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Latest & greatest articles for infection
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on infection or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (Biktarvy) adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) AWMSG SECRETARIAT ASSESSMENT REPORT Bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (Biktarvy ® ) 50 mg/200 mg/25 mg film-coated tablets Reference number: 3414 FULL SUBMISSION This report has been prepared by the All Wales Therapeutics & Toxicology Centre (AWTTC). Please direct any queries to AWTTC: All Wales Therapeutics & Toxicology Centre (AWTTC) University Hospital (...) from the date of the Final Appraisal Recommendation. AWMSG Secretariat Assessment Report Bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (Biktarvy ® ? ) 50 mg/200 mg/25 mg film-coated tablets 1.0 KEY FACTS Assessment details Bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (Biktarvy ® ? ) for the treatment of adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) without present or past evidence of viral resistance to the integrase inhibitor class, emtricitabine or tenofovir. ?This medicinal
A systematic review of local antibiotic devices used to improve wound healing following the surgical management of foot infections in diabetics 30418057 2018 11 26 2018 12 02 2049-4408 100-B 11 2018 Nov The bone & joint journal Bone Joint J A systematic review of local antibiotic devices used to improve wound healing following the surgical management of foot infections in diabetics. 1409-1415 10.1302/0301-620X.100B11.BJJ-2018-0720 Local antibiotics are used in the surgical management of foot (...) infection in diabetic patients. This systematic review analyzes the available evidence of the use of local antibiotic delivery systems as an adjunct to surgery. Databases were searched to identify eligible studies and 13 were identified for inclusion. Overall, the quality of the studies was poor. A single trial suggested that wound healing is quicker when a gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge was implanted at time of surgery, with no difference in length of stay or rate of amputation. Results from
Infection prevention and control in paediatric office settings Transmission of infection in the paediatric office is an issue of increasing concern. This document discusses routes of transmission of infection and the principles of current infection control measures. Prevention includes appropriate office design and administrative policies, triage, routine practices for the care of all patients (e.g., hand hygiene; use of gloves, masks, eye protection, and gowns for specific procedures; adequate (...) cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization of surfaces and equipment, including toys; and aseptic technique for invasive procedures), and additional precautions for specific infections. Personnel should be adequately immunized, and those infected should follow work-restriction policies. Keywords: Ambulatory; Infection control; Infection transmission; Paediatric office
Salmonella infections in Canadian children Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections are primarily transmitted by contaminated food or water or contact with carrier animals (particularly reptiles), and present with diarrhea. Antibiotics do not decrease the severity or duration of diarrhea and may increase the incidence of NTS carriage, so they should only be used with suspected or proven bacteremia or invasive infection. Typhoid/paratyphoid fever manifests as bacteremia within
HIV infection HIV infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search HIV infection Last reviewed: August 2018 Last updated: September 2018 Important updates US and EU drug regulators warn of possible increased risk of neural tube defects in babies born to women taking dolutegravir The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) have both issued alerts after preliminary results (...) continue to monitor results from the ongoing study and would issue further advice as additional data become available. Summary Globally, 1.8 million people were newly infected in 2017. Most people are infected through sexual contact, before birth or during delivery, during breastfeeding, or when sharing contaminated needles and syringes. Diagnosis is established using an HIV antibody test and confirmed using a more specific test. Patients should be clinically staged according to World Health
Influenza infection Influenza infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Influenza infection Last reviewed: November 2018 Last updated: November 2018 Summary Characterised by upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms of rhinorrhoea, cough, fever, chills, headache, and myalgia. Typically presents in winter season. Can occur in local community outbreaks, epidemics, and, rarely, pandemics. Vaccination (...) for prevention is available. Definition Acute respiratory tractinfection typically caused by seasonal influenza A or B virus. The virus is transmitted by inhalation of infected respiratory secretions that have been aerosolised through coughing, sneezing, or talking. Brankston G, Gitterman L, Hirji Z, et al. Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7:257-265. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17376383?tool=bestpractice.com History and exam winter season current influenza outbreak
Chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a global public health threat that causes considerable liver-related morbidity and mortality. It is acquired at birth or later via person-to-person transmission. Vaccination effectively prevents infection and chronic hepatitis B virus carriage. In chronically infected patients, an elevated serum hepatitis B virus DNA concentration is the main risk factor for disease progression, although there are other clinical
Distal respiratory tract viral infections in young children trigger a marked increase in alveolar mast cells 30480000 2018 11 29 2312-0541 4 4 2018 Oct ERJ open research ERJ Open Res Distal respiratory tract viral infections in young children trigger a marked increase in alveolar mast cells. 00038-2018 10.1183/23120541.00038-2018 Viral infections predispose to the development of childhood asthma, a disease associated with increased lung mast cells (MCs). This study investigated whether viral (...) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) can already evoke a MC response during childhood. Lung tissue from young children who died following LRTIs were processed for immunohistochemical identification of MCs. Children who died from nonrespiratory causes served as controls. MCs were examined in relation to sensitisation in infant mice exposed to allergen during influenza A infection. Increased numbers of MCs were observed in the alveolar parenchyma of children infected with LRTIs (median (range
Chikungunya virus infection Chikungunya virus infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Chikungunya virus infection Last reviewed: October 2018 Last updated: November 2018 Summary Notifiable condition. It is important to distinguish from dengue fever and Zika virus infection, which are transmitted by the same vector. Most patients fully recover, but some develop chronic joint disease characterised (...) of antibodies. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction can be used to determine whether a patient is infected with chikungunya, Zika, or dengue virus in one test. Co-infection may occur. There is no specific vaccine or treatment. Avoidance of mosquito bites is the best method of prevention. Definition Chikungunya virus (also known as CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by the Aedes species of mosquitoes. Chikungunya means 'that which bends up' in the Makonde language (spoken in a border
Dolutegravir plus lamivudine versus dolutegravir plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine in antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1 infection (GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2): week 48 results from two multicentre, double-blind, randomised, non-inferior BACKGROUND: Effective two-drug regimens could decrease long-term drug exposure and toxicity with HIV-1 antiretroviral therapy (ART). We therefore aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a two-drug regimen compared with a three-drug region (...) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in ART-naive adults METHODS: We conducted two identically designed, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trials: GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2. Both studies were done at 192 centres in 21 countries. We included participants (≥18 years) with HIV-1 infection and a screening HIV-1 RNA of 500 000 copies per mL or less, and who were naive to ART. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to receive a once-daily two-drug regimen of dolutegravir (50 mg) plus
Influence of Feeding Type and Nosema ceranae Infection on the Gut Microbiota of Apis cerana Workers 30417114 2018 12 07 2379-5077 3 6 2018 Nov-Dec mSystems mSystems Influence of Feeding Type and Nosema ceranae Infection on the Gut Microbiota of Apis cerana Workers. e00177-18 10.1128/mSystems.00177-18 The gut microbiota plays an essential role in the health of bees. To elucidate the effect of feed and Nosema ceranae infection on the gut microbiota of honey bee (Apis cerana), we used 16S rRNA (...) sequencing to survey the gut microbiota of honey bee workers fed with sugar water or beebread and inoculated with or without N. ceranae. The gut microbiota of A. cerana is dominated by Serratia , Snodgrassella , and Lactobacillus genera. The overall gut microbiota diversity was show to be significantly differential by feeding type. N. ceranae infection significantly affects the gut microbiota only in bees fed with sugar water. Higher abundances of Lactobacillus , Gluconacetobacter , and Snodgrassella
HIV-related opportunistic infections HIV-related opportunistic infections - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search HIV-related opportunistic infections Last reviewed: October 2018 Last updated: November 2018 Summary The risk of HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-infected people increases as the CD4+ count declines. Risk also increases in patients who are not receiving, or are not responding (...) to, antiretroviral treatment (ART). For most HIV-infected patients with an acute OI, ART should be considered within the first 2 weeks of initiation of treatment for the acute OI. However, in tuberculosis (TB) it might be appropriate to wait for a therapeutic response before ART is started. The use of ART among patients treated for OIs is complicated by drug interactions, drug toxicity profiles, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). IRIS has been observed most commonly with mycobacterial
Treatment of Adolescents With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: New Regimen on the Block 30411074 2018 11 14 2471-254X 2 11 2018 Nov Hepatology communications Hepatol Commun Treatment of Adolescents With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: New Regimen on the Block. 1289-1292 10.1002/hep4.1261 Editorial to Leung et al. "Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir With or Without Dasabuvir and With or Without Ribavirin for Adolescents With HCV Genotype 1 or 4". Indolfi Giuseppe G Pediatric and Liver (...) Unit Meyer Children's University Hospital of Florence Firenze Italy. Ricci Silvia S Pediatric and Liver Unit Meyer Children's University Hospital of Florence Firenze Italy. eng Editorial 2018 11 01 United States Hepatol Commun 101695860 2471-254X 2018 08 31 2018 09 06 2018 11 10 6 0 2018 11 10 6 0 2018 11 10 6 1 epublish 30411074 10.1002/hep4.1261 HEP41261 PMC6211323 Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2015;13(10):1225-35 26202832 Hepatology. 2017 Aug;66(2):371-378 27997679 J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr
Omadacycline (Nuzyra) - To treat community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections Drug Approval Package: NUZYRA U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Search FDA Submit search Drug Approval Package: NUZYRA Company: Paratek Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Application Number: 209816 & 209817 Approval Date: 10/02/2018 Persons with disabilities having problems accessing the PDF files below may call (301) 796-3634 for assistance. FDA Approval Letter
Preparing HIV-infected children and adolescents for travel 1 Guideline: Preparing HIV-infected children and adolescents for travel Authors: Natalie Prevatt Date of preparation: February 2017 Next review date: February 2019 Contents Summary 2 Introduction to the guideline 2 General travel health and safety advice for travel 2 Traveller’s diarrhoea: prevention and treatment 4 Malaria prevention 4 Personal protection 6 Chemoprophylaxis 6 Important interactions between antimalarials and ART 7 (...) the basics, and the additional considerations required for a HIV- infected traveller. • The following website provides regularly updated country specific guidance for professionals: www.nathnac.org • Telephone advice can be gained from the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNac) telephone advice line (0845 602 6712) General travel health and safety advice for travel The following advice for HIV-infected children and families planning to travel should be given in clinic: • Seek early expert