Latest & greatest articles for measles

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Top results for measles

81. The risk of seizures after receipt of whole-cell pertussis or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.

The risk of seizures after receipt of whole-cell pertussis or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. BACKGROUND: The administration of the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole-cell pertussis (DTP) vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine has been associated with adverse neurologic events, including seizures. We studied the relation between these vaccinations and the risk of a first seizure, subsequent seizures, and neurodevelopmental disability in children. METHODS: This cohort (...) study was conducted at four large health maintenance organizations and included reviews of the medical records of children with seizures. We calculated the relative risks of febrile and nonfebrile seizures among 679,942 children after 340,386 vaccinations with DTP vaccine, 137,457 vaccinations with MMR vaccine, or no recent vaccination. Children who had febrile seizures after vaccination were followed to identify the risk of subsequent seizures and other neurologic disabilities. RESULTS: Receipt

NEJM2001

82. Evaluating the benefits of increasing measles immunization rates

Evaluating the benefits of increasing measles immunization rates Evaluating the benefits of increasing measles immunization rates Evaluating the benefits of increasing measles immunization rates Zwanziger J, Szilagyi P G, Kaul P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability (...) of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The study evaluated the effects of increasing measles immunisation rates beyond its baseline value in pre-school children. The comparator was the "do nothing" alternative. Type of intervention Primary prevention (vaccination). Economic study type Cost-utility analysis. Study population The study population comprised pre-school children in urban areas. Setting The setting was the community. The economic study was carried out in the USA. Dates

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.2001

83. Vitamin A for treating measles in children.

Vitamin A for treating measles in children. BACKGROUND: Measles is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Vitamin A deficiency is a recognised risk factor for severe measles. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends administration of an oral dose of 200,000 IU (or 100,000 IU in infants) of vitamin A per day for two days to children with measles in areas where vitamin A deficiency may be present. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is to determine whether vitamin A when (...) commenced after measles has been diagnosed, is beneficial in preventing mortality, pneumonia and other complications in children. SEARCH STRATEGY: MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 1999 were searched. SELECTION CRITERIA: Only randomized controlled trials in which children with measles were given vitamin A or placebo along with standard treatment were considered. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Studies were assessed independently by two reviewers. The analysis of dichotomous outcomes was done

Cochrane2001

84. Response to different measles vaccine strains given by aerosol and subcutaneous routes to schoolchildren: a randomised trial.

Response to different measles vaccine strains given by aerosol and subcutaneous routes to schoolchildren: a randomised trial. 10711928 2000 03 21 2000 03 21 2015 06 16 0140-6736 355 9206 2000 Mar 04 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Response to different measles vaccine strains given by aerosol and subcutaneous routes to schoolchildren: a randomised trial. 798-803 More than one dose of measles vaccine is necessary for the sustained control of measles. The aerosol route is thought to be more (...) immunogenic for booster doses than traditional subcutaneous injections, so we did a randomised comparative trial of aerosol and subcutaneous measles vaccines in South African schoolchildren. 4327 schoolchildren (aged 5-14 years), assigned by block randomisation of classrooms, received standard titre doses of either Schwarz or Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines subcutaneously or by aerosol. Blood samples for antibody assay were collected before vaccination, at 1 month, and 1 year after vaccination. The main

Lancet2000

85. Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles.

Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles. BACKGROUND: Measles causes more than a million deaths a year, of which most are children under five years of age who die from pneumonia. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics given to children with measles on reducing pneumonia or mortality, and to assess whether antibiotics should be given to all children with measles in communities with a high fatality rate. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched (...) MEDLINE (1966 - 1999), EMBASE (1980-1999) and the specialized trials register of the Acute Respiratory Infections Group in August 1999, and all relevant journals in the University of Melbourne medical library for the years 1935-46. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or controlled trials of antibiotics for children with measles. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. MAIN RESULTS: Six trials with 1304 children were included. All but one

Cochrane2000

86. Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles.

Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles. BACKGROUND: Measles causes more than a million deaths a year, of which most are children under five years of age who die from pneumonia. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics given to children with measles on reducing pneumonia or mortality, and to assess whether antibiotics should be given to all children with measles in communities with a high fatality rate. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched (...) MEDLINE (1966 - 1999), EMBASE (1980-1999) and the specialized trials register of the Acute Respiratory Infections Group in August 1999, and all relevant journals in the University of Melbourne medical library for the years 1935-46. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or controlled trials of antibiotics for children with measles. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. MAIN RESULTS: Six trials with 1304 children were included. All but one

Cochrane2000

87. Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles.

Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles. BACKGROUND: Measles causes more than a million deaths a year, of which most are children under five years of age who die from pneumonia. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics given to children with measles on reducing pneumonia or mortality, and to assess whether antibiotics should be given to all children with measles in communities with a high fatality rate. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched (...) MEDLINE (1966 - 1999), EMBASE (1980-1999) and the specialized trials register of the Acute Respiratory Infections Group in August 1999, and all relevant journals in the University of Melbourne medical library for the years 1935-46. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or controlled trials of antibiotics for children with measles. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. MAIN RESULTS: Six trials with 1304 children were included. All but one

Cochrane2000

88. [Raising the immunization rate in medical students against measles, mumps and rubella at the University of Berne]

[Raising the immunization rate in medical students against measles, mumps and rubella at the University of Berne] Die Erhohung der Immunitatsrate von Medizinstudentinnen und studenten gegen Masern, Mumps und Roteln an der Universitat Bern [Raising the immunization rate in medical students against measles, mumps and rubella at the University of Berne] Die Erhohung der Immunitatsrate von Medizinstudentinnen und studenten gegen Masern, Mumps und Roteln an der Universitat Bern [Raising (...) the immunization rate in medical students against measles, mumps and rubella at the University of Berne] Germann D, Matter L Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Vaccination of medical students against measles, mumps and rubella

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1999

89. Cost-effectiveness of measles outbreak intervention strategies

Cost-effectiveness of measles outbreak intervention strategies Cost-effectiveness of measles outbreak intervention strategies Cost-effectiveness of measles outbreak intervention strategies Shiell A, Jorm L R, Carruthers R, Fitzsimmons G J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment (...) on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Alternative measles outbreak intervention strategies in schools. Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population The study population was a single, hypothetical, primary school population of 500 students (aged 5 to 10 years) and their younger siblings. Setting The setting was community, primary care, and hospital. The economic study was carried out in western Sydney, Australia

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1998

90. Alternative routes of measles immunization: a review

Alternative routes of measles immunization: a review Alternative routes of measles immunization: a review Alternative routes of measles immunization: a review Cutts F T, Clements C J, Bennett J V Authors' objectives To evaluate the potential for non-percutaneous routes of vaccine administration for measles to improve control. Searching The authors state that a literature search was conducted but do not report the names of databases, dates searched or keywords used in the search. Early studies (...) (drops in the eye), oral (drops on sugar, spray on back of oropharynx, or cotton swab), aerosol (nebuliser with reconstituted vaccine placed in a container of crushed ice and attached to a compressor, with dose assumed of 0.145 ml per 30 seconds) and intranasal (swab in anterior nares, drops or bolus instillation in the anterior nares, or large particle spray) administrations of measles vaccine. Participants included in the review Participants were children who were grouped into categories of: 1

DARE.1997

91. Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence

Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence Shann F Authors' objectives To assess whether prophylactic antibiotics should be given to all children with measles in communities with a high (more than 1%) fatality rate. Searching MEDLINE (...) was searched from 1966 to 1995 using the terms 'measles' plus either 'antibiotic', 'penicillin', 'sulphonamide', 'prospective studies' or 'RCT'. Additional studies were obtained by examining results of previous handsearches of studies of pneumonia in children, in all the journals in the University library from 1935 to 1946. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing routine antibiotic prophylaxis with no antibiotic or with selective

DARE.1997

92. Randomised trial of effect of vitamin A supplementation on antibody response to measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa.

Randomised trial of effect of vitamin A supplementation on antibody response to measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. 9228962 1997 08 08 1997 08 08 2015 06 16 0140-6736 350 9071 1997 Jul 12 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Randomised trial of effect of vitamin A supplementation on antibody response to measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. 101-5 WHO has recommended vitamin A supplementation for children aged 6 months or older in developing countries at the same time (...) as immunisation. One study has reported significantly lower seroconversion ratios among children who have received vitamin A supplements with measles vaccine at age 6 months. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation on antibody response to measles vaccination at age 9 months, which is the more common age for immunisation in developing countries. In an urban community in Guinea-Bissau, we did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of simultaneous

Lancet1997

93. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial of efficacy of vitamin A treatment in non-measles childhood pneumonia.

Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial of efficacy of vitamin A treatment in non-measles childhood pneumonia. 9329303 1997 10 22 1997 10 22 2008 11 20 0959-8138 315 7107 1997 Aug 30 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial of efficacy of vitamin A treatment in non-measles childhood pneumonia. 505-10 To evaluate the impact on clinical recovery and severity of the addition of large doses of vitamin A to the standard treatment

BMJ1997 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

94. An evaluation of measles revaccination among school-entry-aged children

An evaluation of measles revaccination among school-entry-aged children An evaluation of measles revaccination among school-entry-aged children An evaluation of measles revaccination among school-entry-aged children Watson J C, Pearson J A, Markowitz L E, Baughman A L, Erdman D D, Bellini W J, Baron R C, Fleming D W Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods (...) , the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Two dose measles vaccination schedule. Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Children aged 4-6 years who had received one dose of measles vaccine at age 15-17 months and who had been enrolled at the time in the study HMO (see below) and still were at the time of the study. These children had

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1996

95. Secondary failure rates of measles vaccines: a metaanalysis of published studies

Secondary failure rates of measles vaccines: a metaanalysis of published studies Secondary failure rates of measles vaccines: a metaanalysis of published studies Secondary failure rates of measles vaccines: a metaanalysis of published studies Anders J F, Jacobson R M, Poland G A, Jacobsen S J, Wollan P C Authors' objectives To estimate the rate of clinical measles after vaccine-induced seroconversion of measles vaccines using a meta-analysis. Searching The computerised National Library (...) in the review Measles vaccine containing either live or killed virus. Participants included in the review Healthy individuals receiving a measles-containing vaccine over the age of 12 months were included. Outcomes assessed in the review Secondary failures of vaccination. Primary failures are failures of the vaccine to produce measurable specific antibodies after immunisation. Secondary failures are the manifestation of the disease in an individual previously shown to have measurable specific antibodies

DARE.1996

96. Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries

Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries Aaby P, Samb B, Simondon F, Seck A M, Knudsen K, Whittle H Authors' objectives To review the evidence of the protective efficacy against death of standard measles (...) immunisation in developing countries. Searching Index Medicus was searched from 1970 onwards. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Cohort studies and case-control studies were included. Specific interventions included in the review Schwartz standard titre measles vaccine (indirectly diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and polio immunisation). Participants included in the review Children from developing countries, vaccinated between 6 and 60 months, were included. Outcomes assessed

DARE.1995

97. Reduced seroconversion to measles in infants given vitamin A with measles vaccination.

Reduced seroconversion to measles in infants given vitamin A with measles vaccination. 7752754 1995 06 22 1995 06 22 2015 06 16 0140-6736 345 8961 1995 May 27 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Reduced seroconversion to measles in infants given vitamin A with measles vaccination. 1330-2 Administration of 100,000 IU vitamin A at the time of measles immunisation is currently recommended for infants in developing countries. However, the safety and value of giving vitamin A, a potent immune enhancer (...) , with live measles virus vaccines are unknown. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Indonesia to evaluate the effect of simultaneous vitamin A supplementation on the immune response to measles immunisation at six months of age. 336 infants received either vitamin A (100,000 IU) or placebo when immunised with standard-titre Schwarz measles vaccine. 82% of infants seroconverted to measles. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusting for maternal antibody

Lancet1995

98. Child mortality after high-titre measles vaccines: prospective study in Senegal.

Child mortality after high-titre measles vaccines: prospective study in Senegal. 1681265 1991 11 05 1991 11 05 2015 06 16 0140-6736 338 8772 1991 Oct 12 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Child mortality after high-titre measles vaccines: prospective study in Senegal. 903-7 The use of Edmonston-Zagreb high-titre (EZ-HT) vaccine at age 6 months has been recommended for countries in which measles before the age of 9 months is a substantial cause of death, but little is known about the long-term (...) effects of high-titre live measles vaccines given early in life. In a randomised vaccine trial in a rural area of Senegal, children were randomly assigned at birth to three vaccine groups: EZ-HT at 5 months (n = 336); Schwarz high-titre (SW-HT) at 5 months (n = 321); and placebo at 5 months followed by standard low-titre Schwarz vaccine at 10 months (standard: n = 358). All children were prospectively followed for 24-39 months in a well-established demographic surveillance system. Child mortality

Lancet1991

99. Immunization of six-month-old infants with different doses of Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccines.

Immunization of six-month-old infants with different doses of Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccines. 2304505 1990 03 20 1990 03 20 2006 11 15 0028-4793 322 9 1990 Mar 01 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Immunization of six-month-old infants with different doses of Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccines. 580-7 Because measles causes an estimated 2 million deaths per year among children in developing countries, including a substantial proportion of infants less (...) than nine months old--the age at which vaccination is recommended--there has been interest in using different strains of vaccine and higher doses to achieve immunization of younger infants. We conducted a randomized trial of three different doses of Edmonston-Zagreb and of Schwarz measles vaccines in infants to evaluate the effect of the strain and dose of vaccine on the serologic response and acute adverse reactions to vaccination. Six-month-old infants received a standard, medium, or high dose

NEJM1990

100. A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A in children with severe measles.

A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A in children with severe measles. 2194128 1990 08 06 1990 08 06 2012 11 15 0028-4793 323 3 1990 Jul 19 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A in children with severe measles. 160-4 Measles kills about 2 million children annually, and there is no specific therapy for the disease. It has been suggested that vitamin A may be of benefit in the treatment of measles. We conducted a randomized, double (...) -blind trial involving 189 children who were hospitalized at a regional center in South Africa because of measles complicated by pneumonia, diarrhea, or croup. The children (median age, 10 months) were assigned to receive either vitamin A (total dose, 400,000 IU of retinyl palmitate, given orally; n = 92) or placebo (n = 97), beginning within five days of the onset of the rash. At base line, the characteristics of the two groups were similar. Although clinically apparent vitamin A deficiency is rare

NEJM1990