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Latest & greatest articles for influenza
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Health and Economic Benefits of Early Vaccination and Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for a Human Influenza A (H7N9) Pandemic: A Modeling Study. BACKGROUND: Vaccination for the 2009 pandemic did not occur until late in the outbreak, which limited its benefits. Influenza A (H7N9) is causing increasing morbidity and mortality in China, and researchers have modified the A (H5N1) virus to transmit via aerosol, which again heightens concerns about pandemic influenza preparedness. OBJECTIVE (...) : To determine how quickly vaccination should be completed to reduce infections, deaths, and health care costs in a pandemic with characteristics similar to influenza A (H7N9) and A (H5N1). DESIGN: Dynamic transmission model to estimate health and economic consequences of a severe influenza pandemic in a large metropolitan city. DATA SOURCES: Literature and expert opinion. TARGET POPULATION: Residents of a U.S. metropolitan city with characteristics similar to New York City. TIME HORIZON: Lifetime
The immune response and within-host emergence of pandemic influenza virus. Zoonotic influenza viruses that are a few mutations away from pandemic viruses circulate in animals, and can evolve into airborne-transmissible viruses in human beings. Paradoxically, such viruses only occasionally emerge in people; the four influenza pandemics that occurred in the past 100 years were caused by zoonotic viruses that acquired efficient transmissibility. Emergence of a pandemic virus in people can happen (...) when transmissible viruses evolve in individuals with zoonotic influenza and replicate to titres allowing transmission. We postulate that this step in the genesis of a pandemic virus only occasionally occurs in human beings, because the immune response triggered by zoonotic influenza virus also controls transmissible mutants that emerge during infection. Therefore, an impaired immune response might be needed for within-host emergence of a pandemic virus and replication to titres allowing
Risk of Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Infection During Pregnancy and Association With Adverse Fetal Outcomes. IMPORTANCE: Unencapsulated Haemophilus influenzae frequently causes noninvasive upper respiratory tract infections in children but can also cause invasive disease, especially in older adults. A number of studies have reported an increased incidence in neonates and suggested that pregnant women may have an increased susceptibility to invasive unencapsulated H. influenzae disease (...) . OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of invasive H. influenzae disease in women of reproductive age during a 4-year period. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Public Health England conducts enhanced national surveillance of invasive H. influenzae disease in England and Wales. Clinical questionnaires were sent prospectively to general practitioners caring for all women aged 15 to 44 years with laboratory-confirmed invasive H. influenzae disease during 2009-2012
Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults. BACKGROUND: Different types of influenza vaccines are currently produced worldwide. Vaccination of pregnant women is recommended internationally, while healthy adults are targeted in North America. OBJECTIVES: To identify, retrieve and assess all studies evaluating the effects (efficacy, effectiveness and harm) of vaccines against influenza in healthy adults, including pregnant women. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register (...) of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2013) and EMBASE (1990 to May 2013). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing influenza vaccines with placebo or no intervention in naturally occurring influenza in healthy individuals aged 16 to 65 years. We also included comparative studies assessing serious and rare harms. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trial quality
Neuraminidase inhibitors for the treatment of influenza infection in people with cystic fibrosis. BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is the most common, life-threatening, recessively inherited disease of Caucasian populations. It is a multisystem disorder caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein which is important in producing sweat, digestive juices and mucus.The impaired or absent function of this protein results in the production (...) of viscous mucus within the lungs and an environment that is susceptible to chronic airway obstruction and pulmonary colonization by a range of pathogenic bacteria. Morbidity and mortality of cystic fibrosis is related to chronic pulmonary sepsis and its complications by these bacteria.Influenza can worsen the course of the disease in cystic fibrosis by increasing the risk of pneumonia and secondary respiratory complications. Antiviral agents form an important part of influenza management and include
Needle-free jet injection for administration of influenza vaccine: a randomised non-inferiority trial. 24881803 2014 08 25 2014 09 03 2015 11 19 1474-547X 384 9944 2014 Aug 23 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Needle-free jet injection for administration of influenza vaccine: a randomised non-inferiority trial. 674-81 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60524-9 S0140-6736(14)60524-9 Administration of vaccines by needle-free technology such as jet injection might offer an alternative to needles and syringes (...) that avoids the issue of needle phobia and the risk of needle-stick injury. We aimed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of trivalent influenza vaccine given by needle-free jet injector compared with needle and syringe. For this randomised, comparator-controlled trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) healthy adults (aged 18-64 years) who attended one of four employee health clinics in the University of Colorado health system, with stratification by site, to receive one dose of the trivalent inactivated
Influenza vaccination of pregnant women and protection of their infants. 25184864 2014 09 04 2014 09 11 2015 04 01 1533-4406 371 10 2014 Sep 04 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Influenza vaccination of pregnant women and protection of their infants. 918-31 10.1056/NEJMoa1401480 There are limited data on the efficacy of vaccination against confirmed influenza in pregnant women with and those without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and protection of their infants (...) . We conducted two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) in South Africa during 2011 in pregnant women infected with HIV and during 2011 and 2012 in pregnant women who were not infected. The immunogenicity, safety, and efficacy of IIV3 in pregnant women and their infants were evaluated until 24 weeks after birth. Immune responses were measured with a hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay, and influenza was diagnosed by means
Efficacy of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccine in older adults. 25119609 2014 08 14 2014 08 19 2015 03 06 1533-4406 371 7 2014 Aug 14 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Efficacy of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccine in older adults. 635-45 10.1056/NEJMoa1315727 As compared with a standard-dose vaccine, a high-dose, trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3-HD) improves antibody responses to influenza among adults 65 years of age or older (...) . This study evaluated whether IIV3-HD also improves protection against laboratory-confirmed influenza illness. We conducted a phase IIIb-IV, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial to compare IIV3-HD (60 μg of hemagglutinin per strain) with standard-dose trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3-SD [15 μg of hemagglutinin per strain]) in adults 65 years of age or older. Assessments of relative efficacy, effectiveness, safety (serious adverse events), and immunogenicity
Rapivab (peramivir) - To treat influenza infection in adults Drug Approval Package: Brand Name (Generic Name) NDA # Drug Approval Package U.S. Food & Drug Administration Enter Search terms Drug Approval Package - RAPIVAB (peramivir) Injection Company: BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Application No.: 206426 Approval Date: 12/19/2014 Persons with disabilities having problems accessing the PDF files below may call (301) 796-3634 for assistance. (PDF) (PDF) (PDF) (PDF) (PDF) (PDF) (PDF) (PDF) (PDF
Seasonal influenza vaccine USE OF SEASONAL INFLUENZA VACCINES IN PREGNANCY 0344 892 0909 USE OF SEASONAL INFLUENZA VACCINES IN PREGNANCY (Date of issue: June 2014 , Version: 2 ) This is a UKTIS monograph for use by health care professionals. For case-specific advice please contact UKTIS on 0344 892 0909. To report an exposure please download and complete a . Please encourage all women to complete an . A corresponding patient information leaflet on is available at . Summary Seasonal influenza (...) vaccines are inactivated trivalent vaccines produced in anticipation of the expected circulating strains of seasonal influenza virus for the coming flu season. The antigen formulation may therefore vary on a yearly basis. Data on seasonal and pandemic influenza infection suggest that pregnant women, especially those with pre-existing medical conditions and those in the later stages of pregnancy, are at increased risk of complications and are more likely to experience adverse fetal outcomes
Influenza - seasonal Influenza - seasonal - NICE CKS Clinical Knowledge Summaries Share Influenza - seasonal - Summary Influenza is an acute respiratory illness caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (influenza viruses). There are three types of influenza virus: Influenza A occurs more frequently and is more virulent. It is responsible for most major epidemics and pandemics. Influenza B often co-circulates with influenza A during the yearly outbreaks. Generally, influenza B causes (...) less severe clinical illness, although it can still be responsible for outbreaks. Influenza C usually causes a mild or asymptomatic infection similar to the common cold. Influenza usually occurs in the UK during the winter months, from October to May. Most complications of influenza in adults are respiratory in nature and include: Acute bronchitis. Pneumonia. Exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Otitis media. Sinusitis. Influenza presents with symptoms appearing
Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy - ACOG Menu ▼ Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ Number 732, April 2018 (Replaces Committee Opinion Number 608, September 2014) Committee on Obstetric Practice This Committee Opinion was developed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Immunization and Emerging Infections Expert Work Group and the Committee on Obstetric Practice in collaboration with Neil S. Silverman, MD (...) presented. Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy ABSTRACT: Influenza vaccination is an essential element of prepregnancy, prenatal, and postpartum care because influenza can result in serious illness, including a higher chance of progressing to pneumonia, when it occurs during the antepartum or postpartum period. In addition to hospitalization, pregnant women with influenza are at increased risk of intensive care unit admission and adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes. The Centers for Disease
BD veritor system for rapid detection of flu A+B (Becton, Dickinson and Company) for detection of Influenza types A and B viral antigens BD veritor system for rapid detection of flu A+B (Becton, Dickinson and Company) for detection of Influenza types A and B viral antigens BD veritor system for rapid detection of flu A+B (Becton, Dickinson and Company) for detection of Influenza types A and B viral antigens Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment (...) . No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation BD veritor system for rapid detection of flu A+B (Becton, Dickinson and Company) for detection of Influenza types A and B viral antigens. Lansdale: HAYES, Inc.. Healthcare Technology Brief Publication. 2014 Authors' conclusions An estimated 5% to 20% of individuals in the United States are infected by an influenza virus causing acute respiratory disease each year, leading to 200,000 hospitalizations. Human influenza
Vaccine for prevention of mild and moderate-to-severe influenza in children. BACKGROUND: Commonly used trivalent vaccines contain one influenza B virus lineage and may be ineffective against viruses of the other B lineage. We evaluated the efficacy of a candidate inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) containing both B lineages. METHODS: In this multinational, phase 3, observer-blinded study, we randomly assigned children 3 to 8 years of age, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive the QIV (...) or a hepatitis A vaccine (control). The primary end point was influenza A or B confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR). Secondary end points were rt-PCR-confirmed, moderate-to-severe influenza and rt-PCR-positive, culture-confirmed influenza. The vaccine efficacy and the effect of vaccination on daily activities and utilization of health care resources were assessed in the total vaccinated cohort (2584 children in each group) and the per-protocol cohort (2379 children in the QIV group
Association between influenza vaccination and cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients: a meta-analysis Association between influenza vaccination and cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients: a meta-analysis Association between influenza vaccination and cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients: a meta-analysis Udell JA, Zawi R, Bhatt DL, Keshtkar-Jahromi M, Gaughran F, Phrommintikul A, Ciszewski A, Vakili H, Hoffman EB, Farkouh ME, Cannon CP CRD summary The authors concluded (...) that influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events within one year in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. This was a generally well-conducted review but uncertainties surrounding the generally small and heterogeneous evidence base mean the reliability of the findings remains uncertain and they should be considered preliminary. Authors' objectives To assess the effects of influenza vaccination on patients at high risk of cardiovascular events
Effect of closure of live poultry markets on poultry-to-person transmission of avian influenza A H7N9 virus: an ecological study. BACKGROUND: Transmission of the novel avian influenza A H7N9 virus seems to be predominantly between poultry and people. In the major Chinese cities of Shanghai, Hangzhou, Huzhou, and Nanjing--where most human cases of infection have occurred--live poultry markets (LPMs) were closed in April, 2013, soon after the initial outbreak, as a precautionary public health (...) measure. Our objective was to quantify the effect of LPM closure in these cities on poultry-to-person transmission of avian influenza A H7N9 virus. METHODS: We obtained information about every laboratory-confirmed human case of avian influenza A H7N9 virus infection reported in the four cities by June 7, 2013, from a database built by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We used data for age, sex, location, residence type (rural or urban area), and dates of illness onset. We obtained