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Latest & greatest articles for inequality
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Girlsâ€™ hidden penalty: analysis of gender inequality in child mortality with data from 195 countries 30483409 2018 11 28 2059-7908 3 5 2018 BMJ global health BMJ Glob Health Girls' hidden penalty: analysis of gender inequality in child mortality with data from 195 countries. e001028 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001028 Gender inequality has been associated with child mortality; however, sex-specific mortalities have yet to be explored. The aim of this study is to assess the associations between gender (...) inequality and the child mortality sex ratio at country level, worldwide and to infer on possible mechanisms. Data on sex-specific under-five mortality rates (U5MR) and the corresponding sex ratio (U5MSR) for the year 2015, by country, were retrieved from the Unicef database. Excess under-five female mortality was derived from previous published work. Gender inequality was measured using the Gender Inequality Index (GII). Additional biological and social variables have been included to explore potential
Inequality Top results for inequality - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Turning Research Into Practice My query is: English Français Deutsch Čeština Español Magyar Svenska ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document This EXACT phrase: Title only Anywhere in the document EXCLUDING words: Title only Anywhere in the document Timeframe: to: Combine searches by placing the search numbers in the top search box and pressing (...) the search button. An example search might look like (#1 or #2) and (#3 or #4) Loading history... Population: Intervention: Comparison: Outcome: Population: Intervention: Latest & greatest articles for inequality The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines
Tackling socioeconomic inequalities and non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries under the Sustainable Development agenda. Five Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set targets that relate to the reduction of health inequalities nationally and worldwide. These targets are poverty reduction, health and wellbeing for all, equitable education, gender equality, and reduction of inequalities within and between countries. The interaction between inequalities and health (...) in high-income settings. These conditions include tobacco use, obesity, hypertension, cancer, and diabetes. Strong evidence from 283 studies overwhelmingly supports a positive association between low-income, low socioeconomic status, or low educational status and NCDs. The associations have been differentiated by sex in only four studies. Health is a key driver in the SDGs, and reduction of health inequalities and NCDs should become key in the promotion of the overall SDG agenda. A sustained reduction
Impact of national cancer policies on cancer survival trends and socioeconomic inequalities in England, 1996-2013: population based study. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of the NHS Cancer Plan (2000) and subsequent national cancer policy initiatives in improving cancer survival and reducing socioeconomic inequalities in survival in England. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: England. POPULATION: More than 3.5 million registered patients aged 15-99 with a diagnosis of one (...) of the 24 most common primary, malignant, invasive neoplasms between 1996 and 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age standardised net survival estimates by cancer, sex, year, and deprivation group. These estimates were modelled using regression model with splines to explore changes in the cancer survival trends and in the socioeconomic inequalities in survival. RESULTS: One year net survival improved steadily from 1996 for 26 of 41 sex-cancer combinations studied, and only from 2001 or 2006 for four cancers
Could scale-up of parenting programmes improve child disruptive behaviour and reduce social inequalities? Using individual participant data meta-analysis to establish for whom programmes are effective and cost-effective Could scale-up of parenting programmes improve child disruptive behaviour and reduce social inequalities? Using individual participant data meta-analysis to establish for whom programmes are effective and cost-effective Could scale-up of parenting programmes improve child (...) disruptive behaviour and reduce social inequalities? Using individual participant data meta-analysis to establish for whom programmes are effective and cost-effective Gardner F, Leijten P, Mann J, Landau S, Harris V, Beecham J, Bonin E, Hutchings J & Scott S Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Gardner F, Leijten P, Mann J, Landau S
Within country inequalities in caesarean section rates: observational study of 72 low and middle income countries. OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on economic related inequalities in caesarean section rates within countries. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of demographic and health surveys and multiple indicator cluster surveys. SETTING: 72 low and middle income countries with a survey conducted between 2010 and 2014 for analysis of the latest situation of inequality, and 28 countries with a survey (...) also conducted between 2000 and 2004 for analysis of the change in inequality over time. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth during the two or three years preceding the survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data on caesarean section were disaggregated by asset based household wealth status and presented separately for five subgroups, ranging from the poorest to the richest fifth. Absolute and relative inequalities were measured using difference and ratio measures. The pace of change
Wealth inequality as a predictor of HIV-related knowledge in Nigeria 1 Faust L, et al. BMJ Glob Health 2017;0:e000461. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000461 Abstr Act Introduction Considering the high state-level heterogeneity of HIV prevalence and socioeconomic characteristics in Nigeria, it is a relevant setting for studies into the socioeconomic correlates of HIV-related knowledge. Although the relationship between absolute poverty and HIV transmission has been studied, the role of wealth inequality (...) in the dynamics of the HIV epidemic has yet to be investigated in Nigeria. The current study, therefore, investigates wealth inequality and other sociodemographic covariates as predictors of HIV-related knowledge, in order to identify subgroups of the Nigerian population that would benefit from HIV preventive interventions. Methods This study used the nationally representative 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). HIV-related knowledge was computed as a total score based on HIV-related knowledge
The King’s Fund response to the Mayor of London’s draft health inequalities strategy The King’s Fund response to the Mayor of London’s draft health inequalities strategy | The King's Fund Fill 1 Main navigation Health and care services Leadership, systems and organisations Patients, people and society Policy, finance and performance Search term Apply The King’s Fund response to the Mayor of London’s draft health inequalities strategy This content relates to the following topics: Share (...) this content The King’s Fund is an independent health charity whose stipulates our work should include the promotion of health and alleviation of sickness, to confer benefit, whether directly or indirectly, for the health of Londoners. We interpret this broadly, and our national work has relevance to London, but we also undertake work and seek to influence in ways issues that will directly benefit Londoners’ health. As such we welcome the Mayor’s consultation on his future health inequalities strategy
Could scale-up of parenting programmes improve child disruptive behaviour and reduce social inequalities? Using individual participant data meta-analysis to establish for whom programmes are effective and cost-effective Could scale-up of parenting programmes improve child disruptive behaviour and reduce social inequalities? Using individual participant data meta-analysis to establish for whom programmes are effective and cost-effective Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content
Is governance, gross domestic product, inequality, population size or country surface area associated with coverage and equity of health interventions? Ecological analyses of cross-sectional surveys from 80 countries 29225951 2018 11 13 2059-7908 2 4 2017 BMJ global health BMJ Glob Health Is governance, gross domestic product, inequality, population size or country surface area associated with coverage and equity of health interventions? Ecological analyses of cross-sectional surveys from 80 (...) national surveys. Gross domestic product (GDP), country surface area, population, Gini index and six governance indicators (control of corruption, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and voice and accountability). Levels and inequality in the composite coverage index (CCI), a weighted average of eight RMNCH interventions. Relative and absolute inequalities were measured through the concentration index (CIX) and slope index
Patient navigation to reduce social inequalities in colorectal cancer screening participation: A cluster randomized controlled trial 28823681 2017 08 21 2017 09 09 1096-0260 103 2017 Oct Preventive medicine Prev Med Patient navigation to reduce social inequalities in colorectal cancer screening participation: A cluster randomized controlled trial. 76-83 S0091-7435(17)30297-9 10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.08.012 Despite free colorectal cancer screening in France, participation remains low and low (...) socioeconomic status is associated with a low participation. Our aim was to assess the effect of a screening navigation program on participation and the reduction in social inequalities in a national-level organized mass screening program for colorectal cancer by fecal-occult blood test (FOBT). A multicenter (3 French departments) cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted over two years. The cluster was a small geographical unit stratified according to a deprivation index and the place of residence
Investigating the impact of the English health inequalities strategy: time trend analysis. Objective To investigate whether the English health inequalities strategy was associated with a decline in geographical health inequalities, compared with trends before and after the strategy. Design Time trend analysis. Setting Two groups of lower tier local authorities in England. The most deprived, bottom fifth and the rest of England. Intervention The English health inequalities strategy-a cross (...) government strategy implemented between 1997 and 2010 to reduce health inequalities in England. Trends in geographical health inequalities were assessed before (1983-2003), during (2004-12), and after (2013-15) the strategy using segmented linear regression. Main outcome measure Geographical health inequalities measured as the relative and absolute differences in male and female life expectancy at birth between the most deprived local authorities in England and the rest of the country. Results Before
Inequalities in non-communicable diseases between the major population groups in Israel: achievements and challenges. Israel is a high-income country with an advanced health system and universal health-care insurance. Overall, the health status has improved steadily over recent decades. We examined differences in morbidity, mortality, and risk factors for selected non-communicable diseases (NCDs) between subpopulation groups. Between 1975 and 2014, life expectancy in Israel steadily increased (...) Arabs than Jews. Smoking prevalence is highest for Arab men and lowest for Arab women. Health inequalities are also evident by the indicators of socioeconomic position and in subpopulations, such as immigrants from the former Soviet Union, ultra-Orthodox Jews, and Bedouin Arabs. Despite universal health coverage and substantial improvements in the overall health of the Israeli population, substantial inequalities in NCDs persist. These differences might be explained, at least in part, by gaps
Inequality and the health-care system in the USA. Widening economic inequality in the USA has been accompanied by increasing disparities in health outcomes. The life expectancy of the wealthiest Americans now exceeds that of the poorest by 10-15 years. This report, part of a Series on health and inequality in the USA, focuses on how the health-care system, which could reduce income-based disparities in health, instead often exacerbates them. Other articles in this Series address population (...) health inequalities, and the health effects of racism, mass incarceration, and the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Poor Americans have worse access to care than do wealthy Americans, partly because many remain uninsured despite coverage expansions since 2010 due to the ACA. For individuals with private insurance, rising premiums and cost sharing have undermined wage gains and driven many households into debt and even bankruptcy. Meanwhile, the share of health-care resources devoted to care of the wealthy
Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions. Despite growing interest in understanding how social factors drive poor health outcomes, many academics, policy makers, scientists, elected officials, journalists, and others responsible for defining and responding to the public discourse remain reluctant to identify racism as a root cause of racial health inequities. In this conceptual report, the third in a Series on equity and equality in health in the USA, we (...) use a contemporary and historical perspective to discuss research and interventions that grapple with the implications of what is known as structural racism on population health and health inequities. Structural racism refers to the totality of ways in which societies foster racial discrimination through mutually reinforcing systems of housing, education, employment, earnings, benefits, credit, media, health care, and criminal justice. These patterns and practices in turn reinforce discriminatory
Mass incarceration, public health, and widening inequality in the USA. In this Series paper, we examine how mass incarceration shapes inequality in health. The USA is the world leader in incarceration, which disproportionately affects black populations. Nearly one in three black men will ever be imprisoned, and nearly half of black women currently have a family member or extended family member who is in prison. However, until recently the public health implications of mass incarceration were
Population health in an era of rising income inequality: USA, 1980-2015. Income inequality in the USA has increased over the past four decades. Socioeconomic gaps in survival have also increased. Life expectancy has risen among middle-income and high-income Americans whereas it has stagnated among poor Americans and even declined in some demographic groups. Although the increase in income inequality since 1980 has been driven largely by soaring top incomes, the widening of survival inequalities (...) has occurred lower in the distribution-ie, between the poor and upper-middle class. Growing survival gaps across income percentiles since 2001 reflect falling real incomes among poor Americans as well as an increasingly strong association between low income and poor health. Changes in individual risk factors such as smoking, obesity, and substance abuse play a part but do not fully explain the steeper gradient. Distal factors correlated with rising inequality including unequal access
Family of origin and educational inequalities in mortality: Results from 1.7 million Swedish siblings 29349216 2018 11 13 2352-8273 3 2017 Dec SSM - population health SSM Popul Health Family of origin and educational inequalities in mortality: Results from 1.7 million Swedish siblings. 192-200 10.1016/j.ssmph.2017.01.008 Circumstances in the family of origin have short- and long-term consequences for people's health. Family background also influences educational achievements - achievements (...) or farmer background. There was substantial variation across different causes of death with clear reductions in educational inequalities in, e.g., lung cancer and diabetes, when introducing shared family factors, which may indicate that part of the association can be ascribed to circumstances that siblings have in common. In contrast, educational inequalities in suicide and, for women, other mental disorders increased when adjusting for factors shared by siblings. The vast variation in the role