in any care setting.In September 2016, we searched the following electronic databases to identify relevant randomized clinical trials: the Cochrane Wounds Specialised

2017 Cochrane

6. The effect of topical phenytoin on healing in diabetic foot ulcers: a randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

The effect of topical phenytoin on healing in diabetic foot ulcers: a randomized controlled trial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of topical phenytoin on healing in diabetic foot ulcers. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial was conducted.A phenytoin dressing and a control dressing were manufactured. Individuals who were ≥ 18 years of age with peripheral neuropathy, an ankle brachial pressure index > 0.5 and a diabetic foot ulcer ≥ 4 weeks' duration were (...) independently randomized to the phenytoin group (31 participants) or the control group (34 participants). Participants with renal disease, ankle brachial pressure index < 0.5, necrosis or osteomyelitis were excluded. Subjects received standard wound care and dressing application. Primary endpoint analysis (diabetic foot ulcer closed or not at 16 weeks) was calculated by survival analysis.Participants (n = 65, 52 with Type 2 diabetes) were treated for a maximum of 16 weeks. Sixty per cent of the diabetic

2011 Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association

7. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis during and early after craniotomy for brain tumours: a phase II prospective, randomised study (PubMed)

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis during and early after craniotomy for brain tumours: a phase II prospective, randomised study Phenytoin (PHT) is routinely used for seizure prophylaxis in patients with brain tumours during and after craniotomy, despite incomplete evidence. We performed a prospective, randomised study to investigate the significance of prophylactic use of levetiracetam (LEV), in comparison with PHT, for patients with supratentorial tumours

2015 EvidenceUpdates

8. A cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for early seizure pharmacoprophylaxis after traumatic brain injury

A cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for early seizure pharmacoprophylaxis after traumatic brain injury A cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for early seizure pharmacoprophylaxis after traumatic brain injury A cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for early seizure pharmacoprophylaxis after traumatic brain injury Pieracci FM, Moore EE, Beauchamp K, Tebockhorst S, Barnett CC, Bensard DD, Burlew CC, Biffl WL, Stoval RT (...) , Johnson JL Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. CRD summary This study examined the clinical and economic impact of levetiracetam, compared with phenytoin, to prevent early seizures after traumatic brain injury. The authors concluded

2013 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

9. Phenytoin for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. (PubMed)

Phenytoin for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. Antiepileptic drugs have been used in pain management since the 1960s; some have shown efficacy in treating different neuropathic pain conditions. Phenytoin is an established antiepileptic drug that has been used occasionally to treat intractable trigeminal neuralgia.To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of the antiepileptic drug phenytoin in neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia.We searched the Cochrane Central Register (...) of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 2), MEDLINE, and EMBASE to 28 February 2012, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov.We planned to include randomised, double-blind studies of eight weeks duration or longer, comparing phenytoin with placebo or another active treatment in chronic neuropathic pain or fibromyalgia.Two review authors would independently extract data for efficacy and adverse events, and examine issues of study

2012 Cochrane

10. Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures: an individual participant data review. (PubMed)

Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures: an individual participant data review. Worldwide, phenytoin and valproate are commonly used antiepileptic drugs. It is generally believed that phenytoin is more effective for partial onset seizures, and that valproate is more effective for generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types). This review is one in a series of Cochrane reviews (...) investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons. This is the latest updated version of the review first published in 2001 and updated in 2013.To review the time to withdrawal, remission and first seizure of phenytoin compared to valproate when used as monotherapy in people with partial onset seizures or generalised tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types).We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialised Register (19 May 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled

2016 Cochrane

11. Phenytoin

Phenytoin Top results for phenytoin - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Turning Research Into Practice ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document This EXACT phrase: Title only Anywhere in the document EXCLUDING words: Title only Anywhere in the document Timeframe: to: Combine searches by placing the search numbers in the top search box and pressing the search button. An example search might look like (#1 or #2) and (#3 (...) or #4) Loading history... Population: Intervention: Comparison: Outcome: Population: Intervention: Latest & greatest articles for phenytoin The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

12. Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of rapid initiation of topiramate versus phenytoin in patients with new-onset epilepsy: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. (Full text)

Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of rapid initiation of topiramate versus phenytoin in patients with new-onset epilepsy: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. To evaluate topiramate (TPM) and phenytoin (PHT) monotherapy following rapid oral initiation in new-onset epilepsy.Randomized, double-blind, 28-day trial of TPM (100 mg/day beginning on day 1) versus PHT (1,000 mg on day 1 followed by 300 mg/day maintenance dosing) in 261 patients with new-onset epilepsy. The primary end point

2010 Epilepsia PubMed

13. Toxicity, Phenytoin (Diagnosis)

Toxicity, Phenytoin (Diagnosis) Phenytoin Toxicity: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvODE2NDQ3LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Phenytoin Toxicity Updated (...) : Dec 05, 2018 Author: Charlene Miller, MD; Chief Editor: David Vearrier, MD, MPH Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Phenytoin Toxicity Overview Practice Essentials Phenytoin is a commonly prescribed anticonvulsant used to treat most types of seizure disorders and , with the exception of absence seizures. Historically, phenytoin was used as an antidysrhythmic agent, especially in the treatment of dysrhythmias due to digoxin toxicity. It has fallen out of favor for that use because

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

14. Toxicity, Phenytoin (Overview)

Toxicity, Phenytoin (Overview) Phenytoin Toxicity: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvODE2NDQ3LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Phenytoin Toxicity Updated (...) : Dec 05, 2018 Author: Charlene Miller, MD; Chief Editor: David Vearrier, MD, MPH Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Phenytoin Toxicity Overview Practice Essentials Phenytoin is a commonly prescribed anticonvulsant used to treat most types of seizure disorders and , with the exception of absence seizures. Historically, phenytoin was used as an antidysrhythmic agent, especially in the treatment of dysrhythmias due to digoxin toxicity. It has fallen out of favor for that use because

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

15. Oxcarbazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (PubMed)

Oxcarbazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review previously published in 2013. This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active (...) epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, phenytoin is a commonly used antiepileptic drug. It is important to know how newer drugs, such as oxcarbazepine, compare with commonly used standard treatments.To review the time to treatment failure, remission and first seizure with oxcarbazepine compared to phenytoin, when used as monotherapy in people with focal onset

2018 Cochrane

16. Phenytoin

Phenytoin Phenytoin Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Phenytoin Phenytoin Aka: Phenytoin , Dilantin , Fosphenytoin (...) , Cerebyx , Diphenylhydantoin , DPH , Hydantoin , Mephenytoin , Ethotoin , Phenacemide II. Classification: Hydantoin Phenytoin (Dilantin) Fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) Phenytoin congeners (limited use) Mephenytoin Ethotoin Phenacemide III. History Phenytoin Oldest non-sedative antiepileptic drug (1938) Based on research into phenobarbital antiseizure effect IV. Indications s ralized tonic-clonic s V. Contraindications Pregnancy (See ) VI. Pharmacokinetics: Phenytoin Fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) has similar

2018 FP Notebook

17. Phenytoin in the Healing of Clean Surgical Wounds

Phenytoin in the Healing of Clean Surgical Wounds Phenytoin in the Healing of Clean Surgical Wounds - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Phenytoin in the Healing of Clean Surgical Wounds (...) provided by (Responsible Party): Children's Surgical Center, Cambodia Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential healing properties of phenytoin. The investigators will use the donor site of a split skin thickness graft (SSTG) to model a basic wound in a randomized controlled trial of topical phenytoin against current best clinical practice. The investigators aim to demonstrate a dose dependent effect. The investigators hypothesis

2015 Clinical Trials

18. Management of generalised convulsive status epilepticus (SE): A prospective randomised controlled study of combined treatment with intravenous lorazepam with either phenytoin, sodium valproate or levetiracetam - Pilot study. (PubMed)

Management of generalised convulsive status epilepticus (SE): A prospective randomised controlled study of combined treatment with intravenous lorazepam with either phenytoin, sodium valproate or levetiracetam - Pilot study. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of phenytoin, valproate and levetiracetam in patients with GCSE.This randomised controlled prospective study was conducted on 150 patients to compare the efficacy of phenytoin (n = 50), valproate (n = 50) and levetiracetam (n (...) = 50) along with lorazepam in patients with GCSE. All recruited patients received i.v. lorazepam (0.1mg/kg) followed by one of the 3 AEDs viz. phenytoin (20 mg/kg), valproate (30 mg/kg), and levetiracetam (25 mg/kg). Those who remained uncontrolled with 1st AED, received the other two AEDs sequentially. Clinical, imaging, EEG, etiological factors were analysed. Predictors of poor seizure control and outcome at discharge and at one month follow-up were assessed.In the phenytoin subgroup

2015 Epilepsy research

19. The efficacy of intravenous sodium valproate and phenytoin as the first-line treatment in status epilepticus: a comparison study. (Full text)

The efficacy of intravenous sodium valproate and phenytoin as the first-line treatment in status epilepticus: a comparison study. Status epilepticus (SE) is a serious neurological condition and requires prompt treatment. Sodium valproate has been used to treat SE successfully but its role as the first-line antiepileptic drug (AED) is still controversial. This study evaluated the efficacy of intravenous sodium valproate to determine if it is non-inferior to intravenous phenytoin in SE (...) treatment.Patients diagnosed as SE during 2003-2010 who were of an age of more than 15 years and received either intravenous sodium valproate or intravenous phenytoin as the first-line treatment were enrolled. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of SE were recorded and analyzed. The differences of outcomes between sodium valproate and phenytoin group were determined by descriptive statistics.During the study period, there were 37 and 17 SE patients who received intravenous phenytoin and intravenous sodium

2013 BMC neurology PubMed

20. Phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, or sodium valproate for newly diagnosed adult epilepsy: a randomised comparative monotherapy trial. (Full text)

Phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, or sodium valproate for newly diagnosed adult epilepsy: a randomised comparative monotherapy trial. Recent studies have shown that most newly diagnosed epileptic patients can be satisfactorily treated with a single antiepileptic drug. We therefore undertook a prospective randomised pragmatic trial of the comparative efficacy and toxicity of four major antiepileptic drugs, utilised as monotherapy in newly diagnosed epileptic patients. Between 1981 (...) and 1987 243 adult patients aged 16 years or over, newly referred to two district general hospitals with a minimum of two previously untreated tonic-clonic or partial with or without secondary generalised seizures were randomly allocated to treatment with phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, or sodium valproate. The protocol was designed to conform with standard clinical practice. Efficacy was assessed by time to first seizure after the start of treatment and time to enter one year remission

1995 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry PubMed