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Latest & greatest articles for inequality
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Social determinants of health inequalities. The gross inequalities in health that we see within and between countries present a challenge to the world. That there should be a spread of life expectancy of 48 years among countries and 20 years or more within countries is not inevitable. A burgeoning volume of research identifies social factors at the root of much of these inequalities in health. Social determinants are relevant to communicable and non-communicable disease alike. Health status
Educational inequalities in cause-specific mortality in middle-aged and older men and women in eight western European populations. Studies of socioeconomic disparities in patterns of cause of death have been limited to single countries, middle-aged people, men, or broad cause of death groups. We assessed contribution of specific causes of death to disparities in mortality between groups with different levels of education, in men and women, middle-aged and old, in eight western European (...) populations.We analysed data from longitudinal mortality studies by cause of death, between Jan 1, 1990, and Dec 31, 1997. Data were included for more than 1 million deaths in 51 million person years of observation.Absolute educational inequalities in total mortality peaked at 2127 deaths per 100000 person years in men, and at 1588 deaths per 100000 person years in women aged 75 years and older. In this age-group, rate ratios were greater than 1.00 for total mortality and all specific causes of death, apart
Is there a north-south divide in social class inequalities in health in Great Britain? Cross sectional study using data from the 2001 census. To examine individual social class inequalities in self rated general health within and between the constituent countries of Great Britain and the regions of England.Cross sectional study using data from the 2001 national census.Great Britain.Adults aged between 25 and 64 in Great Britain and enumerated in the 2001 population census (n = 25.6 million (...) ).European age standardised rates of self rated general health, for men and women classified by the government social class scheme.In each of the seven social classes, Wales and the North East and North West regions of England had high rates of poor health. There were large social class inequalities in self rated health, with rates of poor health generally increasing from class 1 (higher professional occupations) to class 7 (routine occupations). The size of the health divide varied between regions
Tackling socioeconomic inequalities in health: analysis of European experiences. Effective strategies must be developed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in health. Most efforts take place in isolation, and only the UK experience has been discussed widely in international published work. We therefore analysed policy developments on health inequalities in different European countries between 1990 and 2001. We noted that countries are in widely different phases of awareness of, and willingness (...) to take action on, inequalities in health. We identified innovative approaches in five main areas: policy steering mechanisms; labour market and working conditions; consumption and health-related behaviour; health care; and territorial approaches. National advisory committees in the UK, the Netherlands, and Sweden have proposed comprehensive strategies to reduce health inequalities. Variations between these packages suggest that policymaking in this area still is largely intuitive and would benefit
Inequities among the very poor: health care for children in rural southern Tanzania. Few studies have been done to assess socioeconomic inequities in health in African countries. We sought evidence of inequities in health care by sex and socioeconomic status for young children living in a poor rural area of southern Tanzania.In a baseline household survey in Tanzania early in the implementation phase of integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI), we included cluster samples of 2006
Are inequalities in height underestimated by adult social position? Effects of changing social structure and height selection in a cohort study. To investigate whether changing social structure and social mobility related to height generate (inflate) inequalities in height.Longitudinal 1958 British birth cohort study.England, Scotland, and Wales.10 176 people born 3-9 March 1958 for whom data were available at age 33 years.Adult height and social class at age 33 years; class of origin (father's (...) occupation when participant was 7 years old).Adult height showed a social gradient with class at age 7 years and age 33 years. The difference in mean height between extreme groups was greater for class of origin than for adult class, reducing from 2.21 cm to 1.62 cm for men and from 2.18 cm to 1.74 cm for women. This narrowing inequality was due mainly to a decrease in mean height in classes I and II. This was because of the pattern of height related social mobility in which, for example, men moving
Consumer demand for caesarean sections in Brazil: informed decision making, patient choice, or social inequality? A population based birth cohort study linking ethnographic and epidemiological methods. To investigate why some women prefer caesarean sections and how decisions to medicalise birthing are influenced by patients, doctors, and the sociomedical environment.Population based birth cohort study, using ethnographic and epidemiological methods.Epidemiological study: women living
Income inequality, individual income, and mortality in Danish adults: analysis of pooled data from two cohort studies. To analyse the association between area income inequality and mortality after adjustment for individual income and other established risk factors.Analysis of pooled data from two cohort studies. The relation between income inequality in small areas of residence (parishes) and individual mortality was examined with Cox proportional hazard analyses.Two population studies (...) conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark.13 710 women and 12 018 men followed for a mean of 12.8 years.All cause mortality.Age standardised mortality was highest in the parishes with the least equal income distribution. After adjustment for individual risk factors, parish income inequality was not associated with mortality, whereas individual household income was. Thus, individuals in the highest income quarter had lower mortality than those in the lowest quarter (adjusted hazard ratio for men 0.51 (95
Relations of income inequality and family income to chronic medical conditions and mental health disorders: national survey. To analyse the relation between geographical inequalities in income and the prevalence of common chronic medical conditions and mental health disorders, and to compare it with the relation between family income and these health problems.Nationally representative household telephone survey conducted in 1997-8.60 metropolitan areas or economic areas of the United States (...) .9585 adults who participated in the community tracking study.Self report of 17 common chronic medical conditions; current depressive disorder or anxiety disorder assessed by clinical screeners.A strong continuous association was seen between health and education or family income. No relation was found between income inequality and the prevalence of chronic medical problems or depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, either across the whole population or among poorer people. Only self reported
Education, income inequality, and mortality: a multiple regression analysis. To test whether the relation between income inequality and mortality found in US states is because of different levels of formal education.Cross sectional, multiple regression analysis.All US states and the District of Columbia (n=51).US census statistics and vital statistics for the years 1989 and 1990.Multiple regression analysis with age adjusted mortality from all causes as the dependent variable and 3 independent (...) variables-the Gini coefficient, per capita income, and percentage of people aged >/=18 years without a high school diploma.The income inequality effect disappeared when percentage of people without a high school diploma was added to the regression models. The fit of the regression significantly improved when education was added to the model.Lack of high school education accounts for the income inequality effect and is a powerful predictor of mortality variation among US states.