Latest & greatest articles for phenytoin

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Top results for phenytoin

1. Oxcarbazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (PubMed)

Oxcarbazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review previously published in 2013. This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active (...) epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, phenytoin is a commonly used antiepileptic drug. It is important to know how newer drugs, such as oxcarbazepine, compare with commonly used standard treatments.To review the time to treatment failure, remission and first seizure with oxcarbazepine compared to phenytoin, when used as monotherapy in people with focal onset

2018 Cochrane

2. Sodium valproate versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (PubMed)

Sodium valproate versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free, and to go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug (...) in monotherapy.Worldwide, sodium valproate and phenytoin are commonly used antiepileptic drugs for monotherapy treatment. It is generally believed that phenytoin is more effective for focal onset seizures, and that sodium pvalproate is more effective for generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types). This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons. This is the latest updated version of the review first published in 2001

2018 Cochrane

3. Phenytoin versus levetiracetam as prophylaxis for postcraniotomy seizure in patients with no history of seizures: systematic review and meta-analysis

Phenytoin versus levetiracetam as prophylaxis for postcraniotomy seizure in patients with no history of seizures: systematic review and meta-analysis OBJECTIVEDe novo seizure following craniotomy (DSC) for nontraumatic pathology may adversely affect medical and neurological outcomes in patients with no history of seizures who have undergone craniotomies. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are commonly used prophylactically in patients undergoing craniotomy; however, evidence supporting this practice (...) is limited and mixed. The authors aimed to collate the available evidence on the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam monotherapy and compare it with that of the classic AED, phenytoin, for DSC.METHODSPubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies that compared levetiracetam with phenytoin for DSC prevention. Inclusion criteria were adult patients with no history of epilepsy who underwent craniotomy with prophylactic usage of phenytoin, a comparator group

2018 EvidenceUpdates

4. Phenytoin

Phenytoin Top results for phenytoin - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Turning Research Into Practice ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document This EXACT phrase: Title only Anywhere in the document EXCLUDING words: Title only Anywhere in the document Timeframe: to: Combine searches by placing the search numbers in the top search box and pressing the search button. An example search might look like (#1 or #2) and (#3 (...) or #4) Loading history... Population: Intervention: Comparison: Outcome: Population: Intervention: Latest & greatest articles for phenytoin The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

5. Carbamazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (PubMed)

Carbamazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in Issue 2, 2002 and its subsequent updates in 2010 and 2015.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which recurrent, unprovoked seizures are caused by abnormal electrical discharges from the brain. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become (...) seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, carbamazepine and phenytoin are commonly-used broad spectrum antiepileptic drugs, suitable for most epileptic seizure types. Carbamazepine is a current first-line treatment for partial onset seizures in the USA and Europe. Phenytoin is no longer considered a first-line treatment due to concerns over adverse events associated with its use, but the drug is still

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2017 Cochrane

6. Topical phenytoin for treating pressure ulcers. (PubMed)

Topical phenytoin for treating pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcers are common in clinical practice and pose a significant health problem worldwide. Apart from causing suffering to patients, they also result in longer hospital stays and increase the cost of health care. A variety of methods are used for treating pressure ulcers, including pressure relief, patient repositioning, biophysical strategies, nutritional supplementation, debridement, topical negative pressure, and local treatments (...) including dressings, ointments and creams such as bacitracin, silver sulphadiazine, neomycin, and phenytoin. Phenytoin is a drug more commonly used in the treatment of epilepsy, but may play an important role in accelerating ulcer healing.To assess the effects of topical phenytoin on the rate of healing of pressure ulcers of any grade, in any care setting.In September 2016, we searched the following electronic databases to identify relevant randomized clinical trials: the Cochrane Wounds Specialised

2017 Cochrane

8. Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures: an individual participant data review. (PubMed)

Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures: an individual participant data review. Worldwide, phenytoin and valproate are commonly used antiepileptic drugs. It is generally believed that phenytoin is more effective for partial onset seizures, and that valproate is more effective for generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types). This review is one in a series of Cochrane reviews (...) investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons. This is the latest updated version of the review first published in 2001 and updated in 2013.To review the time to withdrawal, remission and first seizure of phenytoin compared to valproate when used as monotherapy in people with partial onset seizures or generalised tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types).We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialised Register (19 May 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled

2016 Cochrane

9. Carbamazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (PubMed)

Carbamazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2002 and its subsequent update in 2010.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which recurrent, unprovoked seizures are caused by abnormal electrical discharges from the brain. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free (...) and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, carbamazepine and phenytoin are commonly used broad spectrum antiepileptic drugs, suitable for most epileptic seizure types. Carbamazepine is a current first line treatment for partial onset seizures in the USA and Europe. Phenytoin is no longer considered a first line treatment due to concerns over adverse events associated with its use, however the drug is still commonly

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2015 Cochrane

10. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis during and early after craniotomy for brain tumours: a phase II prospective, randomised study (PubMed)

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis during and early after craniotomy for brain tumours: a phase II prospective, randomised study Phenytoin (PHT) is routinely used for seizure prophylaxis in patients with brain tumours during and after craniotomy, despite incomplete evidence. We performed a prospective, randomised study to investigate the significance of prophylactic use of levetiracetam (LEV), in comparison with PHT, for patients with supratentorial tumours

2015 EvidenceUpdates

11. Genetic variants associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions. (PubMed)

Genetic variants associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions. The antiepileptic drug phenytoin can cause cutaneous adverse reactions, ranging from maculopapular exanthema to severe cutaneous adverse reactions, which include drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The pharmacogenomic basis of phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions remains unknown.To investigate the genetic factors (...) associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions.Case-control study conducted in 2002-2014 among 105 cases with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions (n=61 Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and n=44 drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms), 78 cases with maculopapular exanthema, 130 phenytoin-tolerant control participants, and 3655 population controls from Taiwan, Japan, and Malaysia. A genome-wide association study (GWAS), direct

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2014 JAMA

12. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for CYP2C9 and HLA-B Genotype and Phenytoin Dosing

Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for CYP2C9 and HLA-B Genotype and Phenytoin Dosing CPIC GuIdelInes nature publishing group Phenytoin is a widely used antiepileptic drug with a narrow therapeutic index and large interpatient variability, partly due to genetic variations in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 (CYP2C9). Furthermore, the variant allele HLA- B*15:02, encoding human leukocyte antigen, is associated with an increased risk of Stevens–Johnson (...) syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in response to phenytoin treatment. We summarize evidence from the published literature supporting these associations and provide recommendations for the use of phenytoin based on CYP2C9 and/or HLA-B genotype (also available on PharmGKB: http://www.pharmgkb.org). The purpose of this guideline is to provide information for the interpretation of HLA-B and/or CYP2C9 genotype tests so that the results can guide dosing and/or use of phenytoin. Detailed guidelines

2014 Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium

13. Requirement for cardiac telemetry during intravenous phenytoin infusion: guideline fact or fiction? (PubMed)

Requirement for cardiac telemetry during intravenous phenytoin infusion: guideline fact or fiction? Guidelines recommend the use of cardiac telemetry when phenytoin is administered intravenously. Clinical areas where telemetry is available may not always be the most suitable place to monitor and treat these sick patients. We sought to clarify the evidence regarding the need for cardiac telemetry during intravenous infusion of phenytoin.© 2012 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal

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2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines Portal

14. Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures. (PubMed)

Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures. This is an updated version of the previously published Cochrane review (Issue 4, 2009)Worldwide, phenytoin and valproate are commonly used antiepileptic drugs. It is generally believed that phenytoin is more effective for partial onset seizures, and that valproate is more effective for generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalised seizure types.To review (...) the best evidence comparing phenytoin and valproate when used as monotherapy in individuals with partial onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalised seizure types.We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialised Register (19 February 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 1, The Cochrane Library, January 2013), MEDLINE (1946 to 18 February 2013), SCOPUS (19 February 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (19 February 2013

2013 Cochrane

15. Precision, Bias, and Clinical Utility of the Sheiner-Tozer Equation to Guide Phenytoin Dosing in Critically Ill Adults (PubMed)

Precision, Bias, and Clinical Utility of the Sheiner-Tozer Equation to Guide Phenytoin Dosing in Critically Ill Adults 23436385 2013 10 17 2013 11 21 1552-4604 53 4 2013 Apr Journal of clinical pharmacology J Clin Pharmacol Precision, bias, and clinical utility of the Sheiner-Tozer equation to guide phenytoin dosing in critically ill adults. 451-5 10.1002/jcph.27 Bolt Jennifer J Pharmacy Services, Interior Health Authority, #200-1835 Gordon Dr., Kelowna, BC V1Y3H5. Gorman Sean K SK eng Journal (...) Article Review 2013 02 22 England J Clin Pharmacol 0366372 0091-2700 0 Anticonvulsants 6158TKW0C5 Phenytoin IM Adult Algorithms Anticonvulsants administration & dosage pharmacokinetics Critical Illness Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Humans Phenytoin administration & dosage pharmacokinetics 2011 12 08 2012 07 15 2013 2 26 6 0 2013 2 26 6 0 2013 10 18 6 0 ppublish 23436385 10.1002/jcph.27

2013 EvidenceUpdates

16. A cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for early seizure pharmacoprophylaxis after traumatic brain injury

A cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for early seizure pharmacoprophylaxis after traumatic brain injury A cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for early seizure pharmacoprophylaxis after traumatic brain injury A cost-minimization analysis of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for early seizure pharmacoprophylaxis after traumatic brain injury Pieracci FM, Moore EE, Beauchamp K, Tebockhorst S, Barnett CC, Bensard DD, Burlew CC, Biffl WL, Stoval RT (...) , Johnson JL Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. CRD summary This study examined the clinical and economic impact of levetiracetam, compared with phenytoin, to prevent early seizures after traumatic brain injury. The authors concluded

2013 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

17. Phenytoin for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. (PubMed)

Phenytoin for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. Antiepileptic drugs have been used in pain management since the 1960s; some have shown efficacy in treating different neuropathic pain conditions. Phenytoin is an established antiepileptic drug that has been used occasionally to treat intractable trigeminal neuralgia.To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of the antiepileptic drug phenytoin in neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia.We searched the Cochrane Central Register (...) of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 2), MEDLINE, and EMBASE to 28 February 2012, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov.We planned to include randomised, double-blind studies of eight weeks duration or longer, comparing phenytoin with placebo or another active treatment in chronic neuropathic pain or fibromyalgia.Two review authors would independently extract data for efficacy and adverse events, and examine issues of study

2012 Cochrane

18. The use of Levetiracetam and Phenytoin for Seizure Prophylaxis in the Setting of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

The use of Levetiracetam and Phenytoin for Seizure Prophylaxis in the Setting of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury "The use of Levetiracetam and Phenytoin for Seizure Prophylaxis in the " by Gregg V. Kosloff < > > > > > Title Author Date of Graduation Summer 8-11-2012 Degree Type Capstone Project Degree Name Master of Science in Physician Assistant Studies First Advisor Mark Pedemonte, MD Second Advisor Annjanette Sommers, PA-C, MS Rights . Abstract Background: Each year in the United States (...) an estimated 1.7 million people suffer a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Current standard of care for these patients is seven days of phenytoin (PHT) for seizure prophylaxis. Given the known side effect profile and drug interactions associated with the use of PHT, levetiracetam (LEV) has been proposed as an alternative for seizure prophylaxis. This systematic review examined available literature to determine whether or not there is sufficient evidence to recommend the use of LEV in lieu of PHT. Method

2012 Pacific University EBM Capstone Project

19. Should phenytoin and carbamazepine be avoided in Asian populations with the HLA-B*1502 positive genetic variant?

Should phenytoin and carbamazepine be avoided in Asian populations with the HLA-B*1502 positive genetic variant? BestBets: Should phenytoin and carbamazepine be avoided in Asian populations with the HLA-B*1502 positive genetic variant? Should phenytoin and carbamazepine be avoided in Asian populations with the HLA-B*1502 positive genetic variant? Report By: Subramanian Ganesan, Nahin Hussain - Specialist Registrars in Paediatrics Institution: Department of Paediatric Neurology, University (...) products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and the UK Commission on Human Medicines) issued an alert on the antiepileptic drug (AED) phenytoin (PHT) regarding an increased risk of Steven–Johnson syndrome (SJS) associated with the presence of the HLA-B*1502 genetic variant in patients of Asian origin. Likewise, the US Federal Drug Agency (FDA) recommended genotyping for the allele in all Asian patients before starting carbamazepine (CBZ). We wanted to explore the implications of this for our clinical practice

2011 BestBETS

20. Folic acid supplementation prevents phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth in children (PubMed)

Folic acid supplementation prevents phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth in children Gingival overgrowth is an important adverse effect of phenytoin (PHT) therapy, occurring in about half of the patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral folic acid supplementation (0.5 mg/day) for the prevention of PHT-induced gingival overgrowth (PIGO) in children with epilepsy aged 6-15 years on PHT monotherapy for 6 months.This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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2011 EvidenceUpdates