Latest & greatest articles for infection

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Top results for infection

1. Vaccines for preventing invasive salmonella infections in people with sickle cell disease.

Vaccines for preventing invasive salmonella infections in people with sickle cell disease. BACKGROUND: Salmonella infections are a common bacterial cause of invasive disease in people with sickle cell disease especially children, and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Although available in some centres, people with sickle cell anaemia are not routinely immunized with salmonella vaccines. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To determine (...) whether routine administration of salmonella vaccines to people with sickle cell disease reduces the morbidity and mortality associated with infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.We also conducted a search of the LILACS database and the World Health

Cochrane2018

2. Trends in Drug Use-Associated Infective Endocarditis and Heart Valve Surgery, 2007 to 2017: A Study of Statewide Discharge Data.

Trends in Drug Use-Associated Infective Endocarditis and Heart Valve Surgery, 2007 to 2017: A Study of Statewide Discharge Data. Background: Drug use-associated infective endocarditis (DUA-IE) is increasing as a result of the opioid epidemic. Infective endocarditis may require valve surgery, but surgical treatment of DUA-IE has invoked controversy, and the extent of its use is unknown. Objective: To examine hospitalization trends for DUA-IE, the proportion of hospitalizations with surgery

Annals of Internal Medicine2018

3. Pharmacological interventions for acute hepatitis C infection.

Pharmacological interventions for acute hepatitis C infection. BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus that has the potential to cause inflammation of the liver. The traditional definition of acute HCV infection is the first six months following infection with the virus. Another commonly used definition of acute HCV infection is the absence of HCV antibody and subsequent seroconversion (presence of HCV antibody in a person who was previously (...) negative for HCV antibody). Approximately 40% to 95% of people with acute HCV infection develop chronic HCV infection, that is, have persistent HCV RNA in their blood. In 2010, an estimated 160 million people worldwide (2% to 3% of the world's population) had chronic HCV infection. The optimal pharmacological treatment of acute HCV remains controversial. Chronic HCV infection can damage the liver. OBJECTIVES: To assess the comparative benefits and harms of different pharmacological interventions

Cochrane2018

4. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

Chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a global public health threat that causes considerable liver-related morbidity and mortality. It is acquired at birth or later via person-to-person transmission. Vaccination effectively prevents infection and chronic hepatitis B virus carriage. In chronically infected patients, an elevated serum hepatitis B virus DNA concentration is the main risk factor for disease progression, although there are other clinical

Lancet2018

5. Chikungunya virus infection

Chikungunya virus infection Chikungunya virus infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Chikungunya virus infection Last reviewed: October 2018 Last updated: November 2018 Summary Notifiable condition. It is important to distinguish from dengue fever and Zika virus infection, which are transmitted by the same vector. Most patients fully recover, but some develop chronic joint disease characterised (...) of antibodies. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction can be used to determine whether a patient is infected with chikungunya, Zika, or dengue virus in one test. Co-infection may occur. There is no specific vaccine or treatment. Avoidance of mosquito bites is the best method of prevention. Definition Chikungunya virus (also known as CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by the Aedes species of mosquitoes. Chikungunya means 'that which bends up' in the Makonde language (spoken in a border

BMJ Best Practice2018

6. Distal respiratory tract viral infections in young children trigger a marked increase in alveolar mast cells

Distal respiratory tract viral infections in young children trigger a marked increase in alveolar mast cells 30480000 2018 11 29 2312-0541 4 4 2018 Oct ERJ open research ERJ Open Res Distal respiratory tract viral infections in young children trigger a marked increase in alveolar mast cells. 00038-2018 10.1183/23120541.00038-2018 Viral infections predispose to the development of childhood asthma, a disease associated with increased lung mast cells (MCs). This study investigated whether viral (...) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) can already evoke a MC response during childhood. Lung tissue from young children who died following LRTIs were processed for immunohistochemical identification of MCs. Children who died from nonrespiratory causes served as controls. MCs were examined in relation to sensitisation in infant mice exposed to allergen during influenza A infection. Increased numbers of MCs were observed in the alveolar parenchyma of children infected with LRTIs (median (range

ERJ open research2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

7. Joint infection after hip replacement is linked to some risk factors that could be modified

Joint infection after hip replacement is linked to some risk factors that could be modified Joint infection after hip replacement and risk factors Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Joint infection after hip replacement is linked to some risk factors that could be modified Published on 20 November 2018 doi: Ten years of National Joint Registry data show that many factors may increase the risk of joint infection following hip replacement. Less than 1 in 1,000 people on average (...) needed revision surgery for infection per year. Several modifiable patient factors increased risk, such as obesity and diabetes. Using ceramic components, and approaching surgery from the back rather than the side of the hip, may slightly reduce infection risk. This NIHR-funded study analysed registry data for 623,253 hip replacement procedures carried out in England and Wales from 2003 to 2013. The study provides useful quantification of the risk of revision surgery due to infection. The study

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

8. Dolutegravir plus lamivudine versus dolutegravir plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine in antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1 infection (GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2): week 48 results from two multicentre, double-blind, randomised, non-inferior

Dolutegravir plus lamivudine versus dolutegravir plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine in antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1 infection (GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2): week 48 results from two multicentre, double-blind, randomised, non-inferior BACKGROUND: Effective two-drug regimens could decrease long-term drug exposure and toxicity with HIV-1 antiretroviral therapy (ART). We therefore aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a two-drug regimen compared with a three-drug region (...) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in ART-naive adults METHODS: We conducted two identically designed, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trials: GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2. Both studies were done at 192 centres in 21 countries. We included participants (≥18 years) with HIV-1 infection and a screening HIV-1 RNA of 500 000 copies per mL or less, and who were naive to ART. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to receive a once-daily two-drug regimen of dolutegravir (50 mg) plus

Lancet2018

9. HIV-related opportunistic infections

HIV-related opportunistic infections HIV-related opportunistic infections - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  HIV-related opportunistic infections Last reviewed: October 2018 Last updated: November 2018 Summary The risk of HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-infected people increases as the CD4+ count declines. Risk also increases in patients who are not receiving, or are not responding (...) to, antiretroviral treatment (ART). For most HIV-infected patients with an acute OI, ART should be considered within the first 2 weeks of initiation of treatment for the acute OI. However, in tuberculosis (TB) it might be appropriate to wait for a therapeutic response before ART is started. The use of ART among patients treated for OIs is complicated by drug interactions, drug toxicity profiles, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). IRIS has been observed most commonly with mycobacterial

BMJ Best Practice2018

18. Changes in Prevalence of Health Care-Associated Infections in U.S. Hospitals.

Changes in Prevalence of Health Care-Associated Infections in U.S. Hospitals. BACKGROUND: A point-prevalence survey that was conducted in the United States in 2011 showed that 4% of hospitalized patients had a health care-associated infection. We repeated the survey in 2015 to assess changes in the prevalence of health care-associated infections during a period of national attention to the prevention of such infections. METHODS: At Emerging Infections Program sites in 10 states, we recruited up (...) to 25 hospitals in each site area, prioritizing hospitals that had participated in the 2011 survey. Each hospital selected 1 day on which a random sample of patients was identified for assessment. Trained staff reviewed medical records using the 2011 definitions of health care-associated infections. We compared the percentages of patients with health care-associated infections and performed multivariable log-binomial regression modeling to evaluate the association of survey year with the risk

NEJM2018

19. Re-infection rates and clinical outcomes following arthrodesis with intramedullary nail and external fixator for infected knee prosthesis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Re-infection rates and clinical outcomes following arthrodesis with intramedullary nail and external fixator for infected knee prosthesis: a systematic review and meta-analysis 30301462 2018 11 14 1471-2474 19 1 2018 Oct 10 BMC musculoskeletal disorders BMC Musculoskelet Disord Re-infection rates and clinical outcomes following arthrodesis with intramedullary nail and external fixator for infected knee prosthesis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 361 10.1186/s12891-018-2283-4 Knee (...) arthrodesis with intramedullary (IM) nail or external fixator (EF) is the most reliable therapeutic option to achieve definitive infection control in patients with septic failure of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The first aim of this study was to compare re-infection rates following knee arthrodesis for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) with IM nail or EF. The second aim was to compare rates of radiographic union, complication, and re-operation as well as clinical outcomes. A systematic search

EvidenceUpdates2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

20. Comparative risk of genital infections associated with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors

Comparative risk of genital infections associated with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors 30207042 2018 10 12 1463-1326 2018 Sep 12 Diabetes, obesity & metabolism Diabetes Obes Metab Comparative risk of genital infections associated with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors. 10.1111/dom.13531 The extent to which sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors increase the risk of genital infections in routine clinical care, compared with other antidiabetic medications (...) was a composite of genital candidal infections, vaginitis or vulvovaginitis in women, and genital candidal infections, balanitis, balanoposthitis, phimosis or paraphimosis in men. Among propensity score-matched cohorts of 129 994 women and 156 074 men, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and excess risk per 1000 person-years for SGLT2 versus DPP-4 inhibitors was 2.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.64, 2.99) and 87.4 (95% CI, 79.1, 96.2) respectively for women, and was 2.68 (95% CI, 2.31, 3.11) and 11.9 (95% CI

EvidenceUpdates2018