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Latest & greatest articles for inequality
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Inequities among the very poor: health care for children in rural southern Tanzania. Few studies have been done to assess socioeconomic inequities in health in African countries. We sought evidence of inequities in health care by sex and socioeconomic status for young children living in a poor rural area of southern Tanzania.In a baseline household survey in Tanzania early in the implementation phase of integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI), we included cluster samples of 2006
Are inequalities in height underestimated by adult social position? Effects of changing social structure and height selection in a cohort study. To investigate whether changing social structure and social mobility related to height generate (inflate) inequalities in height.Longitudinal 1958 British birth cohort study.England, Scotland, and Wales.10 176 people born 3-9 March 1958 for whom data were available at age 33 years.Adult height and social class at age 33 years; class of origin (father's (...) occupation when participant was 7 years old).Adult height showed a social gradient with class at age 7 years and age 33 years. The difference in mean height between extreme groups was greater for class of origin than for adult class, reducing from 2.21 cm to 1.62 cm for men and from 2.18 cm to 1.74 cm for women. This narrowing inequality was due mainly to a decrease in mean height in classes I and II. This was because of the pattern of height related social mobility in which, for example, men moving
Consumer demand for caesarean sections in Brazil: informed decision making, patient choice, or social inequality? A population based birth cohort study linking ethnographic and epidemiological methods. To investigate why some women prefer caesarean sections and how decisions to medicalise birthing are influenced by patients, doctors, and the sociomedical environment.Population based birth cohort study, using ethnographic and epidemiological methods.Epidemiological study: women living
Income inequality, individual income, and mortality in Danish adults: analysis of pooled data from two cohort studies. To analyse the association between area income inequality and mortality after adjustment for individual income and other established risk factors.Analysis of pooled data from two cohort studies. The relation between income inequality in small areas of residence (parishes) and individual mortality was examined with Cox proportional hazard analyses.Two population studies (...) conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark.13 710 women and 12 018 men followed for a mean of 12.8 years.All cause mortality.Age standardised mortality was highest in the parishes with the least equal income distribution. After adjustment for individual risk factors, parish income inequality was not associated with mortality, whereas individual household income was. Thus, individuals in the highest income quarter had lower mortality than those in the lowest quarter (adjusted hazard ratio for men 0.51 (95
Relations of income inequality and family income to chronic medical conditions and mental health disorders: national survey. To analyse the relation between geographical inequalities in income and the prevalence of common chronic medical conditions and mental health disorders, and to compare it with the relation between family income and these health problems.Nationally representative household telephone survey conducted in 1997-8.60 metropolitan areas or economic areas of the United States (...) .9585 adults who participated in the community tracking study.Self report of 17 common chronic medical conditions; current depressive disorder or anxiety disorder assessed by clinical screeners.A strong continuous association was seen between health and education or family income. No relation was found between income inequality and the prevalence of chronic medical problems or depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, either across the whole population or among poorer people. Only self reported
Education, income inequality, and mortality: a multiple regression analysis. To test whether the relation between income inequality and mortality found in US states is because of different levels of formal education.Cross sectional, multiple regression analysis.All US states and the District of Columbia (n=51).US census statistics and vital statistics for the years 1989 and 1990.Multiple regression analysis with age adjusted mortality from all causes as the dependent variable and 3 independent (...) variables-the Gini coefficient, per capita income, and percentage of people aged >/=18 years without a high school diploma.The income inequality effect disappeared when percentage of people without a high school diploma was added to the regression models. The fit of the regression significantly improved when education was added to the model.Lack of high school education accounts for the income inequality effect and is a powerful predictor of mortality variation among US states.