Latest & greatest articles for penicillin

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Top results for penicillin

41. Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures

Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures Heit J M, Stevens M R, Jeffords K Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary (...) of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Ceftriaxone and penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fracture. Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Male and female patients with compound mandible fractures. Setting Hospital. The economic study was carried out in Miami, Florida, USA. Dates to which

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1997

42. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of penicillin V and amoxycillin in treatment of acute sinus infections in adults.

Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of penicillin V and amoxycillin in treatment of acute sinus infections in adults. 8760738 1996 09 25 1996 09 25 2013 11 21 0959-8138 313 7053 1996 Aug 10 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of penicillin V and amoxycillin in treatment of acute sinus infections in adults. 325-9 To compare the effectiveness of penicillin V and amoxycillin with placebo in treatment of adult patients with acute (...) sinusitis. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Norwegian general practice. 130 adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute sinusitis confirmed by computed tomography. Subjective status after three and 10 days of treatment, difference in clinical severity score between day 0 and day 10 as evaluated by the general practitioner, difference in score from computed tomography on day 0 and day 10, and duration of sinusitis. Amoxycillin and penicillin V led to significantly faster

BMJ1996 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

43. Reduction of fever and streptococcal bacteremia in granulocytopenic patients with cancer. A trial of oral penicillin V or placebo combined with pefloxacin. International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and

Reduction of fever and streptococcal bacteremia in granulocytopenic patients with cancer. A trial of oral penicillin V or placebo combined with pefloxacin. International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and 7933348 1994 11 03 1994 11 03 2016 10 17 0098-7484 272 15 1994 Oct 19 JAMA JAMA Reduction of fever and streptococcal bacteremia in granulocytopenic patients with cancer. A trial of oral penicillin V or placebo combined with pefloxacin (...) . International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. 1183-9 To determine the effect of oral penicillin V combined with a fluoroquinolone (pefloxacin) on the occurrence of fever and streptococcal and other gram-positive coccal bacteremic infections in granulocytopenic patients with cancer. Prospective randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled prophylactic trial. Inpatient setting in multiple cooperating cancer centers. Convenience sample

JAMA1994

44. Treatment of late Lyme borreliosis--randomised comparison of ceftriaxone and penicillin.

Treatment of late Lyme borreliosis--randomised comparison of ceftriaxone and penicillin. 2897008 1988 06 23 1988 06 23 2015 06 16 0140-6736 1 8596 1988 May 28 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Treatment of late Lyme borreliosis--randomised comparison of ceftriaxone and penicillin. 1191-4 23 patients with clinically active late Lyme disease were randomly assigned to intravenous treatment with either penicillin or ceftriaxone. Of the 10 treated with penicillin, 5 were judged treatment failures (...) B J BJ eng Clinical Trial Comparative Study Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't England Lancet 2985213R 0140-6736 0 Adrenal Cortex Hormones 0 Penicillins 75J73V1629 Ceftriaxone AIM IM Administration, Oral Adrenal Cortex Hormones adverse effects Adult Ceftriaxone administration & dosage therapeutic use Clinical Trials as Topic Drug Interactions Female Follow-Up Studies Humans Injections, Intravenous Lyme Disease drug therapy Male Middle Aged Penicillins

Lancet1988

45. Placebo-controlled trial of intravenous penicillin for severe and late leptospirosis.

Placebo-controlled trial of intravenous penicillin for severe and late leptospirosis. 2893865 1988 04 01 1988 04 01 2015 06 16 0140-6736 1 8583 1988 Feb 27 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Placebo-controlled trial of intravenous penicillin for severe and late leptospirosis. 433-5 The effect of a 7-day course of intravenous penicillin (6 million units/day) on severe, advanced leptospirosis was examined in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial involving 42 patients. Every measurable (...) aspect of the disease was favourably affected by penicillin. Fever lasted more than twice as long in the placebo group (11.6 [SD 8.34] days vs 4.7 [4.19] days, p less than 0.005), and by the fourth day after starting penicillin more than half the treatment group, but only 1 of 19 in the placebo group, were afebrile (p less than 0.005). Creatinine rises persisted more than thrice as long in the patients receiving only placebo (8.3 [8.46] days vs 2.7 [1.90] days; p less than 0.01). Penicillin also

Lancet1988

46. Trial of co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin with ampicillin in treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in young Gambian children.

Trial of co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin with ampicillin in treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in young Gambian children. 2903386 1988 12 20 1988 12 20 2015 11 19 0140-6736 2 8621 1988 Nov 19 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Trial of co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin with ampicillin in treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in young Gambian children. 1182-4 134 Gambian children under 5 years of age with severe pneumonia (as defined by the World Health Organisation (...) classification of acute respiratory infections) were given either oral co-trimoxazole for 5 days, or a single intramuscular dose of fortified procaine penicillin and 5 days of oral ampicillin. At 2 weeks, there was no significant difference in outcome between the two groups. Co-trimoxazole is much less expensive than ampicillin or procaine penicillin, requires only twice-daily administration, and can be given by health-care staff with little training. The results support the use of co-trimoxazole

Lancet1988

47. Prophylaxis with oral penicillin in children with sickle cell anemia. A randomized trial.

Prophylaxis with oral penicillin in children with sickle cell anemia. A randomized trial. 3086721 1986 07 10 1986 07 10 2013 11 21 0028-4793 314 25 1986 Jun 19 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Prophylaxis with oral penicillin in children with sickle cell anemia. A randomized trial. 1593-9 Children with sickle cell anemia have an increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, especially to those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. We therefore conducted a multicenter (...) , randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to test whether the regular, daily administration of oral penicillin would reduce the incidence of documented septicemia due to S.pneumoniae in children with sickle cell anemia who were under the age of three years at the time of entry. The children were randomly assigned to receive either 125 mg of penicillin V potassium (105 children) or placebo (110 children) twice daily. The trial was terminated 8 months early, after an average of 15 months

NEJM1986

48. Streptococcal pharyngitis. Placebo-controlled double-blind evaluation of clinical response to penicillin therapy.

Streptococcal pharyngitis. Placebo-controlled double-blind evaluation of clinical response to penicillin therapy. 3918190 1985 03 19 1985 03 19 2016 10 17 0098-7484 253 9 1985 Mar 01 JAMA JAMA Streptococcal pharyngitis. Placebo-controlled double-blind evaluation of clinical response to penicillin therapy. 1271-4 Forty-four children with a clinical diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis had throat cultures performed at the initial evaluation and were assigned by randomization to receive either (...) oral penicillin or a placebo for 72 hours. The treating physician, who remained blind to the treatment regimen, recorded the child's temperature and assessed the presence and severity of other signs and symptoms initially and at 24, 48, and 72 hours. The throat culture was positive for group A beta-hemolytic streptococci in 26 (59%) of the initial study group, and most of these children developed a fourfold or greater titer rise in antistreptococcal antibodies in their serum, confirming

JAMA1985

49. Chloramphenicol alone versus chloramphenicol plus penicillin for bacterial meningitis in children.

Chloramphenicol alone versus chloramphenicol plus penicillin for bacterial meningitis in children. 2863674 1985 10 24 1985 10 24 2015 06 16 0140-6736 2 8457 1985 Sep 28 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Chloramphenicol alone versus chloramphenicol plus penicillin for bacterial meningitis in children. 681-4 367 children with cerebrospinal-fluid findings suggestive of bacterial meningitis were randomised to receive either chloramphenicol alone by intramuscular injection, or chloramphenicol plus (...) penicillin by intravenous injection. Sequential analysis showed no difference in mortality between the two treatments. 48 (26%) of the 183 children in the chloramphenicol alone group died, and 49 (27%) of the 184 children in the chloramphenicol plus penicillin group died. In children with bacterial meningitis chloramphenicol alone given by intramuscular injection is as effective as chloramphenicol plus penicillin given intravenously. Shann F F Barker J J Poore P P eng Clinical Trial Comparative Study

Lancet1985

50. Chloramphenicol alone versus chloramphenicol plus penicillin for severe pneumonia in children.

Chloramphenicol alone versus chloramphenicol plus penicillin for severe pneumonia in children. 2863675 1985 10 24 1985 10 24 2015 06 16 0140-6736 2 8457 1985 Sep 28 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Chloramphenicol alone versus chloramphenicol plus penicillin for severe pneumonia in children. 684-6 748 children with severe pneumonia in three hospitals in Papua New Guinea were randomised to receive intramuscular injections of either chloramphenicol alone or chloramphenicol plus penicillin (...) . Sequential analysis showed no difference between the two treatments. 48 (13%) of the 377 children in the chloramphenicol alone group died, and 3 (0.8%) were changed to different treatment. 62 (17%) of the 371 children in the chloramphenicol-plus-penicillin group died, and 6 (1.6%) were changed to different treatment. The difference in failure rates (death or withdrawal for change of treatment) was 4.8% +/- 5.2% (+/- 95% confidence limits). In children with severe pneumonia, treatment with chloramphenicol

Lancet1985

51. Penicillin in infants weighing two kilograms or less with early-onset Group B streptococcal disease.

Penicillin in infants weighing two kilograms or less with early-onset Group B streptococcal disease. 6341847 1983 06 23 1983 06 23 2013 11 21 0028-4793 308 23 1983 Jun 09 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Penicillin in infants weighing two kilograms or less with early-onset Group B streptococcal disease. 1383-9 We studied the effect of penicillin on early-onset Group B streptococcal disease over a 52-month period in neonates who were at high risk of infection. Shortly after (...) birth, 1187 neonates weighing 2000 g or less had blood samples taken for cultures and were randomized into an early-treatment group (given intramuscular penicillin G within 60 minutes of birth) or a control group. The incidence of early-onset disease was 20 per 1000 live births (24 of 1187); the number of infants in the early-treatment group who had disease (10 of 589) was similar to that in the control group (14 of 598). The fatality rates were similar in both groups (6 of 10 vs. 8 of 14). Cultures

NEJM1983

52. Single-dose penicillin prophylaxis of neonatal group-B-streptococcal disease.

Single-dose penicillin prophylaxis of neonatal group-B-streptococcal disease. 6123719 1982 08 14 1982 08 14 2015 06 16 0140-6736 1 8287 1982 Jun 26 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Single-dose penicillin prophylaxis of neonatal group-B-streptococcal disease. 1426-30 The efficacy of a single dose of aqueous penicillin G in preventing neonatal group-B streptococcal infections was demonstrated in a randomised study conducted over 41 months. 16 082 infant received a single dose of penicillin within (...) one hour of delivery, and 15 976 infants who received tetracycline ophthalmic ointment served as the control group. Group-B streptococcal systemic infections were significantly less common in the penicillin-treated infants (0.6 vs 1.7 cases per 100 live birth, p = 0.004). The incidence of infection caused by penicillin-resistant pathogen was insignificantly increased in the penicillin group (2.2 vs 1.6 cases per thousand live birth, p = 0.32). this difference was accounted for almost completely

Lancet1982

53. Penicillin V for group A streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis. A randomized trial of seven vs ten days' therapy.

Penicillin V for group A streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis. A randomized trial of seven vs ten days' therapy. 6792379 1981 11 22 1981 11 22 2016 10 17 0098-7484 246 16 1981 Oct 16 JAMA JAMA Penicillin V for group A streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis. A randomized trial of seven vs ten days' therapy. 1790-5 The effect of duration of orally administered penicillin V potassium on the bacteriologic and clinical cure of group A streptococcal pharyngitis was evaluated. One hundred ninety-one middle (...) -class patients received either seven days (96 patients) or ten days (95 patients) of therapy. Compliance with taking penicillin was assessed by multiple methods, including penicillinuria. Throat cultures were obtained during therapy and three times in the three weeks after therapy. M-precipitin and T-agglutinin typing were done on paired isolates of group A streptococci from patients who had recurrences. Patients treated for seven days had a significantly greater failure rate (30/96 [31%]) compared

JAMA1981

54. Gonococcal tenosynovitis-dermatitis and septic arthritis. Intravenous penicillin vs oral erythromycin.

Gonococcal tenosynovitis-dermatitis and septic arthritis. Intravenous penicillin vs oral erythromycin. 7411761 1980 11 20 1980 11 20 2016 10 17 0098-7484 244 10 1980 Sep 05 JAMA JAMA Gonococcal tenosynovitis-dermatitis and septic arthritis. Intravenous penicillin vs oral erythromycin. 1101-2 Twenty-three patients with disseminated gonococcal infections--15 with acute tenosynovitis, six with septic monoarticular arthritis, and two with both--were randomly given five days of erythromycin stearate (...) or estolate, 500 mg orally every six hours (13 patients), or crystalline aqueous penicillin G potassium, 1 million units intravenously every three hours for three days (ten patients). There were no treatment failures. Cultures taken one and seven days and two and four weeks after completion of therapy were uniformly negative. Clinical resolution was rapid in both groups, as judged by response of fever, joint tenderness, and disappearance of joint effusion. Orally administered erythromycin is a useful

JAMA1980

55. Single-dose penicillin prophylaxis against neonatal group B streptococcal infections. A controlled trial in 18,738 newborn infants.

Single-dose penicillin prophylaxis against neonatal group B streptococcal infections. A controlled trial in 18,738 newborn infants. 6997734 1980 11 25 1980 11 25 2013 11 21 0028-4793 303 14 1980 Oct 02 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Single-dose penicillin prophylaxis against neonatal group B streptococcal infections. A controlled trial in 18,738 newborn infants. 769-75 Neonatal Group B streptococcal infections may not respond to antimicrobial therapy and have been (...) associated with case fatality rates of 50 per cent or greater. We evaluated the effect on colonization and disease rates of a single intramuscular dose of aqueous penicillin G given at birth in a prospectively controlled study of 18,738 neonates during a 25-month period. The colonization rate in the mothers was 26.6 per cent, with 50 per cent concordance in the untreated infants and 12.2 per cent in the penicillin-treated infants (P < 0.001). There was a significant decrease in the incidence of disease

NEJM1980

56. Prophylaxis of streptococcal infections and rheumatic fever: a comparison of orally administered clindamycin and penicillin.

Prophylaxis of streptococcal infections and rheumatic fever: a comparison of orally administered clindamycin and penicillin. 372593 1979 06 26 1979 06 26 2016 10 17 0098-7484 241 15 1979 Apr 13 JAMA JAMA Prophylaxis of streptococcal infections and rheumatic fever: a comparison of orally administered clindamycin and penicillin. 1589-94 Orally administered clindamycin and penicillin were compared for effectiveness in preventing streptococcal infections in 202 randomly assigned patients (...) with previous rheumatic fever (RF). Among 143 patients aged 21 years or younger observed for 537 patient-years, the number of streptococcal infections (and number per patient-year) was 23 (0.084) in the penicillin group and 12 (0.045) in the clindamycin group. Excluding uncooperative patients, the rate of streptococcal infection remained less, though not statistically significant, in the clindamycin group than in the penicillin group. Two RF recurrences occurred in the penicillin group, and no recurrence

JAMA1979

57. Cefazolin vs penicillin. Treatment of uncomplicated pneumococcal pneumonia.

Cefazolin vs penicillin. Treatment of uncomplicated pneumococcal pneumonia. 448844 1979 08 16 1979 08 16 2016 10 17 0098-7484 241 26 1979 Jun 29 JAMA JAMA Cefazolin vs penicillin. Treatment of uncomplicated pneumococcal pneumonia. 2815-7 Cefazolin sodium, 500 mg intramuscularly twice daily, was compared with penicillin G procaine, 600,000 units intramuscularly twice daily, in the treatment of 82 patients with pneumococcal pneumonia. Patients were randomly assigned except when (...) there was a history of penicillin allergy. The patients received treatment for five days or until they were afebrile for 48 hours. No patients experienced side effects or allergic reactions. All patients recovered satisfactorily without relapses. Cefazolin in the previously described dosage is as effective as penicillin in the treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia. Jenkinson S G SG George R B RB Light R W RW Girard W M WM eng Clinical Trial Comparative Study Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial United States

JAMA1979

58. A pharmacologic evaluation of penicillin in children with purulent meningitis.

A pharmacologic evaluation of penicillin in children with purulent meningitis. 882110 1977 09 17 1977 09 17 2013 11 21 0028-4793 297 8 1977 Aug 25 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. A pharmacologic evaluation of penicillin in children with purulent meningitis. 410-3 We undertook a prospective study of the pharmacokinetics of penicillin G (administered intravenously every four hours for a total of b50,000 U per kilogram per day) in the cerebrospinal fluid of children (...) with purulent meningitis. Both the absolute mean cerebrospinal-fluid penicillin concentration (0.8, 0.7 and 0.3 microgram per milliliter) and the percentage of the simultaneous serum penicillin concentration measurable in the cerebrospinal fluid (18.4, 9.9, 4.9 per cent) declined on the first, fifth and 10th days of therapy, respectively. A mean peak cerebrospinal-fluid penicillin concentration of 0.96 micrograms per milliliter was measured at least transiently on all three study days. This pharmacokinetic

NEJM1977

59. Low dose penicillin for gonococcal arthritis. A comparative therapy trial.

Low dose penicillin for gonococcal arthritis. A comparative therapy trial. 824468 1977 01 03 1977 01 03 2016 10 17 0098-7484 236 21 1976 Nov 22 JAMA JAMA Low dose penicillin for gonococcal arthritis. A comparative therapy trial. 2410-2 Sixty-three patients with gonococcal arthritis completed a double-blind randomized penicillin therapy trial comparing a low dose regimen (procaine penicillin G, 600,000 units intramuscularly, given every 12 hours for up to ten days) with a high dose (the same (...) procaine penicillin regimen and intravenous aqueous penicillin G, 10 million units daily, for the first three days). Pretherapy features were similar in the 36 patients allocated to low-dose vs the 27 to high-dose therapy. All patients had definite improvement within 48 hours of the initiation of either regimen. No therapeutic response variable studied differed significantly between the groups. Thus, no additional therapeutic benefit accrued from the high doses of penicillin. The absence

JAMA1976

60. Streptococcal pharyngitis in children. A comparison of four treatment schedules with intramuscular penicillin G benzathine.

Streptococcal pharyngitis in children. A comparison of four treatment schedules with intramuscular penicillin G benzathine. 765515 1976 04 19 1976 04 19 2016 10 17 0098-7484 235 11 1976 Mar 15 JAMA JAMA Streptococcal pharyngitis in children. A comparison of four treatment schedules with intramuscular penicillin G benzathine. 1112-6 Four hundred children with streptococcal pharyngitis were treated randomly with single injections in groups of 100 each (1) with 600,000 units of penicillin G (...) benzathine, (2) 1.2 million units of penicillin G benzathine, (3) 600,000 units of penicillin G benzathine and 600,000 units of penicillin G procaine, or (4) 900,000 units of penicillin G benzathine and 300,000 units of penicillin G procaine. Clinical response and severity of local reaction were judged in a double-blind manner at 24, 48, and 72 hours; throat cultures were taken then, and at 10, 21, and 42 days. Although the clinical response to 900,000 units of penicillin G benzathine and 300,000 units

JAMA1976