Latest & greatest articles for measles

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Top results for measles

101. The risk of seizures after receipt of whole-cell pertussis or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. (Abstract)

The risk of seizures after receipt of whole-cell pertussis or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. The administration of the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole-cell pertussis (DTP) vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine has been associated with adverse neurologic events, including seizures. We studied the relation between these vaccinations and the risk of a first seizure, subsequent seizures, and neurodevelopmental disability in children.This cohort study was conducted

2001 NEJM

102. Evaluating the benefits of increasing measles immunization rates

Evaluating the benefits of increasing measles immunization rates Evaluating the benefits of increasing measles immunization rates Evaluating the benefits of increasing measles immunization rates Zwanziger J, Szilagyi P G, Kaul P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability (...) of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The study evaluated the effects of increasing measles immunisation rates beyond its baseline value in pre-school children. The comparator was the "do nothing" alternative. Type of intervention Primary prevention (vaccination). Economic study type Cost-utility analysis. Study population The study population comprised pre-school children in urban areas. Setting The setting was the community. The economic study was carried out in the USA. Dates

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

103. Vitamin A for treating measles in children. (Abstract)

Vitamin A for treating measles in children. Measles is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Vitamin A deficiency is a recognised risk factor for severe measles. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends administration of an oral dose of 200,000 IU (or 100,000 IU in infants) of vitamin A per day for two days to children with measles in areas where vitamin A deficiency may be present.The purpose of this review is to determine whether vitamin A when commenced after measles (...) has been diagnosed, is beneficial in preventing mortality, pneumonia and other complications in children.MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 1999 were searched.Only randomized controlled trials in which children with measles were given vitamin A or placebo along with standard treatment were considered.Studies were assessed independently by two reviewers. The analysis of dichotomous outcomes was done using the StatExact software package. Sub-group analyses were done for dose, formulation

2001 Cochrane

104. Response to different measles vaccine strains given by aerosol and subcutaneous routes to schoolchildren: a randomised trial. (Abstract)

Response to different measles vaccine strains given by aerosol and subcutaneous routes to schoolchildren: a randomised trial. More than one dose of measles vaccine is necessary for the sustained control of measles. The aerosol route is thought to be more immunogenic for booster doses than traditional subcutaneous injections, so we did a randomised comparative trial of aerosol and subcutaneous measles vaccines in South African schoolchildren.4327 schoolchildren (aged 5-14 years), assigned (...) by block randomisation of classrooms, received standard titre doses of either Schwarz or Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines subcutaneously or by aerosol. Blood samples for antibody assay were collected before vaccination, at 1 month, and 1 year after vaccination. The main endpoints (antibody titres at 1 month and 1 year) were compared between groups.992 children had antibody titre data available for all timepoints. 14 (3.6%) of 385 children who received Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine by aerosol were

2000 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

105. Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles. Measles causes more than a million deaths a year, of which most are children under five years of age who die from pneumonia.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics given to children with measles on reducing pneumonia or mortality, and to assess whether antibiotics should be given to all children with measles in communities with a high fatality rate.We searched MEDLINE (1966 - 1999), EMBASE (1980-1999 (...) , the incidence of pneumonia in the control group was similar to that in the antibiotic prophylaxis group; in the other two studies, the incidence of pneumonia was unusually high in the control group so these children had a higher complication rate than the antibiotic group. Four of the 764 children given antibiotics died compared with one of the 637 controls.The quality of the trials reviewed was poor, and they provide very weak evidence for giving antibiotics to all children with measles. Available evidence

2000 Cochrane

106. [Raising the immunization rate in medical students against measles, mumps and rubella at the University of Berne]

[Raising the immunization rate in medical students against measles, mumps and rubella at the University of Berne] Die Erhohung der Immunitatsrate von Medizinstudentinnen und studenten gegen Masern, Mumps und Roteln an der Universitat Bern [Raising the immunization rate in medical students against measles, mumps and rubella at the University of Berne] Die Erhohung der Immunitatsrate von Medizinstudentinnen und studenten gegen Masern, Mumps und Roteln an der Universitat Bern [Raising (...) the immunization rate in medical students against measles, mumps and rubella at the University of Berne] Germann D, Matter L Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Vaccination of medical students against measles, mumps and rubella

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

107. Cost-effectiveness of measles outbreak intervention strategies

Cost-effectiveness of measles outbreak intervention strategies Cost-effectiveness of measles outbreak intervention strategies Cost-effectiveness of measles outbreak intervention strategies Shiell A, Jorm L R, Carruthers R, Fitzsimmons G J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment (...) on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Alternative measles outbreak intervention strategies in schools. Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population The study population was a single, hypothetical, primary school population of 500 students (aged 5 to 10 years) and their younger siblings. Setting The setting was community, primary care, and hospital. The economic study was carried out in western Sydney, Australia

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

108. Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence. (Full text)

Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence. To assess whether antibiotics should be given to all children with measles in communities with a high case fatality rate.Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials that compared routine antibiotic prophylaxis with no antibiotic treatment or selective treatment of pneumonia or sepsis.Six trials of children admitted to hospital with measles: five in Glasgow, London, or New York between 1939 (...) group. Four of the 764 children given antibiotics died compared with one of the 637 controls (exact odds ratio 4.0, mid-P corrected 95% confidence interval 0.5 to 101.6).The quality of the trials reviewed was poor, and they provide weak evidence for giving antibiotics to all children with measles. Available evidence suggests that, when mortality from measles is high, all children with measles should be treated with vitamin A but antibiotics should be given only if a child has clinical signs

1997 BMJ PubMed abstract

109. Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence

Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence Shann F Authors' objectives To assess whether prophylactic antibiotics should be given to all children with measles in communities with a high (more than 1%) fatality rate. Searching MEDLINE (...) was searched from 1966 to 1995 using the terms 'measles' plus either 'antibiotic', 'penicillin', 'sulphonamide', 'prospective studies' or 'RCT'. Additional studies were obtained by examining results of previous handsearches of studies of pneumonia in children, in all the journals in the University library from 1935 to 1946. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing routine antibiotic prophylaxis with no antibiotic or with selective

1997 DARE.

110. Alternative routes of measles immunization: a review

Alternative routes of measles immunization: a review Alternative routes of measles immunization: a review Alternative routes of measles immunization: a review Cutts F T, Clements C J, Bennett J V Authors' objectives To evaluate the potential for non-percutaneous routes of vaccine administration for measles to improve control. Searching The authors state that a literature search was conducted but do not report the names of databases, dates searched or keywords used in the search. Early studies (...) (drops in the eye), oral (drops on sugar, spray on back of oropharynx, or cotton swab), aerosol (nebuliser with reconstituted vaccine placed in a container of crushed ice and attached to a compressor, with dose assumed of 0.145 ml per 30 seconds) and intranasal (swab in anterior nares, drops or bolus instillation in the anterior nares, or large particle spray) administrations of measles vaccine. Participants included in the review Participants were children who were grouped into categories of: 1

1997 DARE.

111. Randomised trial of effect of vitamin A supplementation on antibody response to measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. (Abstract)

Randomised trial of effect of vitamin A supplementation on antibody response to measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. WHO has recommended vitamin A supplementation for children aged 6 months or older in developing countries at the same time as immunisation. One study has reported significantly lower seroconversion ratios among children who have received vitamin A supplements with measles vaccine at age 6 months. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation (...) on antibody response to measles vaccination at age 9 months, which is the more common age for immunisation in developing countries.In an urban community in Guinea-Bissau, we did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of simultaneous vaccination and vitamin A supplementation in 462 children who received either a two-dose schedule of measles vaccine at the ages of 6 months and 9 months (150 infants) or one dose of measles vaccine at age 9 months (312 infants). Children were

1997 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

112. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial of efficacy of vitamin A treatment in non-measles childhood pneumonia. (Full text)

Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial of efficacy of vitamin A treatment in non-measles childhood pneumonia. To evaluate the impact on clinical recovery and severity of the addition of large doses of vitamin A to the standard treatment for childhood pneumonia.A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial.Study children were recruited at a public hospital in Recife, north east Brazil, an area of marginal vitamin A deficiency.472 children aged 6 to 59 months

1997 BMJ Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

113. An evaluation of measles revaccination among school-entry-aged children

An evaluation of measles revaccination among school-entry-aged children An evaluation of measles revaccination among school-entry-aged children An evaluation of measles revaccination among school-entry-aged children Watson J C, Pearson J A, Markowitz L E, Baughman A L, Erdman D D, Bellini W J, Baron R C, Fleming D W Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods (...) , the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Two dose measles vaccination schedule. Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Children aged 4-6 years who had received one dose of measles vaccine at age 15-17 months and who had been enrolled at the time in the study HMO (see below) and still were at the time of the study. These children had

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

114. Secondary failure rates of measles vaccines: a metaanalysis of published studies

Secondary failure rates of measles vaccines: a metaanalysis of published studies Secondary failure rates of measles vaccines: a metaanalysis of published studies Secondary failure rates of measles vaccines: a metaanalysis of published studies Anders J F, Jacobson R M, Poland G A, Jacobsen S J, Wollan P C Authors' objectives To estimate the rate of clinical measles after vaccine-induced seroconversion of measles vaccines using a meta-analysis. Searching The computerised National Library (...) in the review Measles vaccine containing either live or killed virus. Participants included in the review Healthy individuals receiving a measles-containing vaccine over the age of 12 months were included. Outcomes assessed in the review Secondary failures of vaccination. Primary failures are failures of the vaccine to produce measurable specific antibodies after immunisation. Secondary failures are the manifestation of the disease in an individual previously shown to have measurable specific antibodies

1996 DARE.

115. Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries

Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries Aaby P, Samb B, Simondon F, Seck A M, Knudsen K, Whittle H Authors' objectives To review the evidence of the protective efficacy against death of standard measles (...) immunisation in developing countries. Searching Index Medicus was searched from 1970 onwards. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Cohort studies and case-control studies were included. Specific interventions included in the review Schwartz standard titre measles vaccine (indirectly diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and polio immunisation). Participants included in the review Children from developing countries, vaccinated between 6 and 60 months, were included. Outcomes assessed

1995 DARE.

116. Reduced seroconversion to measles in infants given vitamin A with measles vaccination. (Abstract)

Reduced seroconversion to measles in infants given vitamin A with measles vaccination. Administration of 100,000 IU vitamin A at the time of measles immunisation is currently recommended for infants in developing countries. However, the safety and value of giving vitamin A, a potent immune enhancer, with live measles virus vaccines are unknown. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Indonesia to evaluate the effect of simultaneous vitamin A supplementation (...) on the immune response to measles immunisation at six months of age. 336 infants received either vitamin A (100,000 IU) or placebo when immunised with standard-titre Schwarz measles vaccine. 82% of infants seroconverted to measles. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusting for maternal antibody titres, vitamin A supplementation was associated with a lower likelihood of seroconversion to measles (odds ratio 0.40, 95% CI 0.19-0.88), and girls were less likely to seroconvert than boys (0.34, 0.15-0.76

1995 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

117. Child mortality after high-titre measles vaccines: prospective study in Senegal. (Abstract)

Child mortality after high-titre measles vaccines: prospective study in Senegal. The use of Edmonston-Zagreb high-titre (EZ-HT) vaccine at age 6 months has been recommended for countries in which measles before the age of 9 months is a substantial cause of death, but little is known about the long-term effects of high-titre live measles vaccines given early in life. In a randomised vaccine trial in a rural area of Senegal, children were randomly assigned at birth to three vaccine groups: EZ-HT (...) in multivariate analyses. These findings suggest a need to reconsider the use of high-titre measles vaccines early in life in less developed countries.

1991 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

118. Immunization of six-month-old infants with different doses of Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccines. (Abstract)

Immunization of six-month-old infants with different doses of Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccines. Because measles causes an estimated 2 million deaths per year among children in developing countries, including a substantial proportion of infants less than nine months old--the age at which vaccination is recommended--there has been interest in using different strains of vaccine and higher doses to achieve immunization of younger infants. We conducted a randomized trial of three (...) different doses of Edmonston-Zagreb and of Schwarz measles vaccines in infants to evaluate the effect of the strain and dose of vaccine on the serologic response and acute adverse reactions to vaccination. Six-month-old infants received a standard, medium, or high dose of one of the vaccines, and nine-month-old infants received a standard dose. Antibody levels were measured before and after vaccination, by means of a plaque-reduction neutralization assay, in 1061 six-month-olds and 299 nine-month-olds

1990 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

119. A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A in children with severe measles. (Abstract)

A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A in children with severe measles. Measles kills about 2 million children annually, and there is no specific therapy for the disease. It has been suggested that vitamin A may be of benefit in the treatment of measles.We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial involving 189 children who were hospitalized at a regional center in South Africa because of measles complicated by pneumonia, diarrhea, or croup. The children (median age, 10 months) were (...) ), and spent fewer days in the hospital (mean, 10.6 vs. 14.8 days; P = 0.01). Of the 12 children who died, 10 were among those given placebo (P = 0.05). For the group treated with vitamin A, the risk of death or a major complication during the hospital stay was half that of the control group (relative risk, 0.51; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.35 to 0.74).Treatment with vitamin A reduces morbidity and mortality in measles, and all children with severe measles should be given vitamin A supplements

1990 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

120. Serological effects of Edmonston-Zagreb, Schwarz, and AIK-C measles vaccine strains given at ages 4-5 or 8-10 months. (Abstract)

Serological effects of Edmonston-Zagreb, Schwarz, and AIK-C measles vaccine strains given at ages 4-5 or 8-10 months. To examine the value of vaccinating children against measles at age 4-5 months three groups of children in Togo were randomly assigned to receive high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb, high-dose Schwarz, or AIK-C vaccines at that age. Two other groups were vaccinated at age 8-10 months, with either the standard Schwarz vaccine or the same batch of AIK-C as for early immunisation

1989 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain