Latest & greatest articles for infection

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on infection and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Top results for infection

1. Influenza infection

Influenza infection Influenza infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Influenza infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2019 Summary Characterised by upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms of rhinorrhoea, cough, fever, chills, headache, and myalgia. Typically presents in winter season. Can occur in local community outbreaks, epidemics, and, rarely, pandemics. Vaccination (...) for prevention is available. Definition Acute respiratory tract infection typically caused by seasonal influenza A or B virus. The virus is transmitted by inhalation of infected respiratory secretions that have been aerosolised through coughing, sneezing, or talking. Brankston G, Gitterman L, Hirji Z, et al. Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7:257-265. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17376383?tool=bestpractice.com History and exam winter season current influenza outbreak

2019 BMJ Best Practice

2. Poliovirus infection

Poliovirus infection Poliovirus infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Poliovirus infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2019 Summary Usually asymptomatic. When symptomatic, the most common presentation is a minor gastrointestinal illness. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), or paralytic poliomyelitis, is the hallmark of the major illness. A minority of affected cases with AFP (...) progress to life-threatening bulbar paralysis and respiratory compromise. Post-poliomyelitis syndrome may occur many years after the initial illness, and consists of weakness and fatigue in muscle groups previously affected in the acute illness. There is no cure for poliovirus infection or post-poliomyelitis syndrome, and treatment is mainly supportive. Early physiotherapy is key to maximising and restoring limb function in paralytic poliomyelitis and in post-poliomyelitis syndrome. The cornerstones

2019 BMJ Best Practice

3. Chlorhexidine versus routine bathing to prevent multidrug-resistant organisms and all-cause bloodstream infections in general medical and surgical units (ABATE Infection trial): a cluster-randomised trial. (PubMed)

Chlorhexidine versus routine bathing to prevent multidrug-resistant organisms and all-cause bloodstream infections in general medical and surgical units (ABATE Infection trial): a cluster-randomised trial. Universal skin and nasal decolonisation reduces multidrug-resistant pathogens and bloodstream infections in intensive care units. The effect of universal decolonisation on pathogens and infections in non-critical-care units is unknown. The aim of the ABATE Infection trial was to evaluate (...) the use of chlorhexidine bathing in non-critical-care units, with an intervention similar to one that was found to reduce multidrug-resistant organisms and bacteraemia in intensive care units.The ABATE Infection (active bathing to eliminate infection) trial was a cluster-randomised trial of 53 hospitals comparing routine bathing to decolonisation with universal chlorhexidine and targeted nasal mupirocin in non-critical-care units. The trial was done in hospitals affiliated with HCA Healthcare

2019 Lancet

4. Measles infection

Measles infection Measles infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Measles infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2019 Summary Preventable by immunisation but high levels of coverage are required to prevent outbreaks of disease from occurring. No specific treatment for measles is available except for supportive care. Complications of measles are more common in immunocompromised

2019 BMJ Best Practice

5. Antibiotic management of urinary tract infection in elderly patients in primary care and its association with bloodstream infections and all cause mortality: population based cohort study. (PubMed)

Antibiotic management of urinary tract infection in elderly patients in primary care and its association with bloodstream infections and all cause mortality: population based cohort study. To evaluate the association between antibiotic treatment for urinary tract infection (UTI) and severe adverse outcomes in elderly patients in primary care.Retrospective population based cohort study.Clinical Practice Research Datalink (2007-15) primary care records linked to hospital episode statistics (...) and death records in England.157 264 adults aged 65 years or older presenting to a general practitioner with at least one diagnosis of suspected or confirmed lower UTI from November 2007 to May 2015.Bloodstream infection, hospital admission, and all cause mortality within 60 days after the index UTI diagnosis.Among 312 896 UTI episodes (157 264 unique patients), 7.2% (n=22 534) did not have a record of antibiotics being prescribed and 6.2% (n=19 292) showed a delay in antibiotic prescribing. 1539

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2019 BMJ

6. Duration of antibiotic treatment for common infections in English primary care: cross sectional analysis and comparison with guidelines. (PubMed)

Duration of antibiotic treatment for common infections in English primary care: cross sectional analysis and comparison with guidelines. To evaluate the duration of prescriptions for antibiotic treatment for common infections in English primary care and to compare this with guideline recommendations.Cross sectional study.General practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network database, 2013-15.931 015 consultations that resulted in an antibiotic prescription for one of several (...) only 9.6% (95% confidence interval 9.4% to 9.9%) of prescriptions exceeded seven days and acute sore throat where only 2.1% (2.0% to 2.1%) exceeded 10 days (recent guidance recommends five days). More than half of the antibiotic prescriptions were for longer than guidelines recommend for acute cystitis among females (54.6%, 54.1% to 55.0%). The percentage of antibiotic prescriptions exceeding the recommended duration was lower for most non-respiratory infections. For the 931 015 included

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2019 BMJ

7. Antimicrobial agents for preventing urinary tract infections in adults undergoing cystoscopy. (PubMed)

Antimicrobial agents for preventing urinary tract infections in adults undergoing cystoscopy. Cystoscopy is commonly performed for diagnostic purposes to inspect the interior lining of the bladder. One disadvantage of cystoscopy is the risk of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) due to pre-existing colonization or by introduction of bacteria at the time of the procedure. However, the incidence of symptomatic UTI following cystoscopy is low. Currently, there is no consensus on whether

2019 Cochrane

8. Once-Daily Plazomicin for Complicated Urinary Tract Infections. (PubMed)

Once-Daily Plazomicin for Complicated Urinary Tract Infections. The increasing multidrug resistance among gram-negative uropathogens necessitates new treatments for serious infections. Plazomicin is an aminoglycoside with bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant (including carbapenem-resistant) Enterobacteriaceae.We randomly assigned 609 patients with complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs), including acute pyelonephritis, in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous plazomicin (15 mg per

2019 NEJM

9. Ebola virus infection

Ebola virus infection Ebola virus infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice   Search  Ebola virus infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Important updates 20 Feb 2019 Ebola outbreak in DRC: update The World Health Organization (WHO) announced an Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in August 2018. As of 12 February 2019, 823 cases (762 confirmed, 61 probable), including 517 deaths, have been reported in the North (...) Kivu and Ituri provinces. A total of 68 health workers have been infected. This makes it the second largest outbreak of Ebola since the 2014-2016 outbreak in West Africa. A disproportionate number of women and children have been infected during this outbreak. WHO rate the risk of national and regional spread as very high, but the global risk level is low. The affected areas share borders with Rwanda and Uganda, and WHO notes that the prolonged humanitarian crisis and deterioration of security

2019 BMJ Best Practice

10. Tapeworm infection

Tapeworm infection Tapeworm infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Tapeworm infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary Mainly affects communities in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Presentation is variable and is dependent on size, location, and condition of the cyst. Extra-intestinal manifestations include cysticercosis (can affect any organ (...) ), hydatidosis (can affect any organ but typically the liver and lungs), and neurocysticercosis (affecting the central nervous system). Diagnosis is made by stool examination and serology; radiology is necessary for extra-intestinal manifestations. Intestinal infection is treated with antiparasitic therapy only, while extra-intestinal infection requires additional treatments including corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, and surgical intervention. Patients with neurocysticercosis may present with increased

2019 BMJ Best Practice

11. Decolonization to Reduce Postdischarge Infection Risk among MRSA Carriers. (PubMed)

Decolonization to Reduce Postdischarge Infection Risk among MRSA Carriers. Hospitalized patients who are colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are at high risk for infection after discharge.We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of postdischarge hygiene education, as compared with education plus decolonization, in patients colonized with MRSA (carriers). Decolonization involved chlorhexidine mouthwash, baths or showers with chlorhexidine, and nasal (...) mupirocin for 5 days twice per month for 6 months. Participants were followed for 1 year. The primary outcome was MRSA infection as defined according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. Secondary outcomes included MRSA infection determined on the basis of clinical judgment, infection from any cause, and infection-related hospitalization. All analyses were performed with the use of proportional-hazards models in the per-protocol population (all participants who underwent

2019 NEJM

12. Genital tract chlamydia infection

Genital tract chlamydia infection Genital tract chlamydia infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Genital tract chlamydia infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary Genital tract chlamydia infections are one of the most frequently reported sexually transmitted infections. Many infected individuals are asymptomatic. In women, there may be cervical inflammation (...) or yellow, cloudy discharge from the cervical os. In men, there may be a discharge from the penis. Non-culture techniques such as the nucleic acid amplification test are available. Tests in men are performed on urine or urethral samples. Tests in women are performed on urine, cervical, or self-collected vaginal samples. Untreated or inadequately treated patients risk possible ascending infection and further complications. Patients also risk spreading the infection to sexual partners. Definition

2019 BMJ Best Practice

13. Omadacycline for Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin-Structure Infections. (PubMed)

Omadacycline for Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin-Structure Infections. Acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections are associated with substantial morbidity and health care costs. Omadacycline, an aminomethylcycline antibiotic that can be administered once daily either orally or intravenously, is active against pathogens that commonly cause such infections, including antibiotic-resistant strains.In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned adults with acute bacterial skin and skin (...) -structure infections (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive omadacycline (100 mg given intravenously every 12 hours for two doses, then 100 mg given intravenously every 24 hours) or linezolid (600 mg given intravenously every 12 hours). A transition to oral omadacycline (300 mg every 24 hours) or oral linezolid (600 mg every 12 hours) was allowed after 3 days; the total treatment duration was 7 to 14 days. The primary end point was an early clinical response at 48 to 72 hours, defined as survival with a reduction

2019 NEJM

14. Malaria infection

Malaria infection Malaria infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Malaria infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary In Western countries, almost all malaria occurs in travellers; therefore, the diagnosis may be missed if a history of travel is not elicited. Patients typically present with non-specific symptoms such as fever, chills, sweats, headache, and myalgia (...) . Examination of a Giemsa-stained blood film remains the diagnostic test of choice. Once the diagnosis of malaria is confirmed, treatment should be started urgently, as a delay may be associated with disease progression and complications. Management should be undertaken in conjunction with an infectious diseases specialist. Definition Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium . Five species are known to infect humans; Plasmodium falciparum is the most life-threatening. Snow

2019 BMJ Best Practice

15. Doravirine/lamivudine/tenofovir disoproxil (Delstrigo) - Treatment of adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1

Doravirine/lamivudine/tenofovir disoproxil (Delstrigo) - Treatment of adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 Published 11 February 2019 Statement of advice SMC2163 doravirine 100mg / lamivudine 300mg / tenofovir disoproxil 245mg film-coated tablets (Delstrigo®) Merck Sharp & Dohme Limited 11 January 2019 ADVICE: in the absence of a submission from the holder of the marketing authorisation doravirine / lamivudine / tenofovir disoproxil (Delstrigo®) is not recommended for use within (...) NHSScotland. Indication under review: Treatment of adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 without past or present evidence of resistance to the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor class, lamivudine, or tenofovir. The holder of the marketing authorisation has not made a submission to SMC regarding this product in this indication. As a result we cannot recommend its use within NHSScotland. Advice context: No part of this advice may be used without the whole of the advice being quoted

2019 Scottish Medicines Consortium

16. Doravirine (Pifeltro) - treatment of adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1

Doravirine (Pifeltro) - treatment of adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 Published 11 February 2019 Statement of advice SMC2162 doravirine 100mg film-coated tablets (Pifeltro®) Merck Sharp & Dohme Limited 11 January 2019 ADVICE: in the absence of a submission from the holder of the marketing authorisation doravirine (Pifeltro®) is not recommended for use within NHSScotland. Indication under review: In combination with other antiretroviral medicinal products, for the treatment (...) of adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 without past or present evidence of resistance to the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor class. The holder of the marketing authorisation has not made a submission to SMC regarding this product in this indication. As a result we cannot recommend its use within NHSScotland. Advice context: No part of this advice may be used without the whole of the advice being quoted in full. This advice represents the view of the Scottish Medicines

2019 Scottish Medicines Consortium

17. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: individual participant data meta-analysis

Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: individual participant data meta-analysis Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: individual participant data meta-analysis Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you (...) need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of acute respiratory infections, with very vitamin D deficient people and those receiving daily or weekly doses experiencing the most benefit. {{author}} {{($index , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , & . Adrian R Martineau 1, 2, * , David A Jolliffe 1 , Lauren Greenberg 1 , John F Aloia 3 , Peter Bergman 4 , Gal Dubnov-Raz 5 , Susanna

2019 NIHR HTA programme

18. Infection Control for Haemodialysis Units

Infection Control for Haemodialysis Units ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Infectious diseases in haemodialysis units November-2018 Page 1 of 63 INFECTION CONTROL FOR HAEMODIALYSIS UNITS Components I. Prevention of blood-borne virus transmission in haemodialysis units Date written: November 2017 Author: Dr Nicole Gilroy, Dr Muh Geot Wong II. Screening for multidrug-resistant organisms in haemodialysis patients Date (...) bloodstream infections. These individual trials found that: 1) screening and subsequent barrier nursing does not reduce MRSA and Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) colonisation or infections [3, 4]. 2) standard decolonisation is more effective at reducing MRSA colonisation and any blood stream infection [5] than either screening alone or screening-directed decolonisation; 3) standard contact precautions do not reduce the combination of MRSA and VRE acquisition in intensive care units (ICUs) (although

2019 KHA-CARI Guidelines

19. Indwelling catheter can increase postoperative urinary tract infection and may not be required in total joint arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial

Indwelling catheter can increase postoperative urinary tract infection and may not be required in total joint arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial The purpose of this study was to investigate whether patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) require catheterization.PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were systematically searched. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) receiving either a urinary (...) catheterization or no urinary catheterization were included. Meta-analysis results were assessed by RevMan 5.3 software.Seven independent RCTs were included, with a total sample size of 1533 patients, including 750 patients in the indwelling catheter group and 783 patients in the none-indwelling catheter group. Our pooled data analysis indicated that patients in the indwelling catheter group had a higher risk of urinary tract infection than patients in the none-indwelling catheter group (RR, 3.21; P = 0.0003

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2019 EvidenceUpdates

20. A systematic review of infected descending thoracic aortic grafts and endografts

A systematic review of infected descending thoracic aortic grafts and endografts The objective of this study was to collect and critically analyze the current evidence on the modalities and results of treatment of descending thoracic aortic surgical graft (SG) and endograft (EG) infection, which represents a rare but dramatic complication after both surgical and endovascular aortic repair.A comprehensive electronic health database search (PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane (...) Library) identified all articles that were published up to October 2017 reporting on thoracic aortic SG or EG infection. Observational studies, multicenter reports, single-center series and case reports, case-control studies, and guidelines were considered eligible if reporting specific results of treatment of descending thoracic aortic SG or EG infection. Comparisons of patients presenting with SG or EG infection and between invasive and conservative treatment were performed. Odds ratio (OR) meta

2019 EvidenceUpdates