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Latest & greatest articles for inequality
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Trends in earnings and income inequalities in Scotland and the UK 1997-2016 Even money? Trends in earnings and income inequalities in Scotland and the UK, 1997-2016 David Walsh & Bruce Whyte December 2018 2 Contact David Walsh Public Health Programme Manager Glasgow Centre for Population Health Email: David.Walsh.firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: 0141 330 2747 3 Contents Executive summary 4 Acknowledgements 7 Background, aims and research questions 8 Methods 9 Results 12 1. How do median earnings compare (...) across the countries and cities of interest? 12 2. Changes in the distribution of earnings 15 3. Earnings by occupation 25 4. Earnings in the public and private sectors 30 5. Low pay 41 6. Gender inequalities 49 7. Trends in Scottish household income inequality 66 Discussion 74 Conclusions 79 Appendix A: additional analyses of earnings in public and private employment sectors 80 References 84 4 Executive summary Income inequality is a well-established ‘fundamental cause’ of health inequality. Given
Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of the role of tobacco retailer density and proximity on adult tobacco product use behaviors, health outcomes, and tobacco retailer density inequities Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears
Girlsâ€™ hidden penalty: analysis of gender inequality in child mortality with data from 195 countries Gender inequality has been associated with child mortality; however, sex-specific mortalities have yet to be explored. The aim of this study is to assess the associations between gender inequality and the child mortality sex ratio at country level, worldwide and to infer on possible mechanisms.Data on sex-specific under-five mortality rates (U5MR) and the corresponding sex ratio (U5MSR (...) ) for the year 2015, by country, were retrieved from the Unicef database. Excess under-five female mortality was derived from previous published work. Gender inequality was measured using the Gender Inequality Index (GII). Additional biological and social variables have been included to explore potential mechanistic pathways.A total of 195 countries were included in the analysis. In adjusted models, GII was significantly negatively associated with the U5MSR (β=-0.29 (95% CI -0.42 to -0.16), p<0.001
Transnational wealth-related health inequality measurement The study of international differences in wealth-related health inequalities has traditionally consisted of country-by-country comparisons using own-country relative measures of socioeconomic status, which effectively ignores absolute differences in both wealth and health that can differ between and within countries. To address these limitations, we propose an alternative approach: that of constructing a transnational measure of wealth (...) -related health inequality. To illustrate the limitations of the country-by-country approach, we simulate the impact of changes in wealth and health inequalities both between and within countries on cross-country measures of health inequality and find at least five errors that may arise using country-by-country methods. We then empirically demonstrate the transnational approach to wealth-related health inequalities between and within Haiti and the Dominican Republic, the two constituent countries
Measuring social inequality in health amongst indigenous peoples in the Arctic. A comparison of different indicators of social disparity among the Inuit in Greenland The purpose of the article is to compare different indicators of social position as measures of social inequality in health in a population sample from an indigenous arctic people, the Inuit in Greenland. Data was collected during 2005-2015 and consisted of information from 3967 adult Inuit from towns and villages in all parts (...) of Greenland. Social inequalities for smoking and central obesity were analysed in relation to seven indicators of social disparity in four dimensions, i.e. education and employment, economic status, sociocultural position, and place of residence. For each indicator we calculated age-adjusted prevalence by social group, rate ratio and the concentration index. The indicators were correlated with Pearson's r ranging from 0.24 to 0.82. Concentration indices ranged from 0.01 to 0.17. We could not conclude
Inequalities in mental health and well-being in a time of austerity: Follow-up findings from the Stockton-on-Tees cohort study In response to the 2007/8 financial crisis and the subsequent 'Great Recession', the UK government pursued a policy of austerity, characterised by public spending cuts and reductions in working-age welfare benefits. This paper reports on a case study of the effects of this policy on local inequalities in mental health and wellbeing in the local authority of Stockton (...) -on-Tees in the North East of England, an area with very high spatial and socio-economic inequalities. Follow-up findings from a prospective cohort study of the gap in mental health and wellbeing between the most and least deprived neighbourhoods of Stockton-on-Tees is presented. It is the first quantitative study to use primary data to intensively and longitudinally explore local inequalities in mental health and wellbeing during austerity and it also examines any changes in the underpinning social
Inequality Top results for inequality - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Find evidence fast ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document This EXACT phrase: Title only Anywhere in the document EXCLUDING words: Title only Anywhere in the document Timeframe: to: Combine searches by placing the search numbers in the top search box and pressing the search button. An example search might look like (#1 or #2) and (#3 or #4 (...) ) Loading history... Population: Intervention: Comparison: Outcome: Population: Intervention: Latest & greatest articles for inequality The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you
The rise and fall of mortality inequality in South Africa in the HIV era Post-apartheid South Africa has seen an unprecedented rise and fall of mortality in less than two decades as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the subsequent rollout of free antiretroviral therapy (ART). Since the incidence of both was not equal for rich and poor, it is likely to also have affected disparities in health and survival chances by income. We use large nationwide surveys for 2001, 2007 and 2011 to obtain (...) estimates of average income and mortality at the aggregate level of a municipality, and then to examine changes in mortality - and in inequality in mortality by income ─ over time. Using concentration indices to measure health inequality, we demonstrate that both the mean mortality level and absolute inequality in mortality by income rose rapidly until 2006, and declined again sharply since the rollout of free ART. Relative inequalities in mortality by income, however, remained fairly stable over
Occupational inequalities in female cancer incidence in Japan: Hospital-based matched case-control study with occupational class Socioeconomic inequalities in female cancer incidence have previously been undocumented in Japan.Using a nationwide inpatient dataset (1984-2016) in Japan, we identified 143,806 female cancer cases and 703,157 controls matched for sex, age, admission date, and admitting hospital, and performed a hospital-based matched case-control study. Based on standardized national (...) with higher SES.Even after controlling for major modifiable risk factors, socioeconomic inequalities were evident for female cancer incidence in Japan.
Educational inequalities in mortality are larger at low levels of income: A register-based study on premature mortality among 2.3 million Swedes, 2006â€“2009 Education develops skills that help individuals use available material resources more efficiently. When material resources are scarce, each decision becomes comparatively more important. Education may also protect from health-related income decline, since the highly educated tend to work in occupations with lower physical demands (...) . Educational inequalities in health may, therefore, be more pronounced at lower levels of income. The aim of this study is to assess whether the shape of the income gradient in premature mortality depends on the level of education. Total population data on education, income and mortality was obtained by linking several Swedish registers. Income was defined as five-year average disposable household income for ages 35-64 and mortality follow-up covered the period 2006-2009. The final population comprised 2.3
Does selective migration alter socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in Wales?: a record-linked total population e-cohort study Recent studies found evidence of health selective migration whereby healthy people move to less deprived areas and less healthy people move to or stay in more deprived areas. There is no consensus, however, on whether this influences health inequalities. Measures of socio-economic inequalities in mortality and life expectancy are widely used by government and health (...) at each quarter, age, sex, and date of death. Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios for the deprivation quintiles in all-cause mortality, as well as deprivation change between the start and end of the study. We found evidence of health selective migration in some groups, for example people aged under 75 leaving the most deprived areas having a higher mortality risk than those they left behind, suggesting widening inequalities, but also found the opposite pattern for other
Mind the gap: Temporal trends in inequalities in infant and child mortality in India (1992â€“2016) •Temporal trends in inequalities in infant and child mortality over two and half decades in India.•Relative change in inequalities in child mortality over survey periods.•Scatter plots to identify states with largest inequalities among wealth index groups.•Concentration Index by various background characteristics and decomposition analysis to identify factors contributing in inequality in infant
Inequalities in socio-emotional development and positive parenting during childhood: Evidence from China 2010â€“2014 Socio-emotional development (SED) is a critical dimension of early childhood development (ECD). However, little research has been conducted thus far regarding inequalities across family income status in children's SED and positive parenting scores in China, which has the second largest population of children in the world. Using nationally representative data from the China Family (...) Panel Survey (CFPS), we addressed this knowledge gap by assessing the levels and trends of inequalities in children's SED scores and positive parenting scores across wealth quintiles between 2010 and 2014. Positive parenting was measured for (1) children aged two and younger (PP_younger) and (2) children between the ages of three and five (PP_older). We adopted five inequality measures, including both absolute and relative measures. We found that, between 2010 and 2014, SED scores significantly
Inequality in Care and Differences in Outcome Following Stroke in People With ESRD Stroke rate and mortality are greater in individuals with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than in those without ESRD. We examined discrepancies in stroke care in ESRD patients and their influence on mortality.This is a national record linkage cohort study of hospitalized stroke individuals from 2005 to 2013. Presentation, measures of care quality (admission to stroke unit, swallow assessment, antithrombotics
Health inequalities and inequities by age: Stability for the Health Utilities Index and divergence for the Frailty Index Successful aging is an important policy goal in an aging society. A key indicator of successful aging of a population is whether health inequalities (differences) and inequities (unfair differences) in the population increase or decrease with age. This study investigates how health inequalities and inequities differ across age groups in the Canadian population within (...) the equity framework of equal opportunity for health, using two popular measures of health, the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI) and the Frailty Index (FI). We use the 2009-10 Canadian Health Measures Survey. We first quantify the degree of health inequality by calculating the Gini coefficient for the distributions of the HUI and the FI within three age groups (20-44, 45-64, and 65-79 years). We then identify sources of health inequality by using regression models and decomposing inequality
Tackling socioeconomic inequalities and non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries under the Sustainable Development agenda. Five Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set targets that relate to the reduction of health inequalities nationally and worldwide. These targets are poverty reduction, health and wellbeing for all, equitable education, gender equality, and reduction of inequalities within and between countries. The interaction between inequalities and health (...) in high-income settings. These conditions include tobacco use, obesity, hypertension, cancer, and diabetes. Strong evidence from 283 studies overwhelmingly supports a positive association between low-income, low socioeconomic status, or low educational status and NCDs. The associations have been differentiated by sex in only four studies. Health is a key driver in the SDGs, and reduction of health inequalities and NCDs should become key in the promotion of the overall SDG agenda. A sustained reduction
Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent body-mass index, weight, and height from 1953 to 2015: an analysis of four longitudinal, observational, British birth cohort studies Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood body-mass index (BMI) have been documented in high-income countries; however, uncertainty exists with regard to how they have changed over time, how inequalities in the composite parts (ie, weight and height) of BMI have changed, and whether inequalities differ (...) in magnitude across the outcome distribution. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent weight, height, and BMI have changed over time in Britain.We used data from four British longitudinal, observational, birth cohort studies: the 1946 Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (1946 NSHD), 1958 National Child Development Study (1958 NCDS), 1970 British Cohort Study (1970 BCS), and 2001 Millennium Cohort Study (2001 MCS). BMI (kg
Impact of national cancer policies on cancer survival trends and socioeconomic inequalities in England, 1996-2013: population based study. To assess the effectiveness of the NHS Cancer Plan (2000) and subsequent national cancer policy initiatives in improving cancer survival and reducing socioeconomic inequalities in survival in England.Population based cohort study.England.More than 3.5 million registered patients aged 15-99 with a diagnosis of one of the 24 most common primary, malignant (...) , invasive neoplasms between 1996 and 2013.Age standardised net survival estimates by cancer, sex, year, and deprivation group. These estimates were modelled using regression model with splines to explore changes in the cancer survival trends and in the socioeconomic inequalities in survival.One year net survival improved steadily from 1996 for 26 of 41 sex-cancer combinations studied, and only from 2001 or 2006 for four cancers. Trends in survival accelerated after 2006 for five cancers. The deprivation
Global cancer control: responding to the growing burden, rising costs and inequalities in access The cancer burden is rising globally, exerting significant strain on populations and health systems at all income levels. In May 2017, world governments made a commitment to further invest in cancer control as a public health priority, passing the World Health Assembly Resolution 70.12 on cancer prevention and control within an integrated approach. In this manuscript, the 2016 European Society
Could scale-up of parenting programmes improve child disruptive behaviour and reduce social inequalities? Using individual participant data meta-analysis to establish for whom programmes are effective and cost-effective Could scale-up of parenting programmes improve child disruptive behaviour and reduce social inequalities? Using individual participant data meta-analysis to establish for whom programmes are effective and cost-effective Could scale-up of parenting programmes improve child (...) disruptive behaviour and reduce social inequalities? Using individual participant data meta-analysis to establish for whom programmes are effective and cost-effective Gardner F, Leijten P, Mann J, Landau S, Harris V, Beecham J, Bonin E, Hutchings J & Scott S Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Gardner F, Leijten P, Mann J, Landau S