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The Regulation of Insulin-Stimulated Cardiac Glucose Transport via Protein Acetylation Cellular catabolism is the cell capacity to generate energy from various substrates to sustain its function. To optimize this energy production, cells are able to switch between various metabolic pathways in accordance to substrate availability via a modulation of several regulatory enzymes. This metabolic flexibility is essential for the healthy heart, an organ requiring large quantities of ATP to sustain (...) substrates induces an increase in acetylation levels of proteins which is concomitant to the perturbation of glucose transport. The purpose of the present review is to gather, in a synthetic model, the different evidences that demonstrate the role of acetylation in the inhibition of the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in cardiac muscle.
Insulin Degludec (Tresiba) - diabetes mellitus Search Page - Drug and Health Product Register Language selection Search and menus Search Search website Search Topics menu You are here: Summary Basis of Decision - - Health Canada Expand all Summary Basis of Decision (SBD) for Contact: Summary Basis of Decision (SBD) documents provide information related to the original authorization of a product. The for is located below. Recent Activity for SBDs written for approved after September 1, 2012
Free and fixed-ratio combinations of basal insulin and GLP-1 receptor agonists versus basal insulin intensification in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials A meta-analysis is presented of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing free or fixed combinations of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist plus basal insulin versus insulin intensification on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Electronic databases were searched (...) for RCTs assessing changes in HbA1c, proportion of patients at HbA1c target of <7% (53 mmol/mol), hypoglycaemia and body weight. A random-effect model was used to calculate the weighted mean difference (WMD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% CI. Eleven RCTs were identified, lasting 24-30 weeks and involving 6176 patients. In the overall analysis, the combination therapy led to a mean HbA1c decrease significantly greater than insulin up-titration (WMD -0.53%, 95% CI, -0.66, -0.40%, P < 0.001), more
Vitamin D Supplementation, Glycemic Control, and Insulin Resistance in Prediabetics: A Meta-Analysis Diabetes prevention is a public health priority. Vitamin D supplementation may help prevent the development of diabetes in persons at increased risk. We performed a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials that assessed glycemic outcome measures among adults at risk for type 2 diabetes, including prediabetes, overweight, or obesity. We searched PUBMED/ MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar (...) hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, plasma glucose after 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. Data synthesis was conducted using random-effect models (PROSPERO registration no. CRD42017055326). Twenty-eight trials, representing 3848 participants, met the eligibility criteria. Compared with the control group, vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced HbA1c level by -0.48% (95% CI, -0.79 to -0.18), fasting plasma glucose level
Everolimus Directly Suppresses Insulin Secretion Independently of Cell Growth Inhibition Everolimus, an orally administered mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, has been widely used as an immunosuppressant and an anticancer agent. Whereas everolimus can control recurrent hypoglycemia in patients with insulinoma, possibly through tumor regression and/or the direct inhibition of insulin secretion, time-dependent changes in serum insulin levels caused by everolimus still remain unclear. Here (...) we report a clinical case of a patient with metastatic insulinoma, in which frequent monitoring of serum insulin levels demonstrated rapid and substantial changes in insulin secretion levels, a few days after the discontinuation as well as the readministration of everolimus. To further confirm the direct effect of everolimus on β-cell function, we performed in vitro experiments using mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6) and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived insulin-producing cells
Glycemic index, glycemic load and insulin response of two formulas of isoglucose with different sweeteners and dietary fiber in healthy adults and type-2 diabetes Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of two formulas with the same glucose content
with different sweeteners and dietary fiber for diabetics in healthy adults and in patients with type-2 diabetes (DM2).
Methodology: In this randomized, double-blind crossover research, eleven (...) healthy people and six with DM2 consumed two enteral formulas, Glucerna SR®, Laboratorios Abbott C.A. (GF) and Enterex Diabetic®, Victus C.A. (EF), sweetened with fructose y sucralose, with 1.2 and 1.3 g/100 ml of fiber source respectively (four times). Additionally, they consumed glucose solution once, obtaining blood samples at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min for controls; in the diabetics, minutes 150 and 180 were added for measuring blood glucose, basal and postprandial insulin after two
Cardiac Versus Non-Cardiac Related Mortality Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis Cardiovascular mortality is a major concern for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Insulin therapy significantly contributes to a high rate of death in these patients. We have performed a meta-analysis comparing cardiac and non-cardiac-related mortality following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a sample (...) of patients with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (ITDM).Studies were included in the meta-analysis if: (1) they were trials or cohort studies involving patients with T2DM post-PCI; (2) the outcomes in ITDM were separately reported; and (3) they reported cardiac death and non-cardiac death among their clinical endpoints. ITDM patients with any degree of coronary artery disease were included. The analysis was carried out using RevMan version 5.3 software, and data were reported with odds ratios
Characteristics of insulin-NaÃ¯ve people with type 2 diabetes who successfully respond to insulin glargine U100 after 24Â weeks of treatment: a meta-analysis of individual participant data from 3 randomized clinical trials To identify baseline/clinical characteristics associated with clinically meaningful responses to insulin glargine 100 U/mL (IGlar) in insulin-naive people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Individual participant data were pooled from 3 randomized trials to compare baseline (...) characteristics and clinical outcomes associated with 24-week response to IGlar in combination with non-insulin antihyperglycemic agents in participants with T2DM. Responders were defined as achieving endpoint HbA1c target < 53 mmol/mol (< 7%) and/or ≥ 11 mmol/mol (≥ 1%) HbA1c reduction from baseline.Differences in baseline characteristics for responders versus nonresponders were higher HbA1c (99 vs 91 mmol/mol [9.1 vs 8.3%]; P < 0.001), higher fasting blood glucose (FBG; 10.4 vs 8.8 mmol/L [187 vs 159 mg/dL
The effect of insulin-induced hypoglycemia on inflammatory markers: a systematic review. The effects of acute hypoglycemia on markers of inflammation have been investigated, but the results have been heterogeneous.We aimed to perform a systematic review about the acute effects of insulin-induced hypoglycemia on inflammatory markers in patients with diabetes as well as non-diabetic subjects.A systematic search of the literature using the electronic databases MEDLINE and SCOPUS was conducted (...) through September 2017. Search terms included: "hypoglycemia"," insulin", "cytokines", and "inflammation". We included original studies assessing peripheral inflammatory markers during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in humans.Two hundred twenty-two citations were initially retrieved. Eleven studies were included in our systematic review. Acute hypoglycemia increases total leukocyte number and several pro-inflammatory markers. Elevation in pro-inflammatory markers in response to insulin-induced acute
Insulin in a Pill: Barriers to Development of Oral InsulinInsulin in a Pill: Barriers to Development of Oral Insulin – Clinical Correlations Search Insulin in a Pill: Barriers to Development of Oral Insulin May 8, 2018 4 min read By Nicolas Gillingham Peer Reviewed Over 30 million Americans—9.4% of the population—live with diabetes, . Insulin can be self-administered by subcutaneous injection, either classically via a syringe, an insulin pen, or using an insulin pump. However, patients (...) with diabetes report that these daily injections can feel particularly burdensome, not to mention stigmatizing, when compared to oral medications like metformin, . What if our patients could take their insulin in a capsule alongside their morning metformin? Such a formulation would eliminate a significant barrier to medication adherence and would also better mimic the physiology of endogenous insulin. Endogenous and exogenous insulin take different paths to the liver, which affects how they influence
Effect of exenatide QW or placebo, both added to titrated insulin glargine, in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes: The DURATION-7 randomized study To compare the efficacy and safety of adding the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide once weekly (QW) 2 mg or placebo among patients with type 2 diabetes who were inadequately controlled despite titrated insulin glargine (IG) ± metformin.This multicentre, double-blind study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02229383) randomized (1:1
Hypoglycaemia incidence and recovery during home use of hybrid closed-loop insulin delivery in adults with type 1 diabetes Glucose excursion was assessed prior to and post hypoglycaemia to increase understanding of hypoglycaemia incidence and recovery during hybrid closed-loop insulin delivery. We retrospectively analysed data from 60 adults with type 1 diabetes who received, in a crossover randomized design, day-and-night hybrid closed-loop insulin delivery and insulin pump therapy, the latter (...) during control intervention (P < .01), while insulin delivery was reduced (P < .01). During both day and night, participants recovered from hypoglycaemia faster when treated by closed-loop intervention. At 120 minutes post hypoglycaemia, sensor glucose levels were higher during closed-loop intervention compared to the control period (P < .05). In conclusion, closed-loop intervention reduces the risk of hypoglycaemia, particularly overnight, with swift recovery from hypoglycaemia leading to higher 2
Safety of non-insulin glucose-lowering drugs in pregnant women with pre-gestational diabetes: A cohort study To evaluate the association between use of non-insulin antidiabetics in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriages, stillbirths and major structural malformations.A cohort of 1511 pregnant women with pre-gestational diabetes linked to live births was identified using electronic medical records from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) for the period 1995 to 2012. Information (...) on prescriptions, foetal outcomes and potential confounders was ascertained from both codes and free text in the THIN database. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of adverse foetal outcomes in women treated with non-insulin antidiabetics during the first trimester compared to those on insulin were estimated using logistic regression to adjust for type of diabetes, glycaemic control and other maternal characteristics.Among 311 pregnant women on non-insulin antidiabetics, 21.9% had a miscarriage
Effect of Glyburide vs Subcutaneous Insulin on Perinatal Complications Among Women With Gestational Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Randomized trials have not focused on neonatal complications of glyburide for women with gestational diabetes.To compare oral glyburide vs subcutaneous insulin in prevention of perinatal complications in newborns of women with gestational diabetes.The Insulin Daonil trial (INDAO), a multicenter noninferiority randomized trial conducted between May 2012 (...) and November 2016 (end of participant follow-up) in 13 tertiary care university hospitals in France including 914 women with singleton pregnancies and gestational diabetes diagnosed between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation.Women who required pharmacologic treatment after 10 days of dietary intervention were randomly assigned to receive glyburide (n=460) or insulin (n=454). The starting dosage for glyburide was 2.5 mg orally once per day and could be increased if necessary 4 days later by 2.5 mg and thereafter
Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors as add-on therapy to insulin for type 1 diabetes mellitus: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials New treatments for type 1 diabetes are an unmet need. We investigated the efficacy and safety of adding sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors to insulin for type 1 diabetes by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective randomized, placebo-controlled trials. A search of electronic databases up to October 2017 (...) identified 1361 studies, of which 14 were investigated (N = 4591). Meta-analysis showed that SGLT2 inhibitor therapy significantly reduced glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration by 0.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35, 0.46; P < .001, I2 = 0%), fasting plasma glucose by 1.14 mmol/L (95% CI 0.8,1.47), body weight by 2.68 kg (95% CI 2.0, 3.36), and systolic blood pressure by 3.37 mmHg (95% CI 1.46, 5.28). In addition, bolus insulin decreased by 3.6 units/day (95% CI 2.0, 5.3), and basal insulin
Biosimilar vs originator insulins: Systematic review and meta-analysis Biosimilar insulins have expanded the treatment options for diabetes. We compared the clinical efficacy and safety of biosimilar insulins with those of originator insulins by conducting a meta-analysis. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed on randomized controlled trials comparing biosimilar and originator insulins in adults with diabetes. Studies were obtained by searching electronic databases up to December 2017 (...) . Ten trials, in a total of 4935 patients, were assessed (2 trials each on LY2963016, MK-1293, Mylan's insulin glargine and SAR342434, and 1 trial each on FFP-112 and Basalog). The meta-analysis found no differences between long-acting biosimilar and originator insulins with regard to reduction in glycated haemoglobin at 24 weeks (0.04%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.01, 0.08; P for efficacy = .14, I2 = 0%) or at 52 weeks (0.03%, 95% CI -0.04, 0.1), or reduction in fasting plasma glucose (0.08
A Systematic Literature Review and Network Meta-Analysis Comparing Once-Weekly Semaglutide with Other GLP-1 Receptor Agonists in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Previously Receiving Basal Insulin Once-weekly semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue that is currently available as 1.0 mg and 0.5 mg dose for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Currently, no head-to-head trial investigating once-weekly semaglutide as an add-on to basal insulin vs other GLP-1 receptor agonists (...) (GLP-1 RAs) is available. The aim of this study was to conduct a network meta-analysis (NMA) to assess the efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide vs other GLP-1 RAs in patients with T2D inadequately controlled on basal insulin.A systematic literature review was performed to identify all trials of GLP-1 RAs as an add-on to basal insulin in patients with T2D. Data at 24 ± 4 weeks were extracted for efficacy and safety outcomes (feasible for analysis in an NMA), including the change from
Hepatic iron concentration correlates with insulin sensitivity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Rodent and cell-culture models support a role for iron-related adipokine dysregulation and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, substantial human data are lacking. We examined the relationship between measures of iron status, adipokines, and insulin resistance in patients with NAFLD in the presence and absence of venesection. This study forms (...) part of the Impact of Iron on Insulin Resistance and Liver Histology in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (IIRON2) study, a prospective randomized controlled trial of venesection for adults with NAFLD. Paired serum samples at baseline and 6 months (end of treatment) in controls (n = 28) and patients who had venesection (n = 23) were assayed for adiponectin, leptin, resistin, retinol binding protein-4, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin-6, using a Quantibody, customized, multiplexed enzyme-linked
Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Is Integral for the Acute Activity of Leptin and Insulin in Male Arcuate NPY/AgRP Neurons Neuropeptide Y (NPY)/Agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus are part of a neuroendocrine feedback loop that regulates feeding behavior and glucose homeostasis. NPY/AgRP neurons sense peripheral signals (including the hormones leptin, insulin, and ghrelin) and integrate those signals with inputs from other brain regions. These inputs modify (...) both long-term changes in gene transcription and acute changes in the electrical activity of these neurons, leading to a coordinated response to maintain energy and glucose homeostasis. However, the mechanisms by which the hormones insulin and leptin acutely modify the electrical activity of these neurons remain unclear. In this study, we show that loss of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunits p110α and p110β in AgRP neurons abrogates the leptin- and insulin-induced inhibition of AgRP
Early (â‰¤â€‰30Â Days), Late (31â€“360Â Days) and Very Late (>â€‰360Â Days) Stent Thrombosis in Patients with Insulin-Treated versus Non-Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis At this time in 2018, with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD) still on the rise, the post-percutaneous coronary interventional (PCI) outcomes observed in patients with diabetes mellitus who are on insulin therapy (ITDM) and those who do not require insulin (NITDM (...) searched for relevant English publications based on ITDM and NITDM and stent thrombosis following PCI using specific terms. Early stent thrombosis, late stent thrombosis and very late stent thrombosis were the clinical outcomes. The main analysis was carried out using the latest version of the RevMan software (version 5.3) whereby odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were generated.A total of 8524 participants with T2DM (2273 participants were on insulin therapy and 6251 participants