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Latest & greatest articles for insulin
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Challenges constraining access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi, India India's majority of patients-including those living with diabetes-seek healthcare in the private sector through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. We studied access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi state, India.A modified World Health Organization/Health Action International (WHO/HAI) standard survey to assess insulin availability and prices, and qualitative interviews with insulin retailers (...) (pharmacists) and wholesalers to understand insulin market dynamics.In 40 pharmacy outlets analysed, mean availability of the human and analogue insulins on the 2013 Delhi essential medicine list was 44.4% and 13.1%, respectively. 82% of pharmacies had domestically manufactured human insulin phials, primarily was made in India under licence to overseas pharmaceutical companies. Analogue insulin was only in cartridge and pen forms that were 4.42 and 5.81 times, respectively, the price of human insulin
GLP1-RA Add-on Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Currently on a Bolus Containing Insulin Regimen Adding glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) to basal insulin regimens has become a guideline-recommended treatment option for uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. However, limited data exist to support the use of GLP-1 RAs with insulin regimens, including bolus insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary objectives of this review were to identify if the combination (...) of a GLP-1 RA and an insulin regimen containing bolus insulin resulted in improvements in HbA1c , weight loss, reduction in insulin doses, and to evaluate the side effect profile of this combination in terms of nausea and hypoglycemia risk. Eight studies using exenatide twice/day, liraglutide, and dulaglutide were reviewed ranging in average duration of follow-up from 3 to 15 months. Seven studies showed that addition of a GLP-1 RA was associated with significant HbA1c reductions ranging from 0.4
The relation of anthropometric measurements and insulin resistance in patients with polycystic kidney disease To examine the frequency of insulin resistance (IR) and its relation with anthropometric measurements in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).Nonobese 82 patients with ADPKD and 58 age matched healthy controls were enrolled into the study. None of participants were diabetic or receiving renal replacement therapies (RRT). IR was determined by homeostasis (...) model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) formula. Tanita body composition analyzer was used for anthropometric measurements. Creatinine clearance of participant were assessed by the modification of diet in renal diseases (MDRD).Patients with ADPKD had significantly higher level of urea and creatinine, microalbuminuria, and lower level of MDRD. Body fat distribution and HOMA-IR in both the groups were similar. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure of patients were higher than those
Insulin monotherapy compared with the addition of oral glucose-lowering agents to insulin for people with type 2 diabetes already on insulin therapy and inadequate glycaemic control. It is unclear whether people with type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin monotherapy who do not achieve adequate glycaemic control should continue insulin as monotherapy or can benefit from adding oral glucose-lowering agents to the insulin therapy.To assess the effects of insulin monotherapy compared (...) with the addition of oral glucose-lowering agents to insulin monotherapy for people with type 2 diabetes already on insulin therapy and inadequate glycaemic control.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and reference lists of articles. The date of the last search was November 2015 for all databases.Randomised controlled clinical trials of at least
Basal insulin peglispro versus insulin glargine in insulin-naive type 2 diabetes: IMAGINE 2 randomized trial To compare, in a double-blind, randomized, multi-national study, 52- or 78-week treatment with basal insulin peglispro or insulin glargine, added to pre-study oral antihyperglycaemic medications, in insulin-naïve adults with type 2 diabetes.The primary outcome was non-inferiority of peglispro to glargine with regard to glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction (margin = 0.4%). Six gated
Efficacy and Safety of Liraglutide Added to Capped Insulin Treatment in Subjects With Type 1 Diabetes: the ADJUNCT TWO Randomized Trial To investigate the efficacy and safety of liraglutide added to capped insulin doses in subjects with type 1 diabetes.A 26-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trial enrolling 835 subjects randomized 3:1 receiving once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide (1.8, 1.2, and 0.6 mg) or placebo added to an individually capped total daily dose (...) of insulin.Mean baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (8.1% [65.0 mmol/mol]) was significantly decreased with liraglutide versus placebo at week 26 (1.8 mg: -0.33% [3.6 mmol/mol]; 1.2 mg: -0.22% [2.4 mmol/mol]; 0.6 mg: -0.23% [2.5 mmol/mol]; placebo: 0.01% [0.1 mmol/mol]). Liraglutide significantly reduced mean body weight (-5.1, -4.0, and -2.5 kg for 1.8, 1.2, and 0.6 mg, respectively) versus placebo (-0.2 kg). Significant reductions in daily insulin dose and increases in quality of life were seen
Benefits of LixiLan, a Titratable Fixed-Ratio Combination of Insulin Glargine Plus Lixisenatide, Versus Insulin Glargine and Lixisenatide Monocomponents in Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled With Oral Agents: The LixiLan-O Randomized Trial To evaluate efficacy and safety of LixiLan (iGlarLixi), a novel titratable fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine (iGlar) and lixisenatide (Lixi), compared with both components, iGlar and Lixi, given separately in type 2 diabetes inadequately (...) controlled on metformin with or without a second oral glucose-lowering drug.After a 4-week run-in to optimize metformin and stop other oral antidiabetic drugs, participants (N = 1,170, mean diabetes duration ∼8.8 years, BMI ∼31.7 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to open-label once-daily iGlarLixi or iGlar, both titrated to fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dL (<5.6 mmol/L) up to a maximum insulin dose of 60 units/day, or to once-daily Lixi (20 μg/day) while continuing with metformin. The primary outcome
Efficacy and Safety of Liraglutide Added to Insulin Treatment in Type 1 Diabetes: The ADJUNCT ONE Treat-To-Target Randomized Trial To investigate whether liraglutide added to treat-to-target insulin improves glycemic control and reduces insulin requirements and body weight in subjects with type 1 diabetes.A 52-week, double-blind, treat-to-target trial involving 1,398 adults randomized 3:1 to receive once-daily subcutaneous injections of liraglutide (1.8, 1.2, or 0.6 mg) or placebo added (...) to insulin.HbA1c level was reduced 0.34-0.54% (3.7-5.9 mmol/mol) from a mean baseline of 8.2% (66 mmol/mol), and significantly more for liraglutide 1.8 and 1.2 mg compared with placebo (estimated treatment differences [ETDs]: 1.8 mg liraglutide -0.20% [95% CI -0.32; -0.07]; 1.2 mg liraglutide -0.15% [95% CI -0.27; -0.03]; 0.6 mg liraglutide -0.09% [95% CI -0.21; 0.03]). Insulin doses were reduced by the addition of liraglutide 1.8 and 1.2 mg versus placebo (estimated treatment ratios: 1.8 mg liraglutide 0.92
Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery during Pregnancy in Women with Type 1 Diabetes. In patients with type 1 diabetes who are not pregnant, closed-loop (automated) insulin delivery can provide better glycemic control than sensor-augmented pump therapy, but data are lacking on the efficacy, safety, and feasibility of closed-loop therapy during pregnancy.We performed an open-label, randomized, crossover study comparing overnight closed-loop therapy with sensor-augmented pump therapy, followed (...) therapy in the percentage of time in which glucose levels were below the target range (1.3% and 1.9%, respectively; P=0.28), in insulin doses, or in adverse-event rates. During the continuation phase (up to 14.6 additional weeks, including antenatal hospitalizations, labor, and delivery), glucose levels were in the target range 68.7% of the time; the mean glucose level was 126 mg per deciliter (7.0 mmol per liter). No episodes of severe hypoglycemia requiring third-party assistance occurred during
Global Cysteine-Reactivity Profiling During Impaired Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling in C. elegans Identifies Uncharacterized Mediators of Longevity In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, inactivating mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 receptor, DAF-2, result in a 2-fold increase in lifespan mediated by DAF-16, a FOXO-family transcription factor. Downstream protein activities that directly regulate longevity during impaired insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) are poorly characterized. Here, we use global
Urinary Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 7 for Risk Stratification of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With Sepsis To examine the performance of the urinary biomarker panel tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 in patients with sepsis at ICU admission. To investigate the effect of nonrenal organ dysfunction on tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 and insulin-like growth factor-binding (...) predictive values at three cutoffs: 0.3, 1.0, and 2.0 (ng/mL)/1,000. We also calculated nonrenal Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores for each patient on enrollment and compared tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 results in patients with and without acute kidney injury and across nonrenal Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. Finally, we constructed a clinical model for acute kidney injury in this population and compared the performance
Continuous glucose monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide in combination with prandial insulin lispro: an AWARD-4 substudy To conduct a substudy, using 24-hour continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), of the AWARD-4 trial, which was designed to compare insulin + glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist treatment with an insulin-only regimen.The AWARD-4 trial randomized 884 conventional insulin regimen-treated patients (...) to dulaglutide 1.5 mg, dulaglutide 0.75 mg and glargine, all in combination with prandial insulin lispro. The CGM substudy included 144 patients inserted with a Medtronic CGMS iPro CGM device to enable 3-day glucose monitoring. CGM sessions were completed at weeks 0, 13, 26 and 52. CGM measures included mean 24-hour glucose, percentage time in target glucose ranges, hyper- and hypoglycaemia and glucose variability. The primary objective was treatment comparison for percentage time spent with CGM glucose
Association of Lipoproteins, Insulin Resistance, and Rosuvastatin With Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial. Statins decrease levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides as well as cardiovascular events but increase the risk for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The risk factors associated with incident T2DM are incompletely characterized.To investigate the association of lipoprotein subclasses and size and a novel (...) lipoprotein insulin resistance (LPIR) score (a composite of 6 lipoprotein measures) with incident T2DM among individuals randomized to a high-intensity statin or placebo.This secondary analysis of the JUPITER trial (a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial) was conducted at 1315 sites in 26 countries and enrolled 17 802 men 50 years or older and women 60 years or older with LDL cholesterol levels less than 130 mg/dL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels of at least 2 mg/L, and triglyceride
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Insulin-Treated and Non-Insulin-Treated Diabetes Mellitus: Secondary Analysis of the TUXEDO Trial. Prior studies have shown that patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) have a higher risk of cardiovascular events. However, this finding is controversial, as other studies have shown that the increased risk of cardiovascular events disappears after risk adjustment. In addition, the choice of a drug-eluting stent (limus- vs taxol (...) -eluting) in ITDM is controversial, with studies showing worse outcomes with an everolimus-eluting stent compared with a paclitaxel-eluting stent.To assess the outcomes of patients with ITDM vs non-ITDM who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and to assess the efficacy and safety of an everolimus-eluting stent vs a paclitaxel-eluting stent based on insulin use status.A prespecified analysis was conducted of the Taxus Element vs Xience Prime in a Diabetic Population (TUXEDO) clinical trial
Reninâ€“angiotensinâ€“aldosterone system in insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome Obesity and its consequent complications such as hypertension and metabolic syndrome are increasing in incidence in almost all countries. Insulin resistance is common in obesity. Renin- angiotensin system (RAS) is an important target in the treatment of hypertension and drugs that act on RAS improve insulin resistance and decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, explaining the close association
Oral treatment with Eubacterium hallii improves insulin sensitivity in db/db mice An altered intestinal microbiota composition is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We previously identified increased intestinal levels of Eubacterium hallii, an anaerobic bacterium belonging to the butyrate-producing Lachnospiraceae family, in metabolic syndrome subjects who received a faecal transplant from a lean donor. To further assess the effects of E. hallii on insulin (...) sensitivity, we orally treated obese and diabetic db/db mice with alive E. hallii and glycerol or heat-inactive E. hallii as control. Insulin tolerance tests and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp experiments revealed that alive E. hallii treatment improved insulin sensitivity compared control treatment. In addition, E. hallii treatment increased energy expenditure in db/db mice. Active E. hallii treatment was found to increase faecal butyrate concentrations and to modify bile acid metabolism compared
Heterogeneous Contribution of Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Defects to Gestational Diabetes Mellitus To characterize physiologic subtypes of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Insulin sensitivity and secretion were estimated in 809 women at 24-30 weeks' gestation, using oral glucose tolerance test-based indices. In women with GDM (8.3%), defects in insulin sensitivity or secretion were defined below the 25th percentile in women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). GDM subtypes were defined (...) based on the defect(s) present.Relative to women with NGT, women with predominant insulin sensitivity defects (51% of GDM) had higher BMI and fasting glucose, larger infants (birth weight z score 0.57 [-0.01 to 1.37] vs. 0.03 [-0.53 to 0.52], P = 0.001), and greater risk of GDM-associated adverse outcomes (57.6 vs. 28.2%, P = 0.003); differences were independent of BMI. Women with predominant insulin secretion defects (30% of GDM) had BMI, fasting glucose, infant birth weights, and risk of adverse
Investigating the Relationship between Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) in diabetic motherâ€™s breast milk and the blood serum of their babies Since research investigating IGF-1 levels in breast milk are few, the goal of this study was to analyze the IGF-1 levels in the breast milk of diabetic mothers as well as in the serum of their newborn babies and to identify what relationship exists between blood serum and IGF-1 milk levels through patient measurement of mothers and their babies.This