Latest & greatest articles for infants

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Top results for infants

1. Effect of Hydrocortisone Therapy Initiated 7 to 14 Days After Birth on Mortality or Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Among Very Preterm Infants Receiving Mechanical Ventilation: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (PubMed)

Effect of Hydrocortisone Therapy Initiated 7 to 14 Days After Birth on Mortality or Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Among Very Preterm Infants Receiving Mechanical Ventilation: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Importance: Dexamethasone initiated after the first week of life reduces the rate of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) but may cause long-term adverse effects in very preterm infants. Hydrocortisone is increasingly used as an alternative, but evidence supporting its efficacy and safety (...) is lacking. Objective: To assess the effect of hydrocortisone initiated between 7 and 14 days after birth on death or BPD in very preterm infants. Design, Setting, and Participants: Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted in 19 neonatal intensive care units in the Netherlands and Belgium from November 15, 2011, to December 23, 2016, among preterm infants with a gestational age of less than 30 weeks and/or birth weight of less than 1250 g who were ventilator dependent between 7 and 14

2019 JAMA

2. Infant diets that include egg or peanut products appear to reduce food allergies

Infant diets that include egg or peanut products appear to reduce food allergies Signal - Infant diets that include egg or peanut products appear to reduce food allergies Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Infant diets that include egg or peanut products appear to reduce food allergies Published on 29 November 2016 Certain allergenic foods introduced to an infant’s diet while weaning appear to reduce the chance of developing food allergies. This high quality review, including (...) studies published this year, suggests that historical recommendations to delay the introduction of peanut and other allergenic foods to infant child’s diet in the first year of life may have been mistaken. The methodological limitations in some studies included in this review, reduce our certainty in the degree of benefit, but as more high quality studies are undertaken the benefits and practicalities of how to introduce these foods are likely to become clearer. The causes of food allergies

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

3. Delayed umbilical cord clamping reduces hospital mortality for preterm infants

Delayed umbilical cord clamping reduces hospital mortality for preterm infants Signal - Delayed umbilical cord clamping reduces hospital mortality for preterm infants Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Delayed umbilical cord clamping reduces hospital mortality for preterm infants Published on 6 February 2018 Delays to clamping the umbilical cord of about a minute can reduce hospital mortality for preterm infants by around 32%. Delayed clamping also reduced the proportion (...) of infants needing a blood transfusion by 10%. This review adds more precise data on survival from new trials including a large Australian trial (over 1,600 babies) to a previous Cochrane 2012 review of trails including 738 infants and provides new more precise data on the survival benefit. These findings are consistent with current guidelines which recommend delayed clamping in preterm infants. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? The optimal timing of umbilical cord clamping has

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

4. Infants anaesthetised without placing a tube in the trachea have fewer adverse breathing events

Infants anaesthetised without placing a tube in the trachea have fewer adverse breathing events Signal - Infants anaesthetised without placing a tube in the trachea have fewer adverse breathing events Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Infants anaesthetised without placing a tube in the trachea have fewer adverse breathing events Published on 11 July 2017 Adverse breathing events are about three times more common when using endotracheal tubes than laryngeal mask airways (...) for infants under 12 months receiving non-urgent surgery. Airway problems are common during anaesthesia in children, accounting for three quarters of critical incidents and a third of cardiac arrests. They are more frequent in younger children, especially infants under 12 months, who have smaller airways and rapidly use up their oxygen reserves. Laryngeal mask airways have been used in adults and older children for over 35 years for minor and intermediate surgery. Many studies have shown them to have

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

5. Plastic wraps or bags keep pre-term infants warm immediately after birth

Plastic wraps or bags keep pre-term infants warm immediately after birth Plastic wraps or bags keep pre-term infants warm immediately after birth Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Plastic wraps or bags keep pre-term infants warm immediately after birth Published on 22 May 2018 Cheap and simple plastic wrapping used in the first 10 minutes after birth helps pre-term and low birth weight infants avoid hypothermia. Infants treated in this way are likely to be warmer when (...) admitted to neonatal intensive care than those treated according to standard care. Pre-term infants are most likely to benefit. Routine infant care usually involves ensuring the delivery room is warm, drying the infant immediately after birth, wrapping the infant in pre-warmed dry blankets and pre-warming surfaces. Despite this, about a quarter of babies born eight weeks early have temperatures that are too low and additional measures to warm pre-term and low birth weight infants are needed. Although

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

6. High-flow oxygen therapy may have a role in treating infants with more severe bronchiolitis

High-flow oxygen therapy may have a role in treating infants with more severe bronchiolitis High-flow oxygen therapy may have a role in treating infants with more severe bronchiolitis Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover High-flow oxygen therapy may have a role in treating infants with more severe bronchiolitis Published on 18 September 2018 doi: A randomised controlled trial of 1,472 infants with bronchiolitis found that more children improved when started on high-flow oxygen (...) therapy than with standard oxygen therapy. Those who failed to improve on standard therapy were switched to high flow oxygen. Most then improved - overall, similar numbers transferred to intensive care. There was also no difference between the groups in the proportion of infants needing intubation, length of time on oxygen therapy or days spent in hospital. The place in the pathway for high-flow oxygen remains to be clarified. For example, it isn’t clear from this study whether high flow oxygen

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

7. Inducing labour at or after 41 weeks reduces risks to infants

Inducing labour at or after 41 weeks reduces risks to infants Inducing labour at or after 41 weeks reduces risks to infants Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Inducing labour at or after 41 weeks reduces risks to infants Published on 11 September 2018 doi: Inducing labour after the due date slightly lowers the risk of stillbirth or infant death soon after birth compared with watchful waiting. But the overall risk is very low. Induced deliveries may reduce admissions (...) to the neonatal intensive care unit. Pregnant women having induced labour are less likely to have a caesarean section than those who wait for labour to begin naturally. They may have a slightly higher chance of needing an assisted vaginal birth (for example, using forceps or vacuum extraction). Many pregnancies continue for longer than the average 40 weeks. Because of the risks to infants, women are often offered the option of induced labour at between 41 and 42 weeks. However, induction also carries risks to mother and baby

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

8. C-reactive protein for diagnosing late-onset infection in newborn infants. (PubMed)

C-reactive protein for diagnosing late-onset infection in newborn infants. BACKGROUND: Late-onset infection is the most common serious complication associated with hospital care for newborn infants. Because confirming the diagnosis by microbiological culture typically takes 24 to 48 hours, the serum level of the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) measured as part of the initial investigation is used as an adjunctive rapid test to guide management in infants with suspected late-onset (...) infection. OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of serum CRP measurement in detecting late-onset infection in newborn infants. SEARCH METHODS: We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and Science Citation Index to September 2017), conference proceedings, previous reviews, and the reference lists of retrieved articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included cohort and cross-sectional studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of serum CRP levels for the detection of late-onset infection

2019 Cochrane

9. Enteral lactoferrin supplementation for very preterm infants: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. (PubMed)

Enteral lactoferrin supplementation for very preterm infants: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. BACKGROUND: Infections acquired in hospital are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in very preterm infants. Several small trials have suggested that supplementing the enteral diet of very preterm infants with lactoferrin, an antimicrobial protein processed from cow's milk, prevents infections and associated complications. The aim of this large randomised controlled trial (...) was to collect data to enhance the validity and applicability of the evidence from previous trials to inform practice. METHODS: In this randomised placebo-controlled trial, we recruited very preterm infants born before 32 weeks' gestation in 37 UK hospitals and younger than 72 h at randomisation. Exclusion criteria were presence of a severe congenital anomaly, anticipated enteral fasting for longer than 14 days, or no realistic prospect of survival. Eligible infants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive

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2019 Lancet

10. Transitioning the Breastfeeding Preterm Infant from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit to Home

Transitioning the Breastfeeding Preterm Infant from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit to Home ABM Protocol ABM Clinical Protocol #12: Transitioning the Breastfeeding Preterm Infant from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit to Home, Revised 2018 Lawrence M. Noble, 1 Adora C. Okogbule-Wonodi, 2 Michal A. Young, 2 and The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine A central goal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols, free from commercial interest or in?uence (...) , for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient. Introduction and Background T he practice of breastfeeding or providing expressed mother’s milk to preterm infants is promoted because of the considerable bene

2019 Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine

11. Randomised study comparing heart rate measurement in newly born infants using a monitor incorporating electrocardiogram and pulse oximeter versus pulse oximeter alone

Randomised study comparing heart rate measurement in newly born infants using a monitor incorporating electrocardiogram and pulse oximeter versus pulse oximeter alone 30425114 2018 11 14 1468-2052 2018 Nov 13 Archives of disease in childhood. Fetal and neonatal edition Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. Randomised study comparing heart rate measurement in newly born infants using a monitor incorporating electrocardiogram and pulse oximeter versus pulse oximeter alone. fetalneonatal-2017 (...) -314366 10.1136/archdischild-2017-314366 To determine whether IntelliVue (ECG plus Masimo pulse oximeter (PO)) measures heart rate (HR) in low-risk newborns more quickly than Nellcor PO (PO alone). Unmasked parallel group randomised (1:1) study. We studied 100 infants, 47 randomised to IntelliVue, 53 to Nellcor. Time to first HR was shorter with IntelliVue ECG than Nellcor (median (IQR) 24 (19, 39) vs 48 (36, 69) s, p<0.001). There was no difference in time to display both HR and SpO 2 (52 (47, 76) vs

2019 EvidenceUpdates

12. Safety and Immunogenicity of Early Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccination in Infants Who Are Preterm and/or Have Low Birth Weights: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Safety and Immunogenicity of Early Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccination in Infants Who Are Preterm and/or Have Low Birth Weights: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis 30476973 2018 11 26 2168-6211 2018 Nov 26 JAMA pediatrics JAMA Pediatr Safety and Immunogenicity of Early Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Vaccination in Infants Who Are Preterm and/or Have Low Birth Weights: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.4038 Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is commonly (...) delayed in infants who are preterm and have low birth weights (LBW) despite the association of early vaccination with better vaccination coverage and potentially nonspecific benefits for survival. To determine the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy against tuberculosis (TB) of BCG vaccination given at or before 7 days after birth vs vaccination more than 7 days after birth among infants who are preterm and/or had LBW. Searches of Medline, Embase, and Global Health databases were conducted

2019 EvidenceUpdates

13. Effect of Prophylaxis for Early Adrenal Insufficiency Using Low-Dose Hydrocortisone in Very Preterm Infants: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis

Effect of Prophylaxis for Early Adrenal Insufficiency Using Low-Dose Hydrocortisone in Very Preterm Infants: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis 30416014 2018 11 12 1097-6833 2018 Nov 08 The Journal of pediatrics J. Pediatr. Effect of Prophylaxis for Early Adrenal Insufficiency Using Low-Dose Hydrocortisone in Very Preterm Infants: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis. S0022-3476(18)31416-1 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.10.004 To assess the effect of prophylaxis for early adrenal (...) insufficiency using low-dose hydrocortisone on survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very preterm infants using an individual patient data meta-analysis. All existing randomized controlled trials testing the efficacy of the prophylaxis of early adrenal insufficiency using low-dose hydrocortisone on survival without BPD were considered for inclusion when data were available. The primary outcome was the binary variable survival without BPD at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age. Among 5 eligible studies, 4

2019 EvidenceUpdates

14. Health Effects for Infants and Young Children Associated with Breastfeeding: A Rapid Review

Health Effects for Infants and Young Children Associated with Breastfeeding: A Rapid Review Health Effects for Infants and Young Children Associated with Breastfeeding A Rapid Review Elizabeth Walker, Analyst, Research and Policy Kate Kerrigan, Public Health Nurse Rita Caprara, Supervisor Judy Buchan, Manager July 30, 2018 i Table of Contents Key Messages 1 Executive Summary 2 1 Issue 5 2 Context 6 3 Conceptual Framework 7 4 Literature Review Question 7 5 Literature Search 8 6 Relevance (...) Assessment 9 7 Results of the Search 9 8 Critical Appraisal 10 9 Description of Included Studies 10 10 Synthesis of Findings 14 11 Applicability and Transferability 18 12 Recommendations 22 Appendix A: Table 1 27 Appendix B: Concept Model 28 Appendix C: Search Strategy 29 Appendix D: Literature Search Flowchart 33 Appendix E: Data Extraction Tables 334 1 Key Messages Breastfeeding offers protection against otitis media, gastrointestinal and lower respiratory infections in infancy; more breastfeeding

2019 Peel Health Library

15. Enteral lactoferrin to prevent infection for very preterm infants: the ELFIN RCT

Enteral lactoferrin to prevent infection for very preterm infants: the ELFIN RCT Enteral lactoferrin to prevent infection for very preterm infants: the ELFIN RCT Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1 (...) )"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} Enteral supplementation with bovine lactoferrin did not reduce the risk of late onset infection in very preterm infants. {{author}} {{($index , , , , , , , , , , , , , , & . James Griffiths 1 , Paula Jenkins 1 , Monika Vargova 1 , Ursula Bowler 1 , Edmund Juszczak 1 , Andrew King 1 , Louise Linsell 1 , David Murray 1 , Christopher Partlett 1 , Mehali Patel 2 , Janet Berrington 3 , Nicholas Embleton 3 , Jon Dorling 4 , Paul T Heath 5 , William

2019 NIHR HTA programme

16. Oral lidocaine-containing products for infant teething: only to be available under the supervision of a pharmacist

Oral lidocaine-containing products for infant teething: only to be available under the supervision of a pharmacist Oral lidocaine-containing products for infant teething: only to be available under the supervision of a pharmacist - GOV.UK GOV.UK uses cookies to make the site simpler. Search Oral lidocaine-containing products for infant teething: only to be available under the supervision of a pharmacist Oral lidocaine-containing products for infant teething are only to be available under (...) the supervision of a pharmacist so that parents and caregivers can receive guidance about managing infant teething symptoms. Non-medicinal options such as a teething ring or massaging the gum should be the first line for relieving infant teething symptoms, and lidocaine-containing products should only be used when simple measures have failed to provide sufficient relief. Published 13 December 2018 From: Therapeutic area: , Contents Advice for healthcare professionals: all oral lidocaine-containing products

2019 MHRA Drug Safety Update

17. Sharing a Sleep Surface with an Infant in the First Year of Life: A Rapid Review

Sharing a Sleep Surface with an Infant in the First Year of Life: A Rapid Review Sharing a Sleep Surface with an Infant in the First Year of Life A Rapid Review Ava Nainifard, Analyst, Research & Policy Elizabeth Walker, Analyst, Research & Policy Eileen Viloria-Tan, Acting Manager November 2018 i Table of Contents Key Messages 2 Executive Summary 3 1 Issue 5 2 Context 6 3 Literature Review Question 7 4 Literature Search 8 5 Relevance Assessment 8 6 Results of the Search 9 7 Critical Appraisal (...) 9 8 Description of Included Literature 9 9 Synthesis of Findings 10 10 Applicability and Transferability 14 11 Recommendations 17 Text References 21 Data Reference 25 Appendix A: Infant Deaths in Peel and Ontario 26 Appendix B: Search Strategy 28 Appendix C: Literature Search Flowchart 32 Appendix D: Data Extraction Table 33 Appendix E: Studies Included in the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Guideline 39 Appendix F: Decision-Making for Safer Infant Sleep 51 2 Key Messages 1

2019 Peel Health Library

18. Maternal probiotic supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. (PubMed)

Maternal probiotic supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. BACKGROUND: Inflammation may contribute to preterm birth and to morbidity of preterm infants. Preterm infants are at risk for alterations in the normal protective microbiome. Oral probiotics administered directly to preterm infants have been shown to decrease the risk for severe necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) as well as the risk of death, but there are safety concerns about administration (...) of probiotics directly to preterm infants. Through decreasing maternal inflammation, probiotics may play a role in preventing preterm birth and/or decreasing the inflammatory milieu surrounding delivery of preterm infants, and may alter the microbiome of the preterm infant when given to mothers during pregnancy. Probiotics given to mothers after birth of preterm infants may effect infant bacterial colonization, which could potentially reduce the incidence of NEC. OBJECTIVES: 1. To compare the efficacy

2018 Cochrane

19. Facilitating discharge from hospital of the healthy term infant

Facilitating discharge from hospital of the healthy term infant This statement provides guidance for health care providers to ensure the safe discharge of healthy term infants who are born in hospital and who are ≥37 weeks’ gestational age. Hospital care for mothers and infants should be family-centred, with healthy mothers and infants remaining together and going home at the same time. The specific length of stay for newborn infants depends on the health of their mother, infant health (...) and stability, the mother’s ability to care for her infant, support at home, and access to follow-up care. Many mother–infant dyads are ready to go home 24 h after birth. Parent or guardian education and assessment of discharge readiness are important components of discharge planning. Each infant must have an appropriate discharge plan, including identification of the infant’s primary health care provider and assessment by a health care provider 24 h to 72 h after discharge. Keywords

2018 Canadian Paediatric Society

20. Prolonged slow expiration technique improves recovery from acute bronchiolitis in infants: FIBARRIX randomized controlled trial

Prolonged slow expiration technique improves recovery from acute bronchiolitis in infants: FIBARRIX randomized controlled trial 30442030 2018 11 16 1477-0873 2018 Nov 16 Clinical rehabilitation Clin Rehabil Prolonged slow expiration technique improves recovery from acute bronchiolitis in infants: FIBARRIX randomized controlled trial. 269215518809815 10.1177/0269215518809815 To examine the effect of prolonged slow expiration respiratory physiotherapy treatment on the acute bronchiolitis severity (...) scale and O 2 saturation at short-time and at medical discharge in infants and the hospital stay. Randomized controlled trial. Infants' unit of university hospital. Infants with acute bronchiolitis ( N = 80). Infants were randomized into respiratory treatment (RT) with prolonged slow expiration or treatment as usual (control) for one-week period. The primary outcomes were Acute Bronchiolitis Severity Scale score and O 2 saturation, recorded shortly after each intervention during the stay

2018 EvidenceUpdates