Latest & greatest articles for infection

The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on infection or other clinical topics then use Trip today.

This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on infection and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

What is Trip?

Trip is a clinical search engine designed to allow users to quickly and easily find and use high-quality research evidence to support their practice and/or care.

Trip has been online since 1997 and in that time has developed into the internet’s premier source of evidence-based content. Our motto is ‘Find evidence fast’ and this is something we aim to deliver for every single search.

As well as research evidence we also allow clinicians to search across other content types including images, videos, patient information leaflets, educational courses and news.

For further information on Trip click on any of the questions/sections on the left-hand side of this page. But if you still have questions please contact us via jon.brassey@tripdatabase.com

Top results for infection

181. Whooping cough infection common in school aged children with stubborn coughs

Whooping cough infection common in school aged children with stubborn coughs NIHR DC | Signal - Whooping cough infection common in school aged children with stubborn coughs Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover NIHR Signal Whooping cough infection common in school aged children with stubborn coughs Published on 26 June 2014 This NIHR-funded study found that almost a fifth of children aged five to 15 years who visited their GP with persistent cough showed signs of recent (...) whooping cough infection, despite having a booster vaccination before school age. These data, from 22 GP practices in Thames Valley UK, describe the duration of vaccine-induced immunity and the burden of disease in adolescents. This may inform policy discussion about the potential need for a national adolescent whooping cough booster programme in the UK. Why was this study needed? Whooping cough (pertussis) is one of the most common vaccine preventable diseases causing almost 300,000 childhood deaths a year

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

182. Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections

Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections NIHR DC | Signal - Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover NIHR Signal Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections Published on 17 October 2017 Antibiotic stewardship programmes could halve the number of infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria compared with unguided prescribing. Combining (...) these programmes with hand hygiene, such as washing hands with soap and water and using alcohol-based hand-rubs, could reduce antibiotic resistance further. Bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics is increasing, and for some conditions, there aren’t enough new antibiotics available to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria. Antibiotic stewardship involves promoting the appropriate use of antibiotics according to local resistance patterns and aims to give patients the right antibiotics for the right

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

183. Vaginal cleansing before caesarean delivery reduces risk of infections

Vaginal cleansing before caesarean delivery reduces risk of infections NIHR DC | Signal - Vaginal cleansing before caesarean delivery reduces risk of infections Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover NIHR Signal Vaginal cleansing before caesarean delivery reduces risk of infections Published on 31 October 2017 Cleaning the vagina with an antiseptic solution before a caesarean delivery halves the risk of subsequent womb infection. This evidence applies mainly to women who (...) are having a caesarean delivery when already in labour or if their waters have broken. Womb infections can occur up to six weeks after giving birth and are more common after caesarean delivery. Symptoms include fever, pain and increased vaginal discharge. This review included 4,837 women who had a planned or unplanned caesarean delivery. It provides evidence of the benefits of this simple, low-cost procedure. Though it is not yet recommended in UK guidance, in theory it could prevent serious illness

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

184. Terbinafine is probably first choice oral drug for fungal toenail infection

Terbinafine is probably first choice oral drug for fungal toenail infection NIHR DC | Signal - Terbinafine is probably first choice oral drug for fungal toenail infection Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover NIHR Signal Terbinafine is probably first choice oral drug for fungal toenail infection Published on 24 October 2017 The oral antifungal drug terbinafine appears to be slightly better than alternative ‘azole’ drugs for treating fungal toenail infection. Fifty-eight percent (...) support guidelines recommending terbinafine as the first choice for treatment unless contraindicated. Antifungals are available in oral and topical forms (applied to the nail). Topical antifungals have long been thought less effective, but the review did not gather evidence to confirm this. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Fungal nail infection is thought to affect somewhere between two and 14% of the adult population. It is most common in older people and those

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

185. Blood test reduces mortality and shortens antibiotic use among adults with chest infection

Blood test reduces mortality and shortens antibiotic use among adults with chest infection NIHR DC | Signal - Blood test reduces mortality and shortens antibiotic use among adults with chest infection Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Blood test reduces mortality and shortens antibiotic use among adults with chest infection Published on 16 January 2018 It may be feasible to use procalcitonin blood levels to guide antibiotic treatment for adults in hospital with a suspected (...) chest infection. By measuring procalcitonin, an indicator of bacterial infection, clinicians could review their diagnosis earlier. This reduced antibiotic exposure by 2.5 days with fewer adverse effects and also less mortality. About 14 extra people in every 1,000 who had their management guided by the blood test would be expected to survive the first month, compared with those receiving standard care without this test. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed pre-emptively for a suspected respiratory

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

186. Biological therapies for psoriasis do not increase serious infection risk

Biological therapies for psoriasis do not increase serious infection risk NIHR DC | Signal - Biological therapies for psoriasis do not increase serious infection risk Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Biological therapies for psoriasis do not increase serious infection risk Published on 23 January 2018 People with psoriasis who take an immune-modulating treatment are no more likely to get serious infections than people taking standard therapies. There are fears (...) that these biological therapies raise the risk of serious infections and this has discouraged their use. They are recommended by NICE for moderate to severe psoriasis. Previous studies have reached conflicting conclusions, making it hard to advise on the true risk. This study used a large database of people with psoriasis from the UK and Ireland. It compared serious infection risk of the biological therapies (etanercept, adalimumab or ustekinumab) with non-biological therapies, after accounting for factors

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

187. Harm reduction approaches predicted to reduce rates of new hepatitis C infection for people who inject drugs

Harm reduction approaches predicted to reduce rates of new hepatitis C infection for people who inject drugs NIHR DC | Signal - Harm reduction approaches predicted to reduce rates of new hepatitis C infection for people who inject drugs Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Harm reduction approaches predicted to reduce rates of new hepatitis C infection for people who inject drugs Published on 5 December 2017 A combination of providing clean needles and syringes and offering (...) safer oral therapy, such as methadone, reduced the predicted risk of becoming infected with hepatitis C virus by 71%. Providing both services to people who inject drugs was likely to be cost-effective and has the potential to be cost-saving in some parts of the UK, depending on the size of the local population of people who inject drugs and underlying rates of infection. Current services are estimated to save up to £54 million in costs of treating hepatitis C infection. This is in addition

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

188. A strategy of 'delayed antibiotic prescribing' for respiratory infections may reduce antibiotic use

A strategy of 'delayed antibiotic prescribing' for respiratory infections may reduce antibiotic use NIHR DC | Signal - A strategy of 'delayed antibiotic prescribing' for respiratory infections may reduce antibiotic use Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover A strategy of 'delayed antibiotic prescribing' for respiratory infections may reduce antibiotic use Published on 19 December 2017 Delaying antibiotic prescribing made little difference to most symptoms of respiratory infection (...) . It reduced antibiotic use and did not affect patient satisfaction compared with immediate prescribing of antibiotics. Increasing antibiotic resistance is a global health concern. Many people don’t realise that viruses cause most respiratory infections and that antibiotics won’t help. The strategy allows some time for symptoms to improve naturally. This review of the latest evidence on delayed prescribing for self-limiting respiratory infections is in line with current guidance. On the whole

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

189. Humidified oxygen linked to increased chest infections

Humidified oxygen linked to increased chest infections NIHR DC | Signal - Humidified oxygen linked to increased chest infections Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover NIHR Signal Humidified oxygen linked to increased chest infections Published on 22 August 2017 More respiratory infections in adults followed the use of humidified oxygen compared with non-humidified low-flow oxygen therapy. Bacterial contamination was common in the humidified oxygen bottles across various hospital (...) departments including respiratory wards. UK guidelines currently recommend using non-humidified oxygen for adults requiring low-flow oxygen. However, in countries such as China, oxygen is routinely humidified regardless of flow rate to prevent respiratory dryness. This review identified 27 trials, most conducted in China. Infection rates were low, less than 2%. There was also no difference in reports of dry nose, throat or chest discomfort. Adults on long-term, low-flow therapy should continue to receive

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

190. Laminar airflow in surgery might not reduce surgical site infections

Laminar airflow in surgery might not reduce surgical site infections NIHR DC | Signal - Laminar airflow in surgery might not reduce surgical site infections Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover NIHR Signal Laminar airflow in surgery might not reduce surgical site infections Published on 11 July 2017 The type of theatre ventilation system used during hip and knee replacement, abdominal or vascular surgery has no effect on the rate of surgical site infections. Prevention (...) of surgical site infection is a complex area with many potential targets for action. So decisions relating to commissioning or decommissioning these systems will need to consider the totality of the evidence alongside the costs. This systematic review included 12 observational studies comparing wound infection rates following surgery performed in theatres using laminar airflow or conventional ventilation. Laminar ventilation distributes air in parallel layers, forming a “curtain” which has been thought

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

191. Vitamin D supplements may reduce the chance of developing a chest infection

Vitamin D supplements may reduce the chance of developing a chest infection NIHR DC | Signal - Vitamin D supplements may reduce the chance of developing a chest infection Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover NIHR Signal Vitamin D supplements may reduce the chance of developing a chest infection Published on 27 June 2017 Vitamin D supplements may reduce the chances of contracting an acute respiratory tract infection, particularly for those with low existing levels of vitamin D (...) . This NIHR-funded study pooled patient data from 25 randomised controlled trials and found that daily or weekly supplements reduced respiratory tract infections compared with placebo. About 20 people would need to take regular supplements in order to prevent one infection. One-off monthly dosing gave no benefit. Public Health England (PHE) currently recommends that 10µg vitamin D is needed each day to maintain bone, teeth and muscle health. Supplements are advised for all in the winter months

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

192. Antimicrobial lock solutions for preventing catheter-related infections in haemodialysis.

Antimicrobial lock solutions for preventing catheter-related infections in haemodialysis. BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) through a central venous catheter (CVC) are exposed to several risks, being a catheter-related infection (CRI) and a CVC lumen thrombosis among the most serious. Standard of care regarding CVCs includes their sealing with heparin lock solutions to prevent catheter lumen thrombosis. Other lock solutions to prevent CRI, such as antimicrobial lock solutions

Cochrane2018

193. Cluster-Randomized Trial of Devices to Prevent Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection

Cluster-Randomized Trial of Devices to Prevent Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection 29472415 2018 04 13 1533-3450 29 4 2018 Apr Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. Cluster-Randomized Trial of Devices to Prevent Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection. 1336-1343 10.1681/ASN.2017080870 Central venous catheters (CVCs) contribute disproportionately to bloodstream infection (BSI) and, by extension, to infection-related hospitalization, mortality, and health (...) @pursuitvascular.com. Lynch Laurie E LE Pursuit Vascular, Inc., Maple Grove, Minnesota. Killion Douglas P DP Pursuit Vascular, Inc., Maple Grove, Minnesota. eng Journal Article 2018 02 22 United States J Am Soc Nephrol 9013836 1046-6673 Am J Kidney Dis. 2017 Feb;69(2):220-227 27839894 Artif Organs. 2012 Sep;36(9):824-9 22639886 PLoS One. 2013 Nov 21;8(11):e79417 24278133 Can J Kidney Health Dis. 2015 Apr 02;2:13 25926995 Am J Kidney Dis. 2010 Feb;55(2):348-51 19800723 Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018 Apr;37(4

EvidenceUpdates2018

195. Neurodevelopment in Young Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers: A Meta-analysis

Neurodevelopment in Young Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers: A Meta-analysis 29374109 2018 02 17 1098-4275 141 2 2018 Feb Pediatrics Pediatrics Neurodevelopment in Young Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers: A Meta-analysis. e20172888 10.1542/peds.2017-2888 HIV-infected (HIV+) children have worse neurodevelopmental outcomes compared with HIV-uninfected children. However, little is known regarding the differences in neurodevelopment between young HIV+ children, HIV-exposed but uninfected (...) ;149(8):850-5 7543334 Pediatrics. 1997 Jul;100(1):E5 9200379 J Pediatr Psychol. 2000 Dec;25(8):583-7 11085762 Health Psychol. 1995 Jan;14(1):13-21 7737068 Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Nov;33(11):1128-33 25361407 Brain Behav Immun. 1996 Sep;10(3):298-312 8954601 Pediatrics. 2016 Nov;138(5): 27940772 J Pediatr Psychol. 1994 Oct;19(5):617-27 7807293 Adv Biomed Res. 2013 Nov 30;2:91 24520553 AIDS. 2017 Jan 14;31(2):315-316 28002087 Pediatrics. 2008 Jul;122(1):e123-8 18595957 Trop Med Int Health. 2008 Jul

EvidenceUpdates2018

196. Cough Due to Tuberculous and Other Chronic Infections

Cough Due to Tuberculous and Other Chronic Infections Cough Due to TB and Other Chronic Infections CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report Stephen K. Field, MD,CM, FCCP; Patricio Escalante, MD, FCCP; Dina A. Fisher, MD, FCCP; Belinda Ireland, MD; Richard S. Irwin, MD, Master FCCP; on behalf of the CHEST Expert Cough Panel BACKGROUND: Cough is common in pulmonary TB and other chronic respiratory infections. Identifying features that predict whether pulmonary TB is the cause would help target (...) resolution was fasterin the absence of cavitary lung disease. All studies on cough prevalence in Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease, other nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, fungal lung disease, and paragonimiasis were of poor quality and were excluded from the evidence review. ABBREVIATIONS: ACF = active case ?nding; ART = antiretroviral therapy; CD4 = CD4-positive T lymphocytes; CHEST = American College of Chest Physicians; DOTS = Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course; GRADE

American College of Chest Physicians2018

197. HIV Incidence, HIV Prevalence, and Undiagnosed HIV Infections in Men Who Have Sex With Men, United States.

HIV Incidence, HIV Prevalence, and Undiagnosed HIV Infections in Men Who Have Sex With Men, United States. Background: HIV infection is a persistent health concern in the United States, and men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be the most affected population. Objective: To estimate HIV incidence and prevalence and the percentage of undiagnosed HIV infections overall and among MSM. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: National HIV Surveillance System. Participants: Persons aged 13 (...) years and older with diagnosed HIV infection. Measurements: Data on HIV diagnoses and the first CD4 test result after diagnosis were used to model HIV incidence and prevalence and the percentage of undiagnosed HIV infections from 2008 to 2014 on the basis of a well-characterized CD4 depletion model. Results: Modeled HIV incidence decreased 14.8% overall, from 45 200 infections in 2008 to 38 500 in 2015, and among all transmission risk groups except MSM. The incidence of HIV increased 3.1% (95% CI

Annals of Internal Medicine2018

198. Pregnancy Outcomes after ZIKV Infection in French Territories in the Americas.

Pregnancy Outcomes after ZIKV Infection in French Territories in the Americas. BACKGROUND: The risk of congenital neurologic defects related to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has ranged from 6 to 42% in various reports. The aim of this study was to estimate this risk among pregnant women with symptomatic ZIKV infection in French territories in the Americas. METHODS: From March 2016 through November 2016, we enrolled in this prospective cohort study pregnant women with symptomatic ZIKV infection (...) that was confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay. The analysis included all data collected up to April 27, 2017, the date of the last delivery in the cohort. RESULTS: Among the 555 fetuses and infants in the 546 pregnancies included in the analysis, 28 (5.0%) were not carried to term or were stillborn, and 527 were born alive. Neurologic and ocular defects possibly associated with ZIKV infection were seen in 39 fetuses and infants (7.0%; 95% confidence interval, 5.0 to 9.5); of these, 10 were

NEJM2018

199. Non-invasive diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection.

Non-invasive diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection. BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection has been implicated in a number of malignancies and non-malignant conditions including peptic ulcers, non-ulcer dyspepsia, recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding, unexplained iron deficiency anaemia, idiopathic thrombocytopaenia purpura, and colorectal adenomas. The confirmatory diagnosis of H pylori is by endoscopic biopsy, followed by histopathological examination using haemotoxylin (...) and eosin (H & E) stain or special stains such as Giemsa stain and Warthin-Starry stain. Special stains are more accurate than H & E stain. There is significant uncertainty about the diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive tests for diagnosis of H pylori. OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of urea breath test, serology, and stool antigen test, used alone or in combination, for diagnosis of H pylori infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic people, so that eradication therapy for H pylori

Cochrane2018

200. Direct-Acting Antiviral Prophylaxis in Kidney Transplantation From Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Donors to Noninfected Recipients: An Open-Label Nonrandomized Trial.

Direct-Acting Antiviral Prophylaxis in Kidney Transplantation From Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Donors to Noninfected Recipients: An Open-Label Nonrandomized Trial. Background: Given the high mortality rate for patients with end-stage kidney disease receiving dialysis and the efficacy and safety of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments, discarded kidneys from HCV-infected donors may be a neglected public health resource. Objective: To determine the tolerability and feasibility of using direct-acting (...) antivirals (DAAs) as prophylaxis before and after kidney transplantation from HCV-infected donors to non-HCV-infected recipients (that is, HCV D+/R- transplantation). Design: Open-label nonrandomized trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02781649 ). Setting: Single center. Participants: 10 HCV D+/R- kidney transplant candidates older than 50 years with no available living donors. Intervention: Transplantation of kidneys from deceased donors aged 13 to 50 years with positive HCV RNA and HCV antibody test results

Annals of Internal Medicine2018