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Latest & greatest articles for infection
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Comparative risk of genital infections associated with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors 30207042 2018 10 12 1463-1326 2018 Sep 12 Diabetes, obesity & metabolism Diabetes Obes Metab Comparative risk of genital infections associated with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors. 10.1111/dom.13531 The extent to which sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors increase the risk of genital infections in routine clinical care, compared with other antidiabetic medications (...) was a composite of genital candidal infections, vaginitis or vulvovaginitis in women, and genital candidal infections, balanitis, balanoposthitis, phimosis or paraphimosis in men. Among propensity score-matched cohorts of 129 994 women and 156 074 men, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and excess risk per 1000 person-years for SGLT2 versus DPP-4 inhibitors was 2.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.64, 2.99) and 87.4 (95% CI, 79.1, 96.2) respectively for women, and was 2.68 (95% CI, 2.31, 3.11) and 11.9 (95% CI
Follow-on RifAximin for the Prevention of recurrence following standard treatment of Infection with Clostridium Difficile (RAPID): a randomised placebo controlled trial 30254135 2018 10 27 1468-3288 2018 Sep 25 Gut Gut Follow-on RifAximin for the Prevention of recurrence following standard treatment of Infection with Clostridium Difficile (RAPID): a randomised placebo controlled trial. gutjnl-2018-316794 10.1136/gutjnl-2018-316794 Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurs after initial (...) , Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK. Spiller Robin C RC http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6371-4500 Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre and NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre at Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, the University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Notts, UK. RAPID Collaboration Group eng Journal Article 2018 09 25 England Gut 2985108R 0017-5749 diarrhoea enteric infectionsinfective colitis inflammation Competing interests: GM, LB, KS, MD, NB, AM
Efficacies of Genotypic Resistance-Guided vs Empirical Therapy for Refractory Helicobacter pylori Infection 29964036 2018 10 23 2018 10 23 1528-0012 155 4 2018 10 Gastroenterology Gastroenterology Efficacies of Genotypic Resistance-Guided vs Empirical Therapy for Refractory Helicobacter pylori Infection. 1109-1119 S0016-5085(18)34689-4 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.06.047 We aimed to compare the efficacy of genotypic resistance-guided therapy vs empirical therapy for eradication of refractory (...) Helicobacter pylori infection in randomized controlled trials. We performed 2 multicenter, open-label trials of patients with H pylori infection (20 years or older) failed by 2 or more previous treatment regimens, from October 2012 through September 2017 in Taiwan. The patients were randomly assigned to groups given genotypic resistance-guided therapy for 14 days (n = 21 in trial 1, n = 205 in trial 2) or empirical therapy according to medication history for 14 days (n = 20 in trial 1, n = 205 in trial 2
Guideline for the Management of Clostridium Difficile Infection in Children and Adolescents With Cancer and Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation Recipients 30216124 2018 11 14 1527-7755 2018 Sep 14 Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology J. Clin. Oncol. Guideline for the Management of Clostridium Difficile Infection in Children and Adolescents With Cancer and Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation Recipients (...) . JCO1800407 10.1200/JCO.18.00407 Purpose The aim of this work was to develop a clinical practice guideline for the prevention and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in children and adolescents with cancer and pediatric hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. Methods An international multidisciplinary panel of experts in pediatric oncology and infectious diseases with patient advocate representation was convened. We performed systematic reviews of randomized controlled
The Additive Value of Pelvic Examinations to History in Predicting Sexually Transmitted Infections for Young Female Patients With Suspected Cervicitis or Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 30251627 2018 09 25 1097-6760 2018 Jul 02 Annals of emergency medicine Ann Emerg Med The Additive Value of Pelvic Examinations to History in Predicting Sexually Transmitted Infections for Young Female Patients With Suspected Cervicitis or Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. S0196-0644(18)30413-X 10.1016/j.annemergmed (...) .2018.05.004 We evaluate the additive value of pelvic examinations in predicting sexually transmitted infection for young female patients with suspected cervicitis or pelvic inflammatory disease in a pediatric emergency department (ED). This was a prospective observational study of female patients aged 14 to 20 years who presented to an urban academic pediatric ED with a complaint of vaginal discharge or lower abdominal pain. Enrolled patients provided a urine sample for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and
A Meta-analysis of Prophylaxis of Surgical Site Infections with Topical Application of Povidone Iodine Before Primary Closure 30244376 2018 09 23 1432-2323 2018 Sep 22 World journal of surgery World J Surg A Meta-analysis of Prophylaxis of Surgical Site Infections with Topical Application of Povidone Iodine Before Primary Closure. 10.1007/s00268-018-4798-0 Povidone iodine (PVI) is a widely used antiseptic solution among surgeons. A meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs (...) ) was conducted to establish whether application of PVI before wound closure could reduce surgical site infection (SSI) rates. Systematic review of MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases from inception to September 2017, with no language restrictions. Only RCTs were retrieved. The primary outcome was the SSI rate. Meta-analysis was complemented with trial sequential analysis (TSA). A total of 7601 patients collected from 16 RCTs were analyzed. A reduction in overall SSI rate was found
Effect of Increased Daily Water Intake in Premenopausal Women With Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections: A Randomized Clinical Trial 30285042 2018 11 05 2168-6114 178 11 2018 Nov 01 JAMA internal medicine JAMA Intern Med Effect of Increased Daily Water Intake in Premenopausal Women With Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections: A Randomized Clinical Trial. 1509-1515 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.4204 Increased hydration is often recommended as a preventive measure for women with recurrent cystitis, but (...) supportive data are sparse. To assess the efficacy of increased daily water intake on the frequency of recurrent cystitis in premenopausal women. Randomized, open-label, controlled, 12-month trial at a clinical research center (years 2013-2016). Among 163 healthy women with recurrent cystitis (≥3 episodes in past year) drinking less than 1.5 L of fluid daily assessed for eligibility, 23 were excluded and 140 assigned to water or control group. Assessments of daily fluid intake, urinary hydration
Darunavir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir alafenamide (HIV infection) - Benefit assessment according to §35a Social Code Book V Extract 1 Translation of Sections 2.1 to 2.7 of the dossier assessment Darunavir/Cobicistat/Emtricitabine/Tenofoviralafenamid (HIV-Infektion) – Nutzenbewertung gemäß § 35a SGB V (Version 1.0; Status: 22 December 2017). Please note: This translation is provided as a service by IQWiG to English-language readers. However, solely the German original text is absolutely (...) authoritative and legally binding. IQWiG Reports – Commission No. A17-48 Darunavir/cobicistat/ emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (HIV infection) – Benefit assessment according to §35a Social Code Book V 1 Extract of dossier assessment A17-48 Version 1.0 Darunavir/cobicistat/ emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (HIV infection) 22 December 2017 Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) - i - Publishing details Publisher: Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care Topic: Darunavir
Changes in Prevalence of Health Care-Associated Infections in U.S. Hospitals. BACKGROUND: A point-prevalence survey that was conducted in the United States in 2011 showed that 4% of hospitalized patients had a health care-associated infection. We repeated the survey in 2015 to assess changes in the prevalence of health care-associated infections during a period of national attention to the prevention of such infections. METHODS: At Emerging Infections Program sites in 10 states, we recruited up (...) to 25 hospitals in each site area, prioritizing hospitals that had participated in the 2011 survey. Each hospital selected 1 day on which a random sample of patients was identified for assessment. Trained staff reviewed medical records using the 2011 definitions of health care-associated infections. We compared the percentages of patients with health care-associated infections and performed multivariable log-binomial regression modeling to evaluate the association of survey year with the risk
Maternal-fetal transmission and adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnant women infected with Zika virus: prospective cohort study in French Guiana. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the rates of maternal-fetal transmission of Zika virus, adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes, and subsequent rates of asymptomatic/symptomatic congenital Zika virus infections up to the first week of life. DESIGN: Cohort study with prospective data collection and subsequent review of fetal/neonatal outcomes. SETTINGS: Referral (...) centre for prenatal diagnosis of the French Guiana Western Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women at any stage of pregnancy with a laboratory confirmed symptomatic or asymptomatic Zika virus infection during the epidemic period in western French Guiana. The cohort enrolled 300 participants and prospectively followed their 305 fetuses/newborns. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of maternal-fetal transmission of Zika virus (amniotic fluid, fetal and neonatal blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and placentas
Rapid diagnostic assay for detection of cellulose in urine as biomarker for biofilm-related urinary tract infections 30393563 2018 11 14 2055-5008 4 2018 NPJ biofilms and microbiomes NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes Rapid diagnostic assay for detection of cellulose in urine as biomarker for biofilm-related urinary tract infections. 26 10.1038/s41522-018-0069-y The ability of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to adopt a biofilm lifestyle in the urinary tract is suggested as one cause of recurrent (...) urinary tract infections (UTIs). A clinical role of UPEC biofilm is further supported by the presence of bacterial aggregates in urine of UTI patients. Yet, no diagnostics exist to differentiate between the planktonic and biofilm lifestyle of bacteria. Here, we developed a rapid diagnostic assay for biofilm-related UTI, based on the detection of cellulose in urine. Cellulose, a component of biofilm extracellular matrix, is detected by a luminescent-conjugated oligothiophene, which emits a conformation
Decontamination Strategies and Bloodstream Infections With Antibiotic-Resistant Microorganisms in Ventilated Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Importance: The effects of chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash, selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD), and selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) on patient outcomes in ICUs with moderate to high levels of antibiotic resistance are unknown. Objective: To determine associations between CHX 2%, SOD, and SDD and the occurrence of ICU (...) -acquired bloodstream infections with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) and 28-day mortality in ICUs with moderate to high levels of antibiotic resistance. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized trial conducted from December 1, 2013, to May 31, 2017, in 13 European ICUs where at least 5% of bloodstream infections are caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Patients with anticipated mechanical ventilation of more than 24 hours were eligible
Skin preparation for preventing infection following caesarean section. BACKGROUND: The risk of maternal mortality and morbidity (particularly postoperative infection) is higher for caesarean section (CS) than for vaginal birth. With the increasing rate of CS, it is important to minimise the risks to the mother as much as possible. This review focused on different forms and methods of preoperative skin preparation to prevent infection. This review is an update of a review that was first (...) published in 2012, and updated in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of different antiseptic agents, different methods of application, or different forms of antiseptic used for preoperative skin preparation for preventing postcaesarean infection. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (27 November 2017), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION
Measles infection Measles infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Measles infection Last reviewed: August 2018 Last updated: September 2018 Important updates Measles infections hit record high in WHO European Region The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that more than 41,000 children and adults in the WHO European Region were infected with measles during the first 6 months of 2018 (...) , with reports indicating that at least 37 people died following measles infection during this period. The WHO had previously reported that measles had rebounded in Europe; following a record low of 5273 measles infections in 2016, there was a fourfold increase in 2017, with 23,927 infections. Between January and June 2018, more than 41,000 infections were reported; this number far exceeds the annual total for every year since 2010. Seven countries in the WHO European Region have reported over 1000
Medication impregnated dressings for central venous catheters reduce the number of bloodstream infections, but the quality of the research is low Signal - Medication impregnated dressings for central venous catheters reduce the number of bloodstream infections, but the quality of the research is low Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Medication impregnated dressings for central venous catheters reduce the number of bloodstream infections, but the quality of the research (...) is low Published on 18 November 2015 This review found that securing central venous catheters with dressings impregnated with medication reduced the number of bloodstream infections compared to other dressings. The frequency of infection was particularly reduced with chlorhexidine antiseptic dressings. Based on the study population it is anticipated that rates might fall from about 2.8 infections per 100 people using usual dressing types to 1.7 per 100 people using medication impregnated dressings
Poxvirus infection Poxvirus infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Poxvirus infection Last reviewed: August 2018 Last updated: September 2018 Important updates First cases of monkeypox in the UK Public Health England (PHE) has confirmed that two patients have been diagnosed with monkeypox in England. The patients are not linked in the UK and both are believed to have acquired the infection (...) with the individuals to provide information and health advice. The cases are the first ever diagnoses of monkeypox in the UK. PHE has stressed that the infection does not spread easily between people and that the risk of transmission to the wider public is very low. However, it has produced guidance on diagnosis and treatment of the condition and commented that following a large sustained outbreak in Nigeria in 2017, monkeypox could continue to affect travellers returning from this area. Summary Human smallpox has
Urinary tract infections in children Urinary tract infections in children - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Urinary tract infections in children Last reviewed: September 2018 Last updated: October 2018 Summary A common diagnosis among infants and children; if missed, can lead to renal scarring, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease. Non-specific signs and symptoms may herald UTI, and practitioners (...) should have a high index of suspicion in a febrile infant. An appropriately obtained urine specimen can confirm the diagnosis and pathogen; urine culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing will define the appropriate antibiotic for treatment. Of children <6 years of age with first-time UTI, 25% have vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and, of those, 25% have significant VUR (grade IV or V), placing them at risk for renal scarring. Infection can recur in young infants and those with voiding dysfunction
Clostridioides difficile Infection. Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) infection is the most frequently identified health care-associated infection in the United States. C difficile has also emerged as a cause of community-associated diarrhea, resulting in increased incidence of community-associated infection. Clinical illness ranges in severity from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis and death. Appropriate management of infection requires understanding of the various (...) diagnostic assays and therapeutic options as well as relevant measures to infection prevention. This article provides updated recommendations regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of incident and recurrent C difficile infection.
VAXELIS, hexavalent vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b infections, hepatitis B Haute Autorité de Santé - VAXELIS, vaccin hexavalent contre diphtérie, tétanos, poliomyélite, coqueluche, infections à Haemophilus influenzae type b, hépatite B Développer la qualité dans le champ sanitaire, social et médico-social Recherche Évaluation & Recommandation La HAS Accréditation & Certification Outils, Guides & Méthodes Agenda Avis sur les (...) Médicaments VAXELIS, vaccin hexavalent contre diphtérie, tétanos, poliomyélite, coqueluche, infections à Haemophilus influenzae type b, hépatite B Substance active (DCI) vaccin diphtérique, tétanique, coquelucheux (acellulaire, multicomposé), de l'hépatite B (ADNr), poliomyélitique (inactivé) et conjugué de l'Haemophilus de type b (adsorbé) INFECTIOLOGIE - Nouveau médicament Nature de la demande Inscription Avis de la CT du 11 octobre 2017 Pas d’avantage clinique démontré pour la primovaccination et le
Doravirine (Pifeltro) - To treat HIV-1 infection in adult patients Drug Approval Package: PIFELTRO (doravirine) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Search FDA Submit search Drug Approval Package: PIFELTRO (doravirine) Company: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Application Number: 210806 & 210807 Approval Date: 08/30/2018 Persons with disabilities having problems accessing the PDF files below may call (301) 796-3634 for assistance. FDA Approval Letter and Labeling (PDF) (PDF) FDA Application