Latest & greatest articles for phenytoin

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Top results for phenytoin

1. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for the treatment of established status epilepticus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (Abstract)

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for the treatment of established status epilepticus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. To compare the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam and phenytoin for the treatment of established status epilepticus.In this systematic review, we searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases from their inception with no language restrictions until May 8, 2019 and updated on February 5, 2020, for randomized controlled trials comparing (...) the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam and phenytoin for the treatment of established status epilepticus. A Meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the risk ratio (RR) using random-effects models.We identified 7 trials with a total of 1028 participants. Levetiracetam was not associated with an increased rate of clinical seizure cessation within 60 min compared with phenytoin (RR, 1.02; 95 %CI, 0.92-1.13; I2 = 3%; 60.0 % [309/515] vs 59.3 % [275/463];12 more events [95 % CI, -48 to 77] per 1000

2020 Seizure

2. Erratum. Phenytoin versus levetiracetam as prophylaxis for postcraniotomy seizure in patients with no history of seizures: systematic review and meta-analysis. (Full text)

Erratum. Phenytoin versus levetiracetam as prophylaxis for postcraniotomy seizure in patients with no history of seizures: systematic review and meta-analysis. 30485246 2019 11 20 1933-0693 2018 08 01 Journal of neurosurgery J. Neurosurg. Erratum. Phenytoin versus levetiracetam as prophylaxis for postcraniotomy seizure in patients with no history of seizures: systematic review and meta-analysis. 1 10.3171/2018.7.JNS1891a 2018.7.JNS1891a Lee Chang-Hyun CH Seoul National University Hospital

2019 Journal of Neurosurgery PubMed abstract

3. HLA Alleles and CYP2C9*3 as Predictors of Phenytoin Hypersensitivity in East Asians. (Abstract)

HLA Alleles and CYP2C9*3 as Predictors of Phenytoin Hypersensitivity in East Asians. To develop a pre-emptive genetic test that comprises multiple predisposing alleles for the prevention of phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), three sets of patients with phenytoin-SCAR and drug-tolerant controls from Taiwan, Thailand, and Japan, were enrolled for this study. In addition to cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9*3, we found that HLA-B*13:01, HLA-B*15:02, and HLA-B*51:01 were (...) significantly associated with phenytoin hypersensitivity with distinct phenotypic specificities. Strikingly, we showed an increase in predictive sensitivity of concurrently testing CYP2C9*3/HLA-B*13:01/HLA-B*15:02/HLA-B*51:01 from 30.5-71.9% for selecting the individuals with the risk of developing phenytoin-SCAR in Taiwanese cohorts, accompanied by a specificity of 77.7% (combined sensitivity, 64.7%; specificity, 71.9% for three Asian populations). Meta-analysis of the four combined risk alleles showed

2019 Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

4. Levetiracetam is a useful alternative to phenytoin for epileptic seizures in children. (Abstract)

Levetiracetam is a useful alternative to phenytoin for epileptic seizures in children. The studyLyttle MD, Rainford NEA, Gamble C, et al. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus (EcLiPSE): a multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. Lancet 2019;393:2125-34.This trial was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme (project number 12/127/134).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content (...) /signal-000790/levetiracetam-vs-phenytoin-in-stopping-childrens-prolonged-epileptic-seizures.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

2019 BMJ

5. Phenobarbitone versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (Abstract)

Phenobarbitone versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2001, and last updated in 2013. This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals (...) with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, particularly in the developing world, phenytoin and phenobarbitone are commonly used antiepileptic drugs, primarily because they are inexpensive. The aim of this review is to summarise data from existing trials comparing phenytoin and phenobarbitone.To review the time to treatment failure, remission and first seizure

2019 Cochrane

6. Carbamazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (Abstract)

Carbamazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002 and last updated in 2017. This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals (...) with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, carbamazepine and phenytoin are commonly-used broad spectrum antiepileptic drugs, suitable for most epileptic seizure types. Carbamazepine is a current first-line treatment for focal onset seizures in the USA and Europe. Phenytoin is no longer considered a first-line treatment, due to concerns over adverse events

2019 Cochrane

7. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus (EcLiPSE): a multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. (Full text)

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus (EcLiPSE): a multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. Phenytoin is the recommended second-line intravenous anticonvulsant for treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus in the UK; however, some evidence suggests that levetiracetam could be an effective and safer alternative. This trial compared the efficacy and safety of phenytoin and levetiracetam for second-line management (...) of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus.This open-label, randomised clinical trial was undertaken at 30 UK emergency departments at secondary and tertiary care centres. Participants aged 6 months to under 18 years, with convulsive status epilepticus requiring second-line treatment, were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computer-generated randomisation schedule to receive levetiracetam (40 mg/kg over 5 min) or phenytoin (20 mg/kg over at least 20 min), stratified by centre. The primary outcome was time

2019 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

8. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children (ConSEPT): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. (Abstract)

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children (ConSEPT): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Phenytoin is the current standard of care for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus after failure of first-line benzodiazepines, but is only effective in 60% of cases and is associated with considerable adverse effects. A newer anticonvulsant, levetiracetam, can be given more quickly, is potentially (...) more efficacious, and has a more tolerable adverse effect profile. We aimed to determine whether phenytoin or levetiracetam is the superior second-line treatment for paediatric convulsive status epilepticus.ConSEPT was an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial conducted in 13 emergency departments in Australia and New Zealand. Children aged between 3 months and 16 years, with convulsive status epilepticus that failed first-line benzodiazepine treatment, were randomly assigned (1:1

2019 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

9. Effects of phenytoin on serum levels of homocysteine, vitamin B12, folate in patients with epilepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA-compliant article). (Full text)

Effects of phenytoin on serum levels of homocysteine, vitamin B12, folate in patients with epilepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA-compliant article). To determine the influence of phenytoin (PHT) monotherapy on the serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy), folate and vitamin B12 in patients with epilepsy.Literature retrieval was performed through PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, Chinese Wanfang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical

2019 Medicine PubMed abstract

10. The association between CYP2C9/2C19 polymorphisms and phenytoin maintenance doses in Asian epileptic patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
. (Abstract)

The association between CYP2C9/2C19 polymorphisms and phenytoin maintenance doses in Asian epileptic patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
. Therapeutic response to phenytoin (PHT), a first-line antiepileptic drug (AED), is highly variable, in part likely due to genetic factors. Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and CYP2C19 are expected to affect the metabolism of PHT and consequently affect its maintenance doses. We aimed to clarify the effects of genetic

2018 International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics

11. A systematic review of phenytoin intoxication induced by compound phenytoin sodium, ephedrine hydrochloride and theophylline tablets in China. (Full text)

A systematic review of phenytoin intoxication induced by compound phenytoin sodium, ephedrine hydrochloride and theophylline tablets in China. In this study, we aimed to review the literature on phenytoin intoxication induced by compound phenytoin sodium, ephedrine hydrochloride and theophylline tablets (CPEHTT).A literature search was performed in the following databases: WANFANG DATA, HowNet, National Library Reference and Consultation Alliance, Full-text Database of Foreign Medical Journals (...) , PubMed and Ovid. The search terms were "Compound Phenytoin Sodium, ephedrine Hydrochloride and Theophylline Tablets," and "poisoning," or "toxicity," in Chinese and in English.Ten articles including 104 patients with CPEHTT intoxication were identified. The ages of the patients ranged from 52 to 82 years. Sixty-seven patients were male and thirty-seven patients were female (the male/female ratio, approximately 2:1). The most common clinical manifestations were dizziness (85%) and ataxia (85

2018 Medicine PubMed abstract

12. Efficacy of levetiracetam compared with phenytoin in prevention of seizures in brain injured patients: A meta-analysis. (Full text)

Efficacy of levetiracetam compared with phenytoin in prevention of seizures in brain injured patients: A meta-analysis. Early and/or late onset in patients with brain injury (BI) is associated with a poorer prognosis, and phenytoin (PHT) is standard of care to prevent seizures. Levetiracetam (LEV), an alternative antiepileptic drug, is associated with less cognitive disruption. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of LEV in the prevention of brain traumatic seizures

2018 Medicine PubMed abstract

13. Oxcarbazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (Full text)

Oxcarbazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review previously published in 2013. This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active (...) epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, phenytoin is a commonly used antiepileptic drug. It is important to know how newer drugs, such as oxcarbazepine, compare with commonly used standard treatments.To review the time to treatment failure, remission and first seizure with oxcarbazepine compared to phenytoin, when used as monotherapy in people with focal onset

2018 Cochrane PubMed abstract

14. Sodium valproate versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. (Full text)

Sodium valproate versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free, and to go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug (...) in monotherapy.Worldwide, sodium valproate and phenytoin are commonly used antiepileptic drugs for monotherapy treatment. It is generally believed that phenytoin is more effective for focal onset seizures, and that sodium pvalproate is more effective for generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types). This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons. This is the latest updated version of the review first published in 2001

2018 Cochrane PubMed abstract

15. Phenytoin

Phenytoin Top results for phenytoin - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Turning Research Into Practice ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document This EXACT phrase: Title only Anywhere in the document EXCLUDING words: Title only Anywhere in the document Timeframe: to: Combine searches by placing the search numbers in the top search box and pressing the search button. An example search might look like (#1 or #2) and (#3 (...) or #4) Loading history... Population: Intervention: Comparison: Outcome: Population: Intervention: Latest & greatest articles for phenytoin The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

16. Phenytoin versus levetiracetam as prophylaxis for postcraniotomy seizure in patients with no history of seizures: systematic review and meta-analysis (Full text)

Phenytoin versus levetiracetam as prophylaxis for postcraniotomy seizure in patients with no history of seizures: systematic review and meta-analysis OBJECTIVEDe novo seizure following craniotomy (DSC) for nontraumatic pathology may adversely affect medical and neurological outcomes in patients with no history of seizures who have undergone craniotomies. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are commonly used prophylactically in patients undergoing craniotomy; however, evidence supporting this practice (...) is limited and mixed. The authors aimed to collate the available evidence on the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam monotherapy and compare it with that of the classic AED, phenytoin, for DSC.METHODSPubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies that compared levetiracetam with phenytoin for DSC prevention. Inclusion criteria were adult patients with no history of epilepsy who underwent craniotomy with prophylactic usage of phenytoin, a comparator group

2018 EvidenceUpdates PubMed abstract

17. A systemic review of levetiracetam versus phenytoin in the prevention of late post-traumatic seizures and survey of UK neurosurgical prescribing practice of antiepileptic medication in acute traumatic brain injury. (Abstract)

A systemic review of levetiracetam versus phenytoin in the prevention of late post-traumatic seizures and survey of UK neurosurgical prescribing practice of antiepileptic medication in acute traumatic brain injury. Guidelines recommend 1 week of prophylactic phenytoin for post-traumatic seizures (PTS). Levetiracetam is gaining popularity as an alternative with a superior side-effect profile and may be suitable for extended use. We performed a systematic review comparing the efficacy (...) of levetiracetam and phenytoin in reducing the incidence of late PTS. The secondary objectives were to compare their effects on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) and length of stay. We also aimed to survey current prophylaxis prescribing practices.A systematic review was performed using Medline, Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane. Trials and observational studies comparing the efficacy of phenytoin and levetiracetam in the prevention of late PTS were included. A survey assessing prescribing practices was e

2018 British Journal of Neurosurgery

19. Genetic variation in <i>CFH</i> predicts phenytoin-induced maculopapular exanthema in European-descent patients. (Full text)

Genetic variation in CFH predicts phenytoin-induced maculopapular exanthema in European-descent patients. To characterize, among European and Han Chinese populations, the genetic predictors of maculopapular exanthema (MPE), a cutaneous adverse drug reaction common to antiepileptic drugs.We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study of autosomal genotypes, including Class I and II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, in 323 cases and 1,321 drug-tolerant controls from (...) epilepsy cohorts of northern European and Han Chinese descent. Results from each cohort were meta-analyzed.We report an association between a rare variant in the complement factor H-related 4 (CFHR4) gene and phenytoin-induced MPE in Europeans (p = 4.5 × 10-11; odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 7 [3.2-16]). This variant is in complete linkage disequilibrium with a missense variant (N1050Y) in the complement factor H (CFH) gene. In addition, our results reinforce the association between HLA-A*31:01

2017 Neurology PubMed abstract

20. Association of CYP2C9*3 with phenytoin-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (Abstract)

Association of CYP2C9*3 with phenytoin-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe cutaneous adverse reactions that can be induced by phenytoin (PHT). CYP2C9*3 is the key enzyme in PHT metabolism. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between CYP2C9*3 and PHT-induced SJS/TEN.An extensive search was performed in multiple databases

2017 Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics