Latest & greatest articles for phenytoin

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Top results for phenytoin

1. Phenobarbitone versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (PubMed)

Phenobarbitone versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2001, and last updated in 2013. This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals (...) with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, particularly in the developing world, phenytoin and phenobarbitone are commonly used antiepileptic drugs, primarily because they are inexpensive. The aim of this review is to summarise data from existing trials comparing phenytoin and phenobarbitone.To review the time to treatment failure, remission and first seizure

2019 Cochrane

2. Carbamazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (PubMed)

Carbamazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002 and last updated in 2017. This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals (...) with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, carbamazepine and phenytoin are commonly-used broad spectrum antiepileptic drugs, suitable for most epileptic seizure types. Carbamazepine is a current first-line treatment for focal onset seizures in the USA and Europe. Phenytoin is no longer considered a first-line treatment, due to concerns over adverse events

2019 Cochrane

3. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus (EcLiPSE): a multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. (PubMed)

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus (EcLiPSE): a multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. Phenytoin is the recommended second-line intravenous anticonvulsant for treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus in the UK; however, some evidence suggests that levetiracetam could be an effective and safer alternative. This trial compared the efficacy and safety of phenytoin and levetiracetam for second-line management (...) of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus.This open-label, randomised clinical trial was undertaken at 30 UK emergency departments at secondary and tertiary care centres. Participants aged 6 months to under 18 years, with convulsive status epilepticus requiring second-line treatment, were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computer-generated randomisation schedule to receive levetiracetam (40 mg/kg over 5 min) or phenytoin (20 mg/kg over at least 20 min), stratified by centre. The primary outcome was time

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2019 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

4. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children (ConSEPT): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. (PubMed)

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children (ConSEPT): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Phenytoin is the current standard of care for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus after failure of first-line benzodiazepines, but is only effective in 60% of cases and is associated with considerable adverse effects. A newer anticonvulsant, levetiracetam, can be given more quickly, is potentially (...) more efficacious, and has a more tolerable adverse effect profile. We aimed to determine whether phenytoin or levetiracetam is the superior second-line treatment for paediatric convulsive status epilepticus.ConSEPT was an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial conducted in 13 emergency departments in Australia and New Zealand. Children aged between 3 months and 16 years, with convulsive status epilepticus that failed first-line benzodiazepine treatment, were randomly assigned (1:1

2019 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

5. Systematic review of antiarrhythmic properties of phenytoin

Systematic review of antiarrhythmic properties of phenytoin Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr

2019 PROSPERO

6. Oxcarbazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (PubMed)

Oxcarbazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review previously published in 2013. This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active (...) epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, phenytoin is a commonly used antiepileptic drug. It is important to know how newer drugs, such as oxcarbazepine, compare with commonly used standard treatments.To review the time to treatment failure, remission and first seizure with oxcarbazepine compared to phenytoin, when used as monotherapy in people with focal onset

2018 Cochrane

7. Sodium valproate versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (PubMed)

Sodium valproate versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free, and to go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug (...) in monotherapy.Worldwide, sodium valproate and phenytoin are commonly used antiepileptic drugs for monotherapy treatment. It is generally believed that phenytoin is more effective for focal onset seizures, and that sodium pvalproate is more effective for generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types). This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons. This is the latest updated version of the review first published in 2001

2018 Cochrane

8. Phenytoin versus levetiracetam as prophylaxis for postcraniotomy seizure in patients with no history of seizures: systematic review and meta-analysis

Phenytoin versus levetiracetam as prophylaxis for postcraniotomy seizure in patients with no history of seizures: systematic review and meta-analysis OBJECTIVEDe novo seizure following craniotomy (DSC) for nontraumatic pathology may adversely affect medical and neurological outcomes in patients with no history of seizures who have undergone craniotomies. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are commonly used prophylactically in patients undergoing craniotomy; however, evidence supporting this practice (...) is limited and mixed. The authors aimed to collate the available evidence on the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam monotherapy and compare it with that of the classic AED, phenytoin, for DSC.METHODSPubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies that compared levetiracetam with phenytoin for DSC prevention. Inclusion criteria were adult patients with no history of epilepsy who underwent craniotomy with prophylactic usage of phenytoin, a comparator group

2018 EvidenceUpdates

9. Phenytoin

Phenytoin Top results for phenytoin - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Turning Research Into Practice ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document This EXACT phrase: Title only Anywhere in the document EXCLUDING words: Title only Anywhere in the document Timeframe: to: Combine searches by placing the search numbers in the top search box and pressing the search button. An example search might look like (#1 or #2) and (#3 (...) or #4) Loading history... Population: Intervention: Comparison: Outcome: Population: Intervention: Latest & greatest articles for phenytoin The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

11. Carbamazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (PubMed)

Carbamazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in Issue 2, 2002 and its subsequent updates in 2010 and 2015.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which recurrent, unprovoked seizures are caused by abnormal electrical discharges from the brain. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become (...) seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, carbamazepine and phenytoin are commonly-used broad spectrum antiepileptic drugs, suitable for most epileptic seizure types. Carbamazepine is a current first-line treatment for partial onset seizures in the USA and Europe. Phenytoin is no longer considered a first-line treatment due to concerns over adverse events associated with its use, but the drug is still

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2017 Cochrane

12. Topical phenytoin for treating pressure ulcers. (PubMed)

Topical phenytoin for treating pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcers are common in clinical practice and pose a significant health problem worldwide. Apart from causing suffering to patients, they also result in longer hospital stays and increase the cost of health care. A variety of methods are used for treating pressure ulcers, including pressure relief, patient repositioning, biophysical strategies, nutritional supplementation, debridement, topical negative pressure, and local treatments (...) including dressings, ointments and creams such as bacitracin, silver sulphadiazine, neomycin, and phenytoin. Phenytoin is a drug more commonly used in the treatment of epilepsy, but may play an important role in accelerating ulcer healing.To assess the effects of topical phenytoin on the rate of healing of pressure ulcers of any grade, in any care setting.In September 2016, we searched the following electronic databases to identify relevant randomized clinical trials: the Cochrane Wounds Specialised

2017 Cochrane

14. Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures: an individual participant data review. (PubMed)

Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures: an individual participant data review. Worldwide, phenytoin and valproate are commonly used antiepileptic drugs. It is generally believed that phenytoin is more effective for partial onset seizures, and that valproate is more effective for generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types). This review is one in a series of Cochrane reviews (...) investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons. This is the latest updated version of the review first published in 2001 and updated in 2013.To review the time to withdrawal, remission and first seizure of phenytoin compared to valproate when used as monotherapy in people with partial onset seizures or generalised tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types).We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialised Register (19 May 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled

2016 Cochrane

16. Carbamazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (PubMed)

Carbamazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2002 and its subsequent update in 2010.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which recurrent, unprovoked seizures are caused by abnormal electrical discharges from the brain. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free (...) and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, carbamazepine and phenytoin are commonly used broad spectrum antiepileptic drugs, suitable for most epileptic seizure types. Carbamazepine is a current first line treatment for partial onset seizures in the USA and Europe. Phenytoin is no longer considered a first line treatment due to concerns over adverse events associated with its use, however the drug is still commonly

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2015 Cochrane

17. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis during and early after craniotomy for brain tumours: a phase II prospective, randomised study (PubMed)

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis during and early after craniotomy for brain tumours: a phase II prospective, randomised study Phenytoin (PHT) is routinely used for seizure prophylaxis in patients with brain tumours during and after craniotomy, despite incomplete evidence. We performed a prospective, randomised study to investigate the significance of prophylactic use of levetiracetam (LEV), in comparison with PHT, for patients with supratentorial tumours

2015 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: uncertain

18. Genetic variants associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions. (PubMed)

Genetic variants associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions. The antiepileptic drug phenytoin can cause cutaneous adverse reactions, ranging from maculopapular exanthema to severe cutaneous adverse reactions, which include drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The pharmacogenomic basis of phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions remains unknown.To investigate the genetic factors (...) associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions.Case-control study conducted in 2002-2014 among 105 cases with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions (n=61 Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and n=44 drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms), 78 cases with maculopapular exanthema, 130 phenytoin-tolerant control participants, and 3655 population controls from Taiwan, Japan, and Malaysia. A genome-wide association study (GWAS), direct

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2014 JAMA

19. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for CYP2C9 and HLA-B Genotype and Phenytoin Dosing

Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for CYP2C9 and HLA-B Genotype and Phenytoin Dosing CPIC GuIdelInes nature publishing group Phenytoin is a widely used antiepileptic drug with a narrow therapeutic index and large interpatient variability, partly due to genetic variations in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 (CYP2C9). Furthermore, the variant allele HLA- B*15:02, encoding human leukocyte antigen, is associated with an increased risk of Stevens–Johnson (...) syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in response to phenytoin treatment. We summarize evidence from the published literature supporting these associations and provide recommendations for the use of phenytoin based on CYP2C9 and/or HLA-B genotype (also available on PharmGKB: http://www.pharmgkb.org). The purpose of this guideline is to provide information for the interpretation of HLA-B and/or CYP2C9 genotype tests so that the results can guide dosing and/or use of phenytoin. Detailed guidelines

2014 Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium

20. Requirement for cardiac telemetry during intravenous phenytoin infusion: guideline fact or fiction? (PubMed)

Requirement for cardiac telemetry during intravenous phenytoin infusion: guideline fact or fiction? Guidelines recommend the use of cardiac telemetry when phenytoin is administered intravenously. Clinical areas where telemetry is available may not always be the most suitable place to monitor and treat these sick patients. We sought to clarify the evidence regarding the need for cardiac telemetry during intravenous infusion of phenytoin.© 2012 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal

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2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines Portal