Latest & greatest articles for inequality

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Top results for inequality

21. Tackling socioeconomic inequalities and non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries under the Sustainable Development agenda. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tackling socioeconomic inequalities and non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries under the Sustainable Development agenda. Five Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set targets that relate to the reduction of health inequalities nationally and worldwide. These targets are poverty reduction, health and wellbeing for all, equitable education, gender equality, and reduction of inequalities within and between countries. The interaction between inequalities and health (...) in high-income settings. These conditions include tobacco use, obesity, hypertension, cancer, and diabetes. Strong evidence from 283 studies overwhelmingly supports a positive association between low-income, low socioeconomic status, or low educational status and NCDs. The associations have been differentiated by sex in only four studies. Health is a key driver in the SDGs, and reduction of health inequalities and NCDs should become key in the promotion of the overall SDG agenda. A sustained reduction

2018 Lancet

22. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent body-mass index, weight, and height from 1953 to 2015: an analysis of four longitudinal, observational, British birth cohort studies Full Text available with Trip Pro

Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent body-mass index, weight, and height from 1953 to 2015: an analysis of four longitudinal, observational, British birth cohort studies Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood body-mass index (BMI) have been documented in high-income countries; however, uncertainty exists with regard to how they have changed over time, how inequalities in the composite parts (ie, weight and height) of BMI have changed, and whether inequalities differ (...) in magnitude across the outcome distribution. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent weight, height, and BMI have changed over time in Britain.We used data from four British longitudinal, observational, birth cohort studies: the 1946 Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (1946 NSHD), 1958 National Child Development Study (1958 NCDS), 1970 British Cohort Study (1970 BCS), and 2001 Millennium Cohort Study (2001 MCS). BMI (kg

2018 The Lancet. Public health

23. Impact of national cancer policies on cancer survival trends and socioeconomic inequalities in England, 1996-2013: population based study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of national cancer policies on cancer survival trends and socioeconomic inequalities in England, 1996-2013: population based study. To assess the effectiveness of the NHS Cancer Plan (2000) and subsequent national cancer policy initiatives in improving cancer survival and reducing socioeconomic inequalities in survival in England.Population based cohort study.England.More than 3.5 million registered patients aged 15-99 with a diagnosis of one of the 24 most common primary, malignant (...) , invasive neoplasms between 1996 and 2013.Age standardised net survival estimates by cancer, sex, year, and deprivation group. These estimates were modelled using regression model with splines to explore changes in the cancer survival trends and in the socioeconomic inequalities in survival.One year net survival improved steadily from 1996 for 26 of 41 sex-cancer combinations studied, and only from 2001 or 2006 for four cancers. Trends in survival accelerated after 2006 for five cancers. The deprivation

2018 BMJ

24. Global cancer control: responding to the growing burden, rising costs and inequalities in access Full Text available with Trip Pro

Global cancer control: responding to the growing burden, rising costs and inequalities in access The cancer burden is rising globally, exerting significant strain on populations and health systems at all income levels. In May 2017, world governments made a commitment to further invest in cancer control as a public health priority, passing the World Health Assembly Resolution 70.12 on cancer prevention and control within an integrated approach. In this manuscript, the 2016 European Society

2018 ESMO open

25. Could scale-up of parenting programmes improve child disruptive behaviour and reduce social inequalities? Using individual participant data meta-analysis to establish for whom programmes are effective and cost-effective

Could scale-up of parenting programmes improve child disruptive behaviour and reduce social inequalities? Using individual participant data meta-analysis to establish for whom programmes are effective and cost-effective Could scale-up of parenting programmes improve child disruptive behaviour and reduce social inequalities? Using individual participant data meta-analysis to establish for whom programmes are effective and cost-effective Could scale-up of parenting programmes improve child (...) disruptive behaviour and reduce social inequalities? Using individual participant data meta-analysis to establish for whom programmes are effective and cost-effective Gardner F, Leijten P, Mann J, Landau S, Harris V, Beecham J, Bonin E, Hutchings J & Scott S Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Gardner F, Leijten P, Mann J, Landau S

2018 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

26. Within country inequalities in caesarean section rates: observational study of 72 low and middle income countries. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Within country inequalities in caesarean section rates: observational study of 72 low and middle income countries. To provide an update on economic related inequalities in caesarean section rates within countries.Secondary analysis of demographic and health surveys and multiple indicator cluster surveys.72 low and middle income countries with a survey conducted between 2010 and 2014 for analysis of the latest situation of inequality, and 28 countries with a survey also conducted between 2000 (...) and 2004 for analysis of the change in inequality over time.Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth during the two or three years preceding the survey.Data on caesarean section were disaggregated by asset based household wealth status and presented separately for five subgroups, ranging from the poorest to the richest fifth. Absolute and relative inequalities were measured using difference and ratio measures. The pace of change in the poorest and richest fifths was compared using a measure of excess

2018 BMJ

27. Which service or policy mechanisms, models or approaches, have been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing inequalities in access to health and social care services?

Which service or policy mechanisms, models or approaches, have been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing inequalities in access to health and social care services? Knowledge & Library Services (KLS) Evidence Briefing Which service or policy mechanisms, models or approaches, have been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing inequalities in access to health and social care services? Anh Tran 26 th October 2018 Which service or policy mechanisms, models or approaches, have (...) been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing inequalities in access to health and social care services? KLS Evidence Briefing 26 th Oct 2018 Question This briefing summarises the evidence on the interventions, models and approaches to reduce inequalities in access to health and social care services (HSC), from January 2010 - September 2018. Key messages ? Collaborations are the key to successfully tackling inequalities in HSC access. ? People’s needs are better met when they are involved

2018 Public Health England - Evidence Briefings

28. Which service delivery mechanisms, models or approaches have been shown to be effective at reducing educational inequalities in early years?

Which service delivery mechanisms, models or approaches have been shown to be effective at reducing educational inequalities in early years? Knowledge & Library Services (KLS) Evidence Briefing Which service delivery mechanisms, models or approaches have been shown to be effective at reducing educational inequalities in early years? Alyson Hyland, Nicola Pearce-Smith 15 th November 2018 Which service delivery mechanisms, models or approaches have been shown to be effective at reducing (...) educational inequalities in early years? KLS Evidence Briefing 15 th November 2018 Research question This briefing summarises the evidence, from 01/01/2010 to 04/10/18, on service delivery mechanisms, models or approaches that have been shown to be effective at reducing educational inequalities in early years. Key messages ? vulnerable or disadvantaged children benefit from early learning and childcare (ELC) when it is provided in socially mixed groups ? high-quality early childhood education (ECE) has

2018 Public Health England - Evidence Briefings

29. Which service delivery mechanisms, models or approaches have been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing the inequalities that older people experience?

Which service delivery mechanisms, models or approaches have been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing the inequalities that older people experience? Knowledge & Library Services (KLS) Evidence Briefing Which service delivery mechanisms, models or approaches have been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing the inequalities that older people experience? Caroline De Brún 4 th October 2018 Which service or policy interventions, models or approaches, have been shown (...) to be effective or ineffective at reducing inequalities in access to health and social care services? Which service or policy mechanisms, models or approaches, have been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing inequalities in access to health and social care services? 28 th Sept 2018 Question This briefing summarises the evidence, from 01/01/2010 to 04/10/18, on service delivery mechanisms, models or approaches that have been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing the inequalities

2018 Public Health England - Evidence Briefings

30. Which service or policy mechanisms, models or approaches have been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing inequalities in employment?

Which service or policy mechanisms, models or approaches have been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing inequalities in employment? Knowledge & Library Services (KLS) Evidence Briefing Which service or policy mechanisms, models or approaches have been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing inequalities in employment? Rachel Gledhill 30 th October 2018 Which service or policy mechanisms, models or approaches have been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing (...) inequalities in employment? KLS Evidence Briefing 30 th October 2018 Question This briefing summarises the evidence on interventions that have been effective, or ineffective, at reducing equalities in employment as reported from January 2014 to October 2018. Key messages • There are a wide range of supported employment interventions aimed at reducing inequalities in access to, and continuation of, employment. The effectiveness of these interventions is affected by a wide range of factors. • Employment

2018 Public Health England - Evidence Briefings

31. Which service or policy mechanisms, models or approaches, have been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing the inequalities that are known to have an impact on childhood obesity?

Which service or policy mechanisms, models or approaches, have been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing the inequalities that are known to have an impact on childhood obesity? Knowledge & Library Services (KLS) Evidence Briefing Which service or policy mechanisms, models or approaches, have been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing the inequalities that are known to have an impact on childhood obesity? Nicola Pearce-Smith 19th October 2018 Which service or policy (...) mechanisms, models or approaches, have been shown to be effective or ineffective at reducing the inequalities that are known to have an impact on childhood obesity? KLS Evidence Briefing 19 th October 2018 Question This briefing summarises the evidence (from January 1 st 2011 to October 9 th 2018) on the approaches and interventions that may reduce the inequalities that impact on obesity in childhood. Key messages ? there was limited evidence that some individual and community based interventions may

2018 Public Health England - Evidence Briefings

32. Inequalities in later life infographics

Inequalities in later life infographics Richer older adults have higher walking speeds *Source: Zaninotto, P., Sacker, A., & Head, J. (2013). Relationship between wealth and age trajectories of walking speed among older adults: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing A person aged 71 with the most wealth has an average walking speed of 0.91 metres per second compared to 0.75 metres per second for someone with the least wealth* Poorest Richest METRES 0.91 METRES 0.75Life (...) ., Mounce, L. T. A., Clark, A., . . . Campbell, J. (2014). Economic inequalities in burden of illness, diagnosis and treatment of five long-term conditions in England Poorer people in later life are four times more likely to have Type 2 diabetes and 15 times more likely to have osteoarthritis*Older people living in disadvantaged areas have less access to social and health-care services *Source: Gusmano, M., & Allin, S. (2011). Health care for older persons in England and the United States: A contrast

2018 The Centre for Ageing Better

33. Wealth inequality as a predictor of HIV-related knowledge in Nigeria Full Text available with Trip Pro

Wealth inequality as a predictor of HIV-related knowledge in Nigeria Considering the high state-level heterogeneity of HIV prevalence and socioeconomic characteristics in Nigeria, it is a relevant setting for studies into the socioeconomic correlates of HIV-related knowledge. Although the relationship between absolute poverty and HIV transmission has been studied, the role of wealth inequality in the dynamics of the HIV epidemic has yet to be investigated in Nigeria. The current study (...) , therefore, investigates wealth inequality and other sociodemographic covariates as predictors of HIV-related knowledge, in order to identify subgroups of the Nigerian population that would benefit from HIV preventive interventions.This study used the nationally representative 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). HIV-related knowledge was computed as a total score based on HIV-related knowledge indicators in the NDHS, dichotomised using the sample median as the cut-off. Wealth inequality

2017 BMJ global health

34. The King’s Fund response to the Mayor of London’s draft health inequalities strategy

The King’s Fund response to the Mayor of London’s draft health inequalities strategy The King’s Fund response to the Mayor of London’s draft health inequalities strategy | The King's Fund Main navigation Health and care services Leadership, systems and organisations Patients, people and society Policy, finance and performance Search term Apply The King’s Fund response to the Mayor of London’s draft health inequalities strategy This content relates to the following topics: Share this content (...) The King’s Fund is an independent health charity whose stipulates our work should include the promotion of health and alleviation of sickness, to confer benefit, whether directly or indirectly, for the health of Londoners. We interpret this broadly, and our national work has relevance to London, but we also undertake work and seek to influence in ways issues that will directly benefit Londoners’ health. As such we welcome the Mayor’s consultation on his future health inequalities strategy

2017 The King's Fund

35. Is governance, gross domestic product, inequality, population size or country surface area associated with coverage and equity of health interventions? Ecological analyses of cross-sectional surveys from 80 countries Full Text available with Trip Pro

Is governance, gross domestic product, inequality, population size or country surface area associated with coverage and equity of health interventions? Ecological analyses of cross-sectional surveys from 80 countries To assess associations between national characteristics, including governance indicators, with a proxy for universal health coverage in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH).Ecological analysis based on data from national standardised cross-sectional surveys.Low (...) -income and middle-income countries with a Demographic and Health Survey or a Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey since 2005.1 246 710 mothers and 2 129 212 children from 80 national surveys.Gross domestic product (GDP), country surface area, population, Gini index and six governance indicators (control of corruption, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and voice and accountability).Levels and inequality in the composite coverage index

2017 BMJ global health

36. Patient navigation to reduce social inequalities in colorectal cancer screening participation: A cluster randomized controlled trial (Abstract)

Patient navigation to reduce social inequalities in colorectal cancer screening participation: A cluster randomized controlled trial Despite free colorectal cancer screening in France, participation remains low and low socioeconomic status is associated with a low participation. Our aim was to assess the effect of a screening navigation program on participation and the reduction in social inequalities in a national-level organized mass screening program for colorectal cancer by fecal-occult (...) population. For such interventions to reduce social inequalities in a country with a national level organized mass screening program, they should first be administered to deprived populations, in accordance with the principle of proportionate universalism. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01555450.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2017 EvidenceUpdates

37. Key policies for addressing the social determinants of health and health inequities

Key policies for addressing the social determinants of health and health inequities Matthew Saunders | Ben Barr | Phil McHale | Christoph Hamelmann HEALTH EVIDENCE NETWORK SYNTHESIS REPORT 52 Key policies for addressing the social determinants of health and health inequitiesThe Health Evidence Network HEN – the Health Evidence Network – is an information service for public health decision-makers in the WHO European Region, in action since 2003 and initiated and coordinated by the WHO Regional (...) in 2003 through a Memorandum of Agreement between the Government of Italy, the Veneto Region and the WHO Regional Office for Europe. Health Evidence Network synthesis report 52 Key policies for addressing the social determinants of health and health inequities Matthew Saunders | Ben Barr | Phil McHale | Christoph HamelmannAbstract Evidence indicates that actions within four main themes (early child development, fair employment and decent work, social protection, and the living environment) are likely

2017 WHO Health Evidence Network

38. How Social-Class Stereotypes Maintain Inequality Full Text available with Trip Pro

How Social-Class Stereotypes Maintain Inequality Social class stereotypes support inequality through various routes: ambivalent content, early appearance in children, achievement consequences, institutionalization in education, appearance in cross-class social encounters, and prevalence in the most unequal societies. Class-stereotype content is ambivalent, describing lower-SES people both negatively (less competent, less human, more objectified), and sometimes positively, perhaps warmer than (...) upper-SES people. Children acquire the wealth aspects of class stereotypes early, which become more nuanced with development. In school, class stereotypes advantage higher-SES students, and educational contexts institutionalize social-class distinctions. Beyond school, well-intentioned face-to-face encounters ironically draw on stereotypes to reinforce the alleged competence of higher-status people and sometimes the alleged warmth of lower-status people. Countries with more inequality show more

2017 Current opinion in psychology

39. Investigating the impact of the English health inequalities strategy: time trend analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Investigating the impact of the English health inequalities strategy: time trend analysis. Objective To investigate whether the English health inequalities strategy was associated with a decline in geographical health inequalities, compared with trends before and after the strategy.Design Time trend analysis.Setting Two groups of lower tier local authorities in England. The most deprived, bottom fifth and the rest of England.Intervention The English health inequalities strategy-a cross (...) government strategy implemented between 1997 and 2010 to reduce health inequalities in England. Trends in geographical health inequalities were assessed before (1983-2003), during (2004-12), and after (2013-15) the strategy using segmented linear regression.Main outcome measure Geographical health inequalities measured as the relative and absolute differences in male and female life expectancy at birth between the most deprived local authorities in England and the rest of the country.Results Before

2017 BMJ

40. Strategies and governance to reduce health inequalities: evidences from a cross-European survey Full Text available with Trip Pro

Strategies and governance to reduce health inequalities: evidences from a cross-European survey The main objective of the paper is to identify the governance system related to policies to reduce health inequalities in the European regions. Considering the Action Spectrum of inequalities and the check list of health equity governance, we developed a survey in the framework of the AIR Project - Addressing Inequalities Intervention in Regions - was an European project funded by the Executive (...) Agency of Health and Consumers.A web-based qualitative questionnaire was developed that collected information about practiced strategies to reduce health inequalities. In total 28 questionnaires from 28 different regions, related to 13countries, were suitable for the analysis.Progress in health equity strategies at the national and regional levels has been made by countries such as France, Portugal, Poland, and Germany. On the other hand, Spain, Italy, and Belgium have a variable situation depending

2017 Global health research and policy