Latest & greatest articles for inequality

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Top results for inequality

121. Inter-individual inequality in BMI: An analysis of Indonesian Family Life Surveys (1993–2007) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inter-individual inequality in BMI: An analysis of Indonesian Family Life Surveys (1993–2007) Widening inequalities in mean Body Mass Index (BMI) between social and economic groups are well documented. However, whether changes in mean BMI are followed by changes in dispersion (or variance) and whether these inequalities are also occurring within social groups or across individuals remain understudied. In addition, a substantial body of literature exists on the global increase in mean BMI (...) and prevalence of overweight and obesity. However, whether this weight gain is shared proportionately across the whole spectrum of BMI distribution, also remains understudied. We examined changes in the distribution of BMI at the population level over time to understand how changes in the dispersion reflect between-group compared to within-group inequalities in weight gain. Moreover, we investigated the entire distribution of BMI to determine in which percentiles the most weight gain is occurring over time

2016 SSM - population health

122. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health, smoking, and physical activity of Japanese adults from 2000 to 2010 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health, smoking, and physical activity of Japanese adults from 2000 to 2010 Health disparities in Japan are attracting increasing attention. Temporal trends in health disparities should be continuously monitored using multiple indices of socioeconomic status (SES) and health-related outcomes. We explored changes in socioeconomic differences in the health of Japanese adults during 2000-2010. The data was taken from the Japanese General Social (...) Surveys, the cross-sectional surveys for nationally representative samples of Japanese adults. We used 14,193 samples (individuals of 20-64 years of age) in our analysis. We estimated age-adjusted prevalence ratios of the lowest SES group in comparison with the highest SES group using Poisson regression models with robust error variance. Relative index of inequality (RII) and slope index of inequality (SII) were also calculated. We examined the changes in the association between health-related

2016 SSM - population health

123. What is the evidence on the reduction of inequalities in accessibility and quality of maternal health care delivery for migrants? A review of the existing evidence in the WHO European Region

What is the evidence on the reduction of inequalities in accessibility and quality of maternal health care delivery for migrants? A review of the existing evidence in the WHO European Region What is the evidence on the reduction of inequalities in accessibility and quality of maternal health care delivery for migrants? A review of the existing evidence in the WHO European Region HEALTH EVIDENCE NETWORK SYNTHESIS REPORT 45 Ines Keygnaert | Olena Ivanova | Aurore Guieu | An-Sofie Van Parys | Els (...) is the evidence on the reduction of inequalities in accessibility and quality of maternal health care delivery for migrants? A review of the existing evidence in the WHO European Region Ines Keygnaert | Olena Ivanova | Aurore Guieu | An-Sofie Van Parys | Els Leye | Kristien RoelensAbstract The number of female migrants of childbearing age is rapidly increasing, which poses specific maternal health needs. Via a systematic academic literature review and a critical interpretive synthesis of policy frameworks

2016 WHO Health Evidence Network

124. Explaining inequalities in women's mortality between U.S. States Full Text available with Trip Pro

Explaining inequalities in women's mortality between U.S. States Inequalities in women's mortality between U.S. states are large and growing. It is unknown whether they reflect differences between states in their population characteristics, contextual characteristics, or both. This study systematically examines the large inequalities in women's mortality between U.S. states using a multilevel approach. It focuses on "fundamental" social determinants of mortality at the individual and state (...) stronger and more pernicious consequences for women than men. Taken together, the findings underscore the importance of 'bringing context back in' and taking a multilevel approach when investigating geographic inequalities in U.S. mortality.

2016 SSM - population health

125. Wealth, education and urban–rural inequality and maternal healthcare service usage in Malawi Full Text available with Trip Pro

Wealth, education and urban–rural inequality and maternal healthcare service usage in Malawi Malawi is among the 5 sub-Saharan African countries presenting with very high maternal mortality rates, which remain a challenge. This study aims to examine the impact of wealth inequality and area of residence (urban vs rural) and education on selected indicators of maternal healthcare services (MHS) usage in Malawi.This study was based on data from the 5th round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (...) appears to be reasonable, yet the high maternal mortality rate is disturbing and calls for analysing factors hindering the achievement of maternal health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The findings of this study underscore the need to minimise the wealth inequality, urban-rural divide and the low level of education among mothers to improve the usage of MHS. An equity-based policy approach considering the sociodemographic inequity in terms of wealth index, education and urban-rural

2016 BMJ global health

126. Trends of geographic inequalities in the distribution of human resources in healthcare system: the case of Iran Full Text available with Trip Pro

Trends of geographic inequalities in the distribution of human resources in healthcare system: the case of Iran Considering the scarcity of skilled workers in the health sector, the appropriate distribution of human resources in this sector is very important for improving people's health. Having information about the degree of equality in the distribution of health human resources and their time trends is necessary for better planning and efficient use of these resources. The aim of this study (...) was to determine the trend of inequality in the allocation of human resources in the health sector in Tehran between 2007 and 2013.This cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran Province in Iran. The inequality in the distribution of human resources (specialists, general practitioners, pharmacists, paramedics, dentists, nurses and community health workers (Behvarz)) in 10 cities in Tehran Province was investigated using the Gini coefficient and the dissimilarity index. The time trend of inequality

2016 Electronic physician

127. Theoretical basis and explanation for the relationship between area-level social inequalities and population oral health outcomes – A scoping review Full Text available with Trip Pro

Theoretical basis and explanation for the relationship between area-level social inequalities and population oral health outcomes – A scoping review This study was conducted to review the evidence on the association between area-level social inequalities and population oral health according to type and extent of social theories. A scoping review was conducted of studies, which assessed the association between area-level social inequality measures, and population oral health outcomes including (...) to their theoretical basis. A total of 2892 studies were identified with 16 included in the review. Seven types of social theories were used on 48 occasions within the selected studies including: psychosocial (n=13), behavioural (n=10), neo-material (n=10), social capital (n=6), social cohesion (n=4), material (n=3) and social support (n=2). Of the selected studies, four explicitly tested social theories as pathways from inequalities to population oral health outcomes, three used a theoretical construct, seven

2016 SSM - population health

128. The effects of Positive Youth Development interventions on substance use, violence and inequalities: systematic review of theories of change, processes and outcomes

The effects of Positive Youth Development interventions on substance use, violence and inequalities: systematic review of theories of change, processes and outcomes The effects of Positive Youth Development interventions on substance use, violence and inequalities: systematic review of theories of change, processes and outcomes The effects of Positive Youth Development interventions on substance use, violence and inequalities: systematic review of theories of change, processes and outcomes (...) interventions on substance use, violence and inequalities: systematic review of theories of change, processes and outcomes. Public Health Research 2016; 4(5) Authors' objectives Positive Youth Development (PYD) delivered outside school aims to enable young people to develop positive assets such as relationships and confidence, rather than to merely address risk. Existing reviews of PYD effects on substance use or violence are old and unsystematic. The objective was to systematically review evidence

2016 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

129. The effects of Positive Youth Development interventions on substance use, violence and inequalities: systematic review of theories of change, processes and outcomes Full Text available with Trip Pro

The effects of Positive Youth Development interventions on substance use, violence and inequalities: systematic review of theories of change, processes and outcomes The effects of Positive Youth Development interventions on substance use, violence and inequalities: systematic review of theories of change, processes and outcomes Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could

2016 NIHR HTA programme

130. Inequalities in mental health and well-being in a time of austerity: Baseline findings from the Stockton-on-Tees cohort study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inequalities in mental health and well-being in a time of austerity: Baseline findings from the Stockton-on-Tees cohort study Since 2010, the UK has pursued a policy of austerity characterised by public spending cuts and welfare changes. There has been speculation - but little actual research - about the effects of this policy on health inequalities. This paper reports on a case study of local health inequalities in the local authority of Stockton-on-Tees in the North East of England, an area (...) characterised by high spatial and socio-economic inequalities. The paper presents baseline findings from a prospective cohort study of inequalities in mental health and mental wellbeing between the most and least deprived areas of Stockton-on-Tees. This is the first quantitative study to explore local mental health inequalities during the current period of austerity and the first UK study to empirically examine the relative contributions of material, psychosocial and behavioural determinants in explaining

2016 SSM - population health

131. Achieving universal health coverage in France: policy reforms and the challenge of inequalities. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Achieving universal health coverage in France: policy reforms and the challenge of inequalities. Since 1945, the provision of health care in France has been grounded in a social conception promoting universalism and equality. The French health-care system is based on compulsory social insurance funded by social contributions, co-administered by workers' and employers' organisations under State control and driven by highly redistributive financial transfers. This system is described frequently (...) suggest the redistributive mechanisms of the health insurance system are impeded by social inequalities in health, which remain major hindrances to achieving objectives of justice and solidarity associated with the conception of health care in France. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2016 Lancet

132. Inequalities in use of total hip arthroplasty for hip fracture: population based study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inequalities in use of total hip arthroplasty for hip fracture: population based study. To determine whether the use of total hip arthroplasty (THA) among individuals with a displaced intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck is based on national guidelines or if there are systematic inequalities.Observational cohort study using the National Hip Fracture Database (NHFD).All hospitals that treat adults with hip fractures in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland.Patients within the national

2016 BMJ

133. Towards an understanding of the structural determinants of oral health inequalities: A comparative analysis between Canada and the United States Full Text available with Trip Pro

Towards an understanding of the structural determinants of oral health inequalities: A comparative analysis between Canada and the United States To compare the magnitude of, and contributors to, income-related inequalities in oral health outcomes within and between Canada and the United States over time.The concentration index was used to estimate income-related inequalities in three oral health outcomes from the Nutrition Canada National Survey 1970-1972, Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007 (...) -2009, Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I 1971-1974, and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008. Concentration indices were decomposed to determine the contribution of demographic and socioeconomic factors to oral health inequalities.Our estimates show that over time in both countries, inequalities in decayed teeth and edentulism were concentrated among the poor and inequalities in filled teeth were concentrated among the rich. Over time, inequalities in decayed teeth

2016 SSM - population health

134. Changes in mortality inequalities over two decades: register based study of European countries. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Changes in mortality inequalities over two decades: register based study of European countries. To determine whether government efforts in reducing inequalities in health in European countries have actually made a difference to mortality inequalities by socioeconomic group.Register based study.Mortality data by level of education and occupational class in the period 1990-2010, usually collected in a census linked longitudinal study design. We compared changes in mortality between the lowest (...) and highest socioeconomic groups, and calculated their effect on absolute and relative inequalities in mortality (measured as rate differences and rate ratios, respectively).All European countries for which data on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were available for the approximate period between years 1990 and 2010. These included Finland, Norway, Sweden, Scotland, England and Wales (data applied to both together), France, Switzerland, Spain (Barcelona), Italy (Turin), Slovenia

2016 BMJ

135. Community engagement: improving health and wellbeing and reducing health inequalities

Community engagement: improving health and wellbeing and reducing health inequalities Community engagement: impro Community engagement: improving ving health and wellbeing and reducing health health and wellbeing and reducing health inequalities inequalities NICE guideline Published: 4 March 2016 nice.org.uk/guidance/ng44 © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and-conditions#notice-of- rights).Y Y our responsibility our responsibility (...) and to reduce health inequalities. Nothing in this guideline should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with complying with those duties. Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible. Community engagement: improving health and wellbeing and reducing health inequalities (NG44) © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject

2016 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

136. The effects of public health policies on population health and health inequalities in European welfare states

The effects of public health policies on population health and health inequalities in European welfare states Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation

2016 PROSPERO

137. Uses of slope index of inequality and relative index of inequality: a systematic review for health equity

Uses of slope index of inequality and relative index of inequality: a systematic review for health equity Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web

2016 PROSPERO

138. What factors explain socioeconomic inequalities in adult cancer survival? A systematic review

What factors explain socioeconomic inequalities in adult cancer survival? A systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address

2016 PROSPERO

139. Do social policy interventions reduce socioeconomic inequalities in health? a review of the peer-reviewed literature

Do social policy interventions reduce socioeconomic inequalities in health? a review of the peer-reviewed literature Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence

2016 PROSPERO

140. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cigarette smoking during pregnancy in developed countries

Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cigarette smoking during pregnancy in developed countries Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address

2016 PROSPERO