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Latest & greatest articles for measles
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Assessment of the 2010 global measles mortality reduction goal: results from a model of surveillance data. BACKGROUND: In 2008 all WHO member states endorsed a target of 90% reduction in measles mortality by 2010 over 2000 levels. We developed a model to estimate progress made towards this goal. METHODS: We constructed a state-space model with population and immunisation coverage estimates and reported surveillance data to estimate annual national measles cases, distributed across age classes (...) . We estimated deaths by applying age-specific and country-specific case-fatality ratios to estimated cases in each age-country class. FINDINGS: Estimated global measles mortality decreased 74% from 535,300 deaths (95% CI 347,200-976,400) in 2000 to 139,300 (71,200-447,800) in 2010. Measles mortality was reduced by more than three-quarters in all WHO regions except the WHO southeast Asia region. India accounted for 47% of estimated measles mortality in 2010, and the WHO African region accounted
Surveillance Guidelines for Measles, Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome in the WHO European Region WHO IRIS: Surveillance Guidelines for Measles, Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome in the WHO European Region Browse Related links Files in This Item: File Description Size Format 1.2 MB Adobe PDF Title: Surveillance Guidelines for Measles, Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome in the WHO European Region Authors: Issue Date: 2012 Edition: Updated December 2012 Publisher: WHO Regional (...) Office for Europe Place of publication: Copenhagen Language: English Abstract: The WHO Regional Committee for Europe adopted the goal of eliminating indigenous measles transmission in 1998. In 2005, the Regional Committee expanded this commitment to include rubella and set a date for the elimination of both diseases by 2010. Although Member States did make progress, through the implementation of a strategic plan, the goal was not achieved. The WHO Regional Committee for Europe acknowledged at its
Chinese medicinal herbs for measles. BACKGROUND: Measles is an infectious disease caused by the Morbillivirus. Chinese physicians believe that medicinal herbs are effective in alleviating symptoms and preventing complications. Chinese herbal medicines are dispensed according to the particular symptoms. This is the second update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and possible adverse effects of Chinese medicinal herbs for measles. SEARCH METHODS (...) full-article database (1994 to 30 June 2011) and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials for ongoing trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of Chinese medicinal herbs in patients with measles (without complications). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors (SC, TW) independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We telephone interviewed the trial authors for missing information regarding participant allocation. Some trials allocated participants according
Measles. Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by measles virus and is one of the most devastating infectious diseases of man--measles was responsible for millions of deaths annually worldwide before the introduction of the measles vaccines. Remarkable progress in reducing the number of people dying from measles has been made through measles vaccination, with an estimated 164,000 deaths attributed to measles in 2008. This achievement attests to the enormous importance of measles (...) vaccination to public health. However, this progress is threatened by failure to maintain high levels of measles vaccine coverage. Recent measles outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and the USA show the ease with which measles virus can re-enter communities if high levels of population immunity are not sustained. The major challenges for continued measles control and eventual eradication will be logistical, financial, and the garnering of sufficient political will. These challenges need to be met
The Challenge of Measles Control The Challenge of Measles Control | Clinical Correlations The Challenge of Measles Control September 15, 2010 By Taher Modarressi Faculty Peer Reviewed Measles remains one of the leading causes of preventable child mortality worldwide, despite the development of an effective vaccine in the 1960s. Even as late as the early 1990s, measles continued to infect tens of millions of people and claimed over a million lives each year (51]. Although mortality dropped by 78 (...) % from 2000 to 2008 due to aggressive control initiatives, the disease is still responsible for 164,000 deaths annually [12, 72]. Morbidity and mortality is mostly due to measles-associated pneumonia [13, 59], middle-ear infection [13, 30, 59], corneal inflammation and ulceration (27, 28, 46, 64), diarrhea [19, 35, 61, 70] and, rarely, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis [36, 37, 77]. Currently, the disease accounts for 3-4% of all deaths worldwide in children under the age of five, over half
Early waning of maternal measles antibodies in era of measles elimination: longitudinal study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the duration of the presence of maternal antibodies to measles in infants. DESIGN: Prospective study (May 2006 to November 2008). SETTING: Five hospitals in the Province of Antwerp, Belgium. PARTICIPANTS: Of 221 pregnant women recruited, 207 healthy woman-infant pairs were included-divided into a vaccinated group (n=87) and naturally immune group (n=120), according (...) to vaccination documents and history. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Measles IgG antibodies measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at seven time points (week 36 of pregnancy, birth (cord), and 1, 6, 9, and 12 months); decay of maternal antibody in infants modelled with linear mixed models. RESULTS: Vaccinated women had significantly fewer IgG antibodies (geometric mean titre 779 (95% confidence interval 581 to 1045) mIU/ml) than did naturally immune women (2687 (2126 to 3373) mIU/ml) (P<0.001
Effectiveness of measles vaccination and vitamin A treatment Effectiveness of measles vaccination and vitamin A treatment Effectiveness of measles vaccination and vitamin A treatment Sudfeld CR, Navar AM, Halsey NA CRD summary The review concluded that measles vaccine and vitamin A treatment were effective interventions to prevent measles mortality in children. The review had some methodological problems and some of the studies were conducted over 50 years ago, thus a degree of caution (...) is required when interpreting the authors' conclusions. Authors' objectives To determine effect estimates of measles vaccine and vitamin A treatment for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Searching PubMed, the Cochrane Library and all WHO regional databases were searched from 1960 to 2008 for articles in any language. Search terms were reported. Study selection Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of measles vaccination and vitamin A treatment for measles were eligible for inclusion. Observational
Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial. 21118875 2010 12 01 2010 12 14 2017 02 20 1756-1833 341 2010 Nov 30 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial. c6495 10.1136/bmj.c6495 bmj.c6495 To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 (...) years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months of age (current policy). Randomised controlled trial. The Bandim Health Project, Guinea-Bissau, which maintains a health and demographic surveillance system in an urban area. 6648 children aged 4.5 months of age who had received three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at least four weeks before enrolment
Chinese medicinal herbs for measles. BACKGROUND: Measles is an infectious disease caused by the Morbilli virus. Chinese physicians believe that medicinal herbs are effective in alleviating symptoms and preventing complications. Chinese herbal medicines are dispensed according to the particular symptoms. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and possible adverse effects of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating measles. SEARCH (...) . SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which patients with measles without complications were treated with Chinese medicinal herbs. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors (YZ, RG, TW) independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We telephone interviewed the study authors for missing information regarding participant allocation. Some trials allocated participants according to the sequence they were admitted to the trials, that is to say, by using a pseudo
Measles in Europe: an epidemiological assessment. BACKGROUND: Measles persists in Europe despite the incorporation of the measles vaccine into routine childhood vaccination programmes more than 20 years ago. Our aim was therefore to review the epidemiology of measles in relation to the goal of elimination by 2010. METHODS: National surveillance institutions from 32 European countries submitted data for 2006-07. Data for age-group, diagnosis confirmation, vaccination, hospital treatment (...) , the presence of acute encephalitis as a complication of disease, and death were obtained. 30 countries also supplied data about importation of disease. Clinical, laboratory-confirmed, and epidemiologically linked cases that met the requirements for national surveillance were analysed. Cases were separated by age: younger than 1 year, 1-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, 15-19 years, and older than 20 years. Countries with indigenous measles incidence per 100 000 inhabitants per year of 0, less than 0.1, 0.1
Cost-effectiveness of supplementary immunization for measles in India Cost-effectiveness of supplementary immunization for measles in India Cost-effectiveness of supplementary immunization for measles in India Dabral M Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study (...) and the conclusions drawn. CRD summary This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a supplementary immunisation activity for measles compared with a standard single-dose vaccine programme for children in districts of India with low vaccination coverage. The author concluded that the supplementary immunisation activity was cost-effective in reducing mortality and morbidity from measles. The methods and reporting were mostly satisfactory, but the selection and details of the clinical and economic data sources
Safety and immunogenicity of concurrent administration of live attenuated influenza vaccine with measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines to infants 12 to 15 months of age 18310199 2008 03 03 2008 03 20 2013 11 21 1098-4275 121 3 2008 Mar Pediatrics Pediatrics Safety and immunogenicity of concurrent administration of live attenuated influenza vaccine with measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines to infants 12 to 15 months of age. 508-16 10.1542/peds.2007-1064 This study evaluated (...) the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of live attenuated influenza vaccine administered concurrently with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and varicella vaccine to healthy children 12 to 15 months of age. Children were assigned randomly to receive (1) measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, varicella vaccine, and intranasal placebo on day 0, followed by 1 dose of live attenuated influenza vaccine on days 42 and 72; (2) measles-mumps-rubella, varicella, and live attenuated influenza vaccines on day 0, followed
Risk of immune thrombocytopenic purpura after measles-mumps-rubella immunization in children 18310189 2008 03 03 2008 03 20 2008 03 03 1098-4275 121 3 2008 Mar Pediatrics Pediatrics Risk of immune thrombocytopenic purpura after measles-mumps-rubella immunization in children. e687-92 10.1542/peds.2007-1578 The measles-mumps-rubella vaccine has been associated with immune thrombocytopenia purpura in 2 small studies. By using the Vaccine Safety Datalink, we identified measles (...) months. A total of 1,036,689 children received 1,107,814 measles-mumps-rubella vaccinations; there were 259 confirmed patients with immune thrombocytopenia purpura. Because only 5 exposed cases occurred after age 2, analyses were limited to children aged 12 to 23 months. Exposed patients aged 12 to 23 months had lower median platelet counts than those who were unexposed and had similar median duration of illness (11 vs 10 days). The incident rate ratio was highest for children aged 12 to 15 months
Factors associated with uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) and use of single antigen vaccines in a contemporary UK cohort: prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To estimate uptake of the combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) and single antigen vaccines and explore factors associated with uptake and reasons for not using MMR. DESIGN: Nationally representative cohort study. SETTING: Children born in the UK, 2000-2. PARTICIPANTS: 14,578 children for whom data (...) on immunisation were available. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immunisation status at 3 years defined as "immunised with MMR," "immunised with at least one single antigen vaccine," and "unimmunised." RESULTS: 88.6% (13,013) were immunised with MMR and 5.2% (634) had received at least one single antigen vaccine. Children were more likely to be unimmunised if they lived in a household with other children (risk ratio 1.74, 95% confidence interval 1.35 to 2.25, for those living with three or more) or a lone parent (1.31
Efficacy and safety of measles, mumps, rubella and varicella live viral vaccines in transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive drugs Efficacy and safety of measles, mumps, rubella and varicella live viral vaccines in transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive drugs Efficacy and safety of measles, mumps, rubella and varicella live viral vaccines in transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive drugs Danerseau AM, Robinson JL CRD summary The authors concluded that available (...) published data on the efficacy and safety of live viral vaccines was insufficient to derive evidence-based guidelines for use of such vaccines in transplant recipients on immunosuppression. The reliability of the authors’ conclusion is unclear given multiple flaws in the review methods and small number of low quality studies reviewed. Authors' objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of live viral vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (chicken pox) in post-transplant patients receiving
Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial. 18653640 2008 07 25 2008 08 07 2016 12 15 1756-1833 337 2008 Jul 24 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial. a661 10.1136/bmj.a661 337/jul24_2/a661 To examine the protective efficacy of measles vaccination in infants (...) in a low income country before 9 months of age. Randomised clinical trial. 1333 infants aged 4.5 months: 441 in treatment group and 892 in control group. Urban area in Guinea-Bissau. Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and measles mortality before standard vaccination at 9 months of age. 28% of the children tested at 4.5 months of age had protective levels of maternal antibodies
WITHDRAWN: Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles. BACKGROUND: Measles causes more than a million deaths a year, of which most are children under five years of age who die from pneumonia. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics given to children with measles on reducing pneumonia or mortality, and to assess whether antibiotics should be given to all children with measles in communities with a high fatality rate. SEARCH STRATEGY (...) : We searched MEDLINE (1966 - 1999), EMBASE (1980-1999) and the specialized trials register of the Acute Respiratory Infections Group in August 1999, and all relevant journals in the University of Melbourne medical library for the years 1935-46. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or controlled trials of antibiotics for children with measles. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. MAIN RESULTS: Six trials with 1304 children were included. All
Has the 2005 measles mortality reduction goal been achieved? A natural history modelling study. BACKGROUND: In 2002, the UN General Assembly Special Session on Children adopted a goal to reduce deaths owing to measles by half by the end of 2005, compared with 1999 estimates. We describe efforts and progress made towards this goal. METHODS: We assessed trends in immunisation against measles on the basis of national implementation of the WHO/UNICEF comprehensive strategy for measles mortality (...) reduction, and the provision of a second opportunity for measles immunisation. We used a natural history model to evaluate trends in mortality due to measles. RESULTS: Between 1999 and 2005, according to our model mortality owing to measles was reduced by 60%, from an estimated 873,000 deaths (uncertainty bounds 634,000-1,140,000) in 1999 to 345,000 deaths (247,000-458,000) in 2005. The largest percentage reduction in estimated measles mortality during this period was in the western Pacific region (81
Susceptibility to measles, mumps, and rubella in newly arrived adult immigrants and refugees. BACKGROUND: Despite effective vaccination programs for measles, mumps, and rubella in the United States and Canada, outbreaks continue to occur in susceptible subgroups, such as foreign-born persons. OBJECTIVE: To determine the susceptibility of newly arrived immigrants and refugees to measles, mumps, and rubella. DESIGN: Seroprevalence study. SETTING: Two hospitals and three community clinics (...) in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. PATIENTS: 1480 adult immigrants and refugees who were recruited from October 2002 to December 2004. MEASUREMENTS: Sociodemographic and clinical data and serology for measles, mumps, and rubella. RESULTS: Thirty-six percent (range, 22% to 54%) of the study population was nonimmune to at least 1 of the 3 diseases. This proportion varied by age, sex, and region of origin. In multivariate analysis and after adjustment for region of origin, age, and socioeconomic factors, immigrant
Implications of a 2005 measles outbreak in Indiana for sustained elimination of measles in the United States. BACKGROUND: Measles was declared eliminated from the United States in 2000 but remains endemic worldwide. In 2005, a 17-year-old unvaccinated girl who was incubating measles returned from Romania, creating the largest documented outbreak of measles in the United States since 1996. METHODS: We conducted a case-series investigation, molecular typing of viral isolates, surveys of rates (...) of vaccination coverage, interviews regarding attitudes toward vaccination, and cost surveys. RESULTS: Approximately 500 persons attended a gathering with the index patient one day after her return home. Approximately 50 lacked evidence of measles immunity, of whom 16 (32 percent) acquired measles at the gathering. During the six weeks after the gathering, a total of 34 cases of measles were confirmed. Of the patients with confirmed measles, 94 percent were unvaccinated, 88 percent were less than 20 years