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A systematic review of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal-level interventions at reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity are well established in high-income countries. There is a lack of evidence of the types of intervention that are effective in reducing these inequalities among adults.To systematically review studies of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal interventions in reducing socio (...) -economic inequalities in obesity among adults.Nine electronic databases were searched from start date to October 2012 along with website and grey literature searches. The review examined the best available international evidence (both experimental and observational) of interventions at an individual, community and societal level that might reduce inequalities in obesity among adults (aged 18 years or over) in any setting and country. Studies were included if they reported a body fatness-related outcome
Open Space on Health Inequalities in Scotland Open Space on Health Inequalities in Scotland (Report) | SCPHRP For more information about the event or the Working Age/Adult Life Working Group, contact or see the relevant pages on this website Publication Information Date of Publication 10/04/2015 Link
Inequalities in life expectancy Inequalities in life expectancy | The King's Fund Main navigation Health and care services Leadership, systems and organisations Patients, people and society Policy, finance and performance Search term Apply Inequalities in life expectancy: Changes over time and implications for policy This content relates to the following topics: Share this content Related details Authors Publication details ISBN 978 1 909029 54 5 Pages 76 Our health is determined by a complex (...) mix of factors including income, housing and employment, lifestyles and access to health care and other services. There are significant inequalities in health between individuals and different groups in society. These inequalities are not random. In particular, there is a ‘social gradient’ in health; neighbourhood areas with higher levels of income deprivation typically have lower life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy. This relationship (known as the ‘Marmot curve’) formed
From work with men and boys to changes of social norms and reduction of inequities in gender relations: a conceptual shift in prevention of violence against women and girls. Violence perpetrated by and against men and boys is a major public health problem. Although individual men's use of violence differs, engagement of all men and boys in action to prevent violence against women and girls is essential. We discuss why this engagement approach is theoretically important and how prevention (...) interventions have developed from treating men simply as perpetrators of violence against women and girls or as allies of women in its prevention, to approaches that seek to transform the relations, social norms, and systems that sustain gender inequality and violence. We review evidence of intervention effectiveness in the reduction of violence or its risk factors, features commonly seen in more effective interventions, and how strong evidence-based interventions can be developed with more robust use
A systematic review of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal level interventions at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in obesity amongst adults Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.
The impact of NHS resource allocation policy on health inequalities in England 2001-11: longitudinal ecological study. To investigate whether the policy of increasing National Health Service funding to a greater extent in deprived areas in England compared with more affluent areas led to a reduction in geographical inequalities in mortality amenable to healthcare.Longitudinal ecological study.324 lower tier local authorities in England, classified by their baseline level (...) between deprived and affluent areas in male mortality amenable to healthcare of 35 deaths per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval 27 to 42) and female mortality of 16 deaths per 100,000 (10 to 21). This explained 85% of the total reduction of absolute inequality in mortality amenable to healthcare during this time. Each additional £10 m of resources allocated to deprived areas was associated with a reduction in 4 deaths in males per 100,000 (3.1 to 4.9) and 1.8 deaths in females per 100,000
Income inequality and 30 day outcomes after acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia: retrospective cohort study. To examine the association between income inequality and the risk of mortality and readmission within 30 days of hospitalization.Retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries in the United States. Hierarchical, logistic regression models were developed to estimate the association between income inequality (measured at the US state level) and a patient's risk (...) . The potential number of excess deaths and readmissions associated with higher levels of inequality in US states in the three highest quarters of income inequality were compared with corresponding data in US states in the lowest quarter.Mortality analyses included 555,962 admissions (4348 hospitals) for acute myocardial infarction, 1,092,285 (4484) for heart failure, and 1,146,414 (4520); readmission analyses included 553,037 (4262), 1,345,909 (4494), and 1,345,909 (4524) admissions, respectively. In 2006-08
Inequalities in non-communicable diseases and effective responses. In most countries, people who have a low socioeconomic status and those who live in poor or marginalised communities have a higher risk of dying from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) than do more advantaged groups and communities. Smoking rates, blood pressure, and several other NCD risk factors are often higher in groups with low socioeconomic status than in those with high socioeconomic status; the social gradient also depends (...) on the country's stage of economic development, cultural factors, and social and health policies. Social inequalities in risk factors account for more than half of inequalities in major NCDs, especially for cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. People in low-income countries and those with low socioeconomic status also have worse access to health care for timely diagnosis and treatment of NCDs than do those in high-income countries or those with higher socioeconomic status. Reduction of NCDs
Ethnicity, detention and early intervention: reducing inequalities and improving outcomes for black and minority ethnic patients: the ENRICH programme, a mixed-methods study Ethnicity, detention and early intervention: reducing inequalities and improving outcomes for black and minority ethnic patients: the ENRICH programme, a mixed-methods study Journals Library An error has occurred in processing the XML document An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page
Community engagement to reduce inequalities in health: a systematic review, meta-analysis and economic analysis Community engagement to reduce inequalities in health: a systematic review, meta-analysis and economic analysis Community engagement to reduce inequalities in health: a systematic review, meta-analysis and economic analysis O'Mara-Eves A, Brunton G, McDaid D, Oliver S, Kavanagh J, Jamal F, Matosevic T, Harden A, Thomas J Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published (...) health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation O'Mara-Eves A, Brunton G, McDaid D, Oliver S, Kavanagh J, Jamal F, Matosevic T, Harden A, Thomas J. Community engagement to reduce inequalities in health: a systematic review, meta-analysis and economic analysis. Public Health Research 2013; 1(4) Authors' objectives To undertake a multimethod systematic review which builds on the evidence that underpins
Persistent social inequalities in health: Insensitive outcomes, inadequate policies, or both? Persistent social inequalities in health: Insensitive outcomes, inadequate policies, or both? | SCPHRP Publication Information Date of Publication 01/03/2013 Link
A cross-sectional pilot study of the Scottish early development instrument: a tool for addressing inequality A cross-sectional pilot study of the Scottish early development instrument: a tool for addressing inequality | SCPHRP Publication Information Date of Publication 17/12/2013 Link
Identifying appropriate methods to incorporate concerns about health inequalities into economic evaluations of health care programmes First page footer Identifying appropriate methods to incorporate concerns about health inequalities into economic evaluations of health care programmes Final Report 3.02.14 Susan Griffin 1 ; Miqdad Asaria 1 ; Richard Cookson 1 ; Mark Sculpher 1 . 1 Centre for Health Economics, University of York The work was undertaken by the authors as part of the Public Health (...) Detailed description of project findings 9 2 Contribution to Consortium themes 9 2.1 Health inequalities 9 2.1.1 Methodological development 9 2.1.2 Translation to policy 9 References 10 Outputs / Dissemination 11 4 What this study adds: ? Reducing health inequality is a recognised goal of public policy, but changes to health inequality are not commonly incorporated in economic evaluations ? This study shows how health inequality impacts can be incorporated in economic evaluation in a way that clarifies
Impact on health inequalities of rising prosperity in England 1998-2007, and implications for performance incentives: longitudinal ecological study. To investigate whether the uneven rise in prosperity between 1999 and 2008 accounted for differential increases in life expectancy in English local authorities.Longitudinal ecological study.324 local authorities in England, classified by their baseline level of deprivation. M: ain outcome measures Multivariable regression was used to investigate (...) the association between trends in prosperity between 1998 and 2007 and trends in life expectancy. Trends in health inequalities were assessed by comparing the experience of Spearhead local authorities (the 70 most deprived in 1998) with the average for all English local authorities.Those local authorities that experienced the greatest improvement in prosperity experienced greater increases in life expectancy. With each 1% absolute decline in unemployment, life expectancy increased by 2.2 (95% confidence
Use of relative and absolute effect measures in reporting health inequalities: structured review. To examine the frequency of reporting of absolute and relative effect measures in health inequalities research.Structured review of selected general medical and public health journals.344 articles published during 2009 in American Journal of Epidemiology, American Journal of Public Health, BMJ, Epidemiology, International Journal of Epidemiology, JAMA, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health (...) % (258/344) of all articles reported only relative measures in the full text; among these, 46% (119/258) contained no information on absolute baseline risks that would facilitate calculation of absolute effect measures. 18% (61/344) of all articles reported only absolute measures in the full text, and 7% (25/344) reported both absolute and relative measures. These results were consistent across journals, exposures, and outcomes.Health inequalities are most commonly reported using only relative
Contribution of modifiable risk factors to social inequalities in type 2 diabetes: prospective Whitehall II cohort study. To assess the contribution of modifiable risk factors to social inequalities in the incidence of type 2 diabetes when these factors are measured at study baseline or repeatedly over follow-up and when long term exposure is accounted for.Prospective cohort study with risk factors (health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical activity), body mass index (...) 1.48), and 45% (28% to 75%) when long term exposure over the follow-up was accounted for (attenuated hazard ratio 1.41). With additional adjustment for biological risk markers, a total of 53% (29% to 88%) of the socioeconomic differential was explained (attenuated hazard ratio 1.35, 1.05 to 1.72).Modifiable risk factors such as health behaviours and obesity, when measured repeatedly over time, explain almost half of the social inequalities in incidence of type 2 diabetes. This is more than was seen
Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in risk of sudden infant death syndrome, other causes of infant mortality, and stillbirth in Scotland: population based study. To compare changes in inequalities in sudden infant death syndrome with other causes of infant mortality and stillbirth in Scotland, 1985-2008.Retrospective cohort study.Scotland 1985-2008, analysed by four epochs of six years.Singleton births of infants with birth weight >500 g born at 28-43 weeks' gestation.Sudden infant death
Increasing incidence of serious infectious diseases and inequalities in New Zealand: a national epidemiological study. Although the burden of infectious diseases seems to be decreasing in developed countries, few national studies have measured the total incidence of these diseases. We aimed to develop and apply a robust systematic method for monitoring the epidemiology of serious infectious diseases.We did a national epidemiological study with all hospital admissions for infectious and non (...) admissions were the events of interest.Infectious diseases made the largest contribution to hospital admissions of any cause. Their contribution increased from 20·5% of acute admissions in 1989-93, to 26·6% in 2004-08. We noted clear ethnic and social inequalities in infectious disease risk. In 2004-08, the age-standardised rate ratio was 2·15 (95% CI 2·14-2·16) for Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and 2·35 (2·34-2·37) for Pacific peoples compared with the European and other group. The ratio was 2·81 (2
Fair Enough? Inviting Inequities in State Health Benefits. 22316422 2012 02 28 2012 02 23 1533-4406 366 8 2012 Feb 23 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Fair enough? Inviting inequities in state health benefits. 681-3 10.1056/NEJMp1200751 Ruger Jennifer Prah JP Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA. eng Journal Article 2012 02 08 United States N Engl J Med 0255562 0028-4793 AIM IM Health Policy Humans Insurance Benefits legislation & jurisprudence Insurance Coverage