Latest & greatest articles for inequality

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Top results for inequality

41. Social Determinants of Health in the United States: Addressing Major Health Inequality Trends for the Nation, 1935-2016

Social Determinants of Health in the United States: Addressing Major Health Inequality Trends for the Nation, 1935-2016 29367890 2018 11 13 2161-8674 6 2 2017 International journal of MCH and AIDS Int J MCH AIDS Social Determinants of Health in the United States: Addressing Major Health Inequality Trends for the Nation, 1935-2016. 139-164 10.21106/ijma.236 This study describes key population health concepts and examines major empirical trends in US health and healthcare inequalities from 1935 (...) to 2016 according to important social determinants such as race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, area deprivation, unemployment, housing, rural-urban residence, and geographic location. Long-term trend data from the National Vital Statistics System, National Health Interview Survey, National Survey of Children's Health, American Community Survey, and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to examine racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, rural-urban, and geographic inequalities in health

International journal of MCH and AIDS2017 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

42. Socioeconomic inequality in morbid obesity with body mass index more than 40 kg/m2 in the United States and England

Socioeconomic inequality in morbid obesity with body mass index more than 40 kg/m2 in the United States and England 29349213 2018 11 13 2352-8273 3 2017 Dec SSM - population health SSM Popul Health Socioeconomic inequality in morbid obesity with body mass index more than 40 kg/m 2 in the United States and England. 172-178 10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.12.012 This study evaluated socioeconomic inequality in morbid obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥40 kg/m 2 ) through an analysis of population health survey (...) data in the United States (US) and England (UK). We analysed data for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Health Survey for England for 2011 to 2014. Age-adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were used to evaluate income- and education-inequality. There were 26,898 eligible UK and 10,628 US participants. Morbid obesity was more frequent in women than men, and higher in the US than the UK (men: US, 4.8%; UK, 1.7%; women US, 9.6%; UK, 3.7%). In the UK, morbid obesity showed graded

SSM - population health2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

43. Consideration of health inequalities in systematic reviews: a mapping review of guidance.

Consideration of health inequalities in systematic reviews: a mapping review of guidance. BACKGROUND: Given that we know that interventions shown to be effective in improving the health of a population may actually widen the health inequalities gap while others reduce it, it is imperative that all systematic reviewers consider how the findings of their reviews may impact (reduce or increase) on the health inequality gap. This study reviewed existing guidance on incorporating considerations (...) of health inequalities in systematic reviews in order to examine the extent to which they can help reviewers to incorporate such issues. METHODS: A mapping review was undertaken to identify guidance documents that purported to inform reviewers on whether and how to incorporate considerations of health inequalities. Searches were undertaken in Medline, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library Methodology Register. Review guidance manuals prepared by international organisations engaged in undertaking systematic

Systematic Reviews2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

44. Explaining racial and ethnic inequalities in postpartum allostatic load: Results from a multisite study of low to middle income woment

Explaining racial and ethnic inequalities in postpartum allostatic load: Results from a multisite study of low to middle income woment 29082305 2018 11 13 2352-8273 2 2016 Dec SSM - population health SSM Popul Health Explaining racial and ethnic inequalities in postpartum allostatic load: Results from a multisite study of low to middle income woment. 850-858 10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.10.014 Racial and ethnic inequalities in women's health are widely documented, but not for the postpartum period (...) ) and 0.53 (SD = 0.15) for Latina women. Adjustment for household poverty, neighborhood, stress, and resilience variables resulted in a reduction of 36% of the excess risk in high AL for African Americans versus Whites and 42% of the excess risk for Latinas compared to Whites. Racial and ethnic inequalities in AL were accounted for largely by household poverty with additional contributions by psychological, economic, neighbourhood and medical variables. There remained a significant inequality between

SSM - population health2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

45. An agent-based simulation of persistent inequalities in health behavior: Understanding the interdependent roles of segregation, clustering, and social influence

An agent-based simulation of persistent inequalities in health behavior: Understanding the interdependent roles of segregation, clustering, and social influence 29349187 2018 11 13 2352-8273 2 2016 Dec SSM - population health SSM Popul Health An agent-based simulation of persistent inequalities in health behavior: Understanding the interdependent roles of segregation, clustering, and social influence. 757-769 10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.10.006 Health inequalities are conspicuously persistent through (...) time and often durable even in spite of interventions. In this study, I use agent-based simulation models (ABMs) to understand how the complex interrelationships between residential segregation, social network formation, group-level preferences, and social influence may contribute to this persistence. I use a more-stylized ABM, Bubblegum Village (BV), to understand how initial inequalities in bubblegum-chewing behaviors either endure, increase, or decrease over time given group-level differences

SSM - population health2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

46. Increasing inequality in age of death at shared levels of life expectancy: A comparative study of Scotland and England and Wales

Increasing inequality in age of death at shared levels of life expectancy: A comparative study of Scotland and England and Wales 28018961 2018 11 13 2352-8273 2 2016 Dec SSM - population health SSM Popul Health Increasing inequality in age of death at shared levels of life expectancy: A comparative study of Scotland and England and Wales. 724-731 10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.10.001 There is a strong negative correlation between increasing life expectancy and decreasing lifespan variation, a measure (...) of inequality. Previous research suggests that countries achieving a high level of life expectancy later in time generally do so with lower lifespan variation than forerunner countries. This may be because they are able to capitalise on lessons already learnt. However, a few countries achieve a high level of life expectancy later in time with higher inequality. Scotland appears to be such a country and presents an interesting case study because it previously experienced lower inequality when reaching

SSM - population health2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

47. Inter-individual inequality in BMI: An analysis of Indonesian Family Life Surveys (1993–2007)

Inter-individual inequality in BMI: An analysis of Indonesian Family Life Surveys (1993–2007) 29349195 2018 11 13 2352-8273 2 2016 Dec SSM - population health SSM Popul Health Inter-individual inequality in BMI: An analysis of Indonesian Family Life Surveys (1993-2007). 876-888 10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.09.013 Widening inequalities in mean Body Mass Index (BMI) between social and economic groups are well documented. However, whether changes in mean BMI are followed by changes in dispersion (...) (or variance) and whether these inequalities are also occurring within social groups or across individuals remain understudied. In addition, a substantial body of literature exists on the global increase in mean BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity. However, whether this weight gain is shared proportionately across the whole spectrum of BMI distribution, also remains understudied. We examined changes in the distribution of BMI at the population level over time to understand how changes

SSM - population health2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

48. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health, smoking, and physical activity of Japanese adults from 2000 to 2010

Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health, smoking, and physical activity of Japanese adults from 2000 to 2010 Redirecting

SSM - population health2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

49. What is the evidence on the reduction of inequalities in accessibility and quality of maternal health care delivery for migrants? A review of the existing evidence in the WHO European Region

What is the evidence on the reduction of inequalities in accessibility and quality of maternal health care delivery for migrants? A review of the existing evidence in the WHO European Region What is the evidence on the reduction of inequalities in accessibility and quality of maternal health care delivery for migrants? A review of the existing evidence in the WHO European Region HEALTH EVIDENCE NETWORK SYNTHESIS REPORT 45 Ines Keygnaert | Olena Ivanova | Aurore Guieu | An-Sofie Van Parys | Els (...) is the evidence on the reduction of inequalities in accessibility and quality of maternal health care delivery for migrants? A review of the existing evidence in the WHO European Region Ines Keygnaert | Olena Ivanova | Aurore Guieu | An-Sofie Van Parys | Els Leye | Kristien RoelensAbstract The number of female migrants of childbearing age is rapidly increasing, which poses specific maternal health needs. Via a systematic academic literature review and a critical interpretive synthesis of policy frameworks

WHO Health Evidence Network2016

50. Explaining inequalities in women's mortality between U.S. States

Explaining inequalities in women's mortality between U.S. States 27722192 2018 11 13 2352-8273 2 2016 Dec SSM - population health SSM Popul Health Explaining Inequalities in Women's Mortality between U.S. States. 561-571 Inequalities in women's mortality between U.S. states are large and growing. It is unknown whether they reflect differences between states in their population characteristics, contextual characteristics, or both. This study systematically examines the large inequalities (...) any two states remained after accounting for individual and contextual characteristics. Supplementary analyses of men indicate that state contexts have stronger and more pernicious consequences for women than men. Taken together, the findings underscore the importance of 'bringing context back in' and taking a multilevel approach when investigating geographic inequalities in U.S. mortality. Montez Jennifer Karas JK Syracuse University. Zajacova Anna A University of Wyoming. Hayward Mark D MD

SSM - population health2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

51. Wealth, education and urban–rural inequality and maternal healthcare service usage in Malawi

Wealth, education and urban–rural inequality and maternal healthcare service usage in Malawi 28588940 2018 11 13 2059-7908 1 2 2016 BMJ global health BMJ Glob Health Wealth, education and urban-rural inequality and maternal healthcare service usage in Malawi. e000085 10.1136/bmjgh-2016-000085 Malawi is among the 5 sub-Saharan African countries presenting with very high maternal mortality rates, which remain a challenge. This study aims to examine the impact of wealth inequality and area (...) %). The rates of usage of MHS, although reasonable on an overall basis, were consistently lower in women with lower education and those residing in rural areas. Maternal health service usage in Malawi appears to be reasonable, yet the high maternal mortality rate is disturbing and calls for analysing factors hindering the achievement of maternal health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The findings of this study underscore the need to minimise the wealth inequality, urban-rural divide

BMJ global health2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

52. Trends of geographic inequalities in the distribution of human resources in healthcare system: the case of Iran

Trends of geographic inequalities in the distribution of human resources in healthcare system: the case of Iran 27648186 2016 09 20 2018 11 13 2008-5842 8 7 2016 Jul Electronic physician Electron Physician Trends of geographic inequalities in the distribution of human resources in healthcare system: the case of Iran. 2607-13 10.19082/2607 Considering the scarcity of skilled workers in the health sector, the appropriate distribution of human resources in this sector is very important (...) for improving people's health. Having information about the degree of equality in the distribution of health human resources and their time trends is necessary for better planning and efficient use of these resources. The aim of this study was to determine the trend of inequality in the allocation of human resources in the health sector in Tehran between 2007 and 2013. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran Province in Iran. The inequality in the distribution of human resources (specialists

Electronic physician2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

53. Theoretical basis and explanation for the relationship between area-level social inequalities and population oral health outcomes – A scoping review

Theoretical basis and explanation for the relationship between area-level social inequalities and population oral health outcomes – A scoping review 29349160 2018 11 13 2352-8273 2 2016 Dec SSM - population health SSM Popul Health Theoretical basis and explanation for the relationship between area-level social inequalities and population oral health outcomes - A scoping review. 451-462 10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.06.001 This study was conducted to review the evidence on the association between area (...) -level social inequalities and population oral health according to type and extent of social theories. A scoping review was conducted of studies, which assessed the association between area-level social inequality measures, and population oral health outcomes including self-rated oral health, number of teeth, dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and dental pain. A search strategy was applied to identify evidence on PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE

SSM - population health2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

54. The effects of Positive Youth Development interventions on substance use, violence and inequalities: systematic review of theories of change, processes and outcomes

The effects of Positive Youth Development interventions on substance use, violence and inequalities: systematic review of theories of change, processes and outcomes The effects of Positive Youth Development interventions on substance use, violence and inequalities: systematic review of theories of change, processes and outcomes The effects of Positive Youth Development interventions on substance use, violence and inequalities: systematic review of theories of change, processes and outcomes (...) interventions on substance use, violence and inequalities: systematic review of theories of change, processes and outcomes. Public Health Research 2016; 4(5) Authors' objectives Positive Youth Development (PYD) delivered outside school aims to enable young people to develop positive assets such as relationships and confidence, rather than to merely address risk. Existing reviews of PYD effects on substance use or violence are old and unsystematic. The objective was to systematically review evidence

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.2016

55. The effects of Positive Youth Development interventions on substance use, violence and inequalities: systematic review of theories of change, processes and outcomes

The effects of Positive Youth Development interventions on substance use, violence and inequalities: systematic review of theories of change, processes and outcomes Journals Library Journals Library An error has occurred in processing the XML document An error has occurred in processing the XML document An error has occurred in processing the XML document An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you

NIHR HTA programme2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

56. Inequalities in mental health and well-being in a time of austerity: Baseline findings from the Stockton-on-Tees cohort study

Inequalities in mental health and well-being in a time of austerity: Baseline findings from the Stockton-on-Tees cohort study 29349153 2018 11 13 2352-8273 2 2016 Dec SSM - population health SSM Popul Health Inequalities in mental health and well-being in a time of austerity: Baseline findings from the Stockton-on-Tees cohort study. 350-359 10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.04.006 Since 2010, the UK has pursued a policy of austerity characterised by public spending cuts and welfare changes. There has been (...) speculation - but little actual research - about the effects of this policy on health inequalities. This paper reports on a case study of local health inequalities in the local authority of Stockton-on-Tees in the North East of England, an area characterised by high spatial and socio-economic inequalities. The paper presents baseline findings from a prospective cohort study of inequalities in mental health and mental wellbeing between the most and least deprived areas of Stockton-on-Tees

SSM - population health2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

57. Achieving universal health coverage in France: policy reforms and the challenge of inequalities.

Achieving universal health coverage in France: policy reforms and the challenge of inequalities. Since 1945, the provision of health care in France has been grounded in a social conception promoting universalism and equality. The French health-care system is based on compulsory social insurance funded by social contributions, co-administered by workers' and employers' organisations under State control and driven by highly redistributive financial transfers. This system is described frequently (...) suggest the redistributive mechanisms of the health insurance system are impeded by social inequalities in health, which remain major hindrances to achieving objectives of justice and solidarity associated with the conception of health care in France. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet2016

58. Inequalities in use of total hip arthroplasty for hip fracture: population based study.

Inequalities in use of total hip arthroplasty for hip fracture: population based study. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the use of total hip arthroplasty (THA) among individuals with a displaced intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck is based on national guidelines or if there are systematic inequalities. DESIGN: Observational cohort study using the National Hip Fracture Database (NHFD). SETTING: All hospitals that treat adults with hip fractures in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland

BMJ2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

59. Towards an understanding of the structural determinants of oral health inequalities: A comparative analysis between Canada and the United States

Towards an understanding of the structural determinants of oral health inequalities: A comparative analysis between Canada and the United States 29349142 2018 11 13 2352-8273 2 2016 Dec SSM - population health SSM Popul Health Towards an understanding of the structural determinants of oral health inequalities: A comparative analysis between Canada and the United States. 226-236 10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.03.009 To compare the magnitude of, and contributors to, income-related inequalities in oral (...) health outcomes within and between Canada and the United States over time. The concentration index was used to estimate income-related inequalities in three oral health outcomes from the Nutrition Canada National Survey 1970-1972, Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2009, Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I 1971-1974, and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008. Concentration indices were decomposed to determine the contribution of demographic and socioeconomic factors

SSM - population health2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

60. Changes in mortality inequalities over two decades: register based study of European countries.

Changes in mortality inequalities over two decades: register based study of European countries. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether government efforts in reducing inequalities in health in European countries have actually made a difference to mortality inequalities by socioeconomic group. DESIGN: Register based study. DATA SOURCE: Mortality data by level of education and occupational class in the period 1990-2010, usually collected in a census linked longitudinal study design. We compared changes (...) in mortality between the lowest and highest socioeconomic groups, and calculated their effect on absolute and relative inequalities in mortality (measured as rate differences and rate ratios, respectively). SETTING: All European countries for which data on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were available for the approximate period between years 1990 and 2010. These included Finland, Norway, Sweden, Scotland, England and Wales (data applied to both together), France, Switzerland, Spain (Barcelona

BMJ2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro