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Top results for hiv

1761. Prophylaxis for opportunistic infections in patients with HIV infection

Prophylaxis for opportunistic infections in patients with HIV infection Prophylaxis for opportunistic infections in patients with HIV infection Prophylaxis for opportunistic infections in patients with HIV infection Gallant J E, Moore R D, Chaisson R E Authors' objectives To review the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis for opportunistic infections in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus(HIV). Searching English language studies from 1985-1993 were identified through MEDLINE. Relevant (...) abstracts from the International Conferences on AIDS, the Inter-science Conferences on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy and the National conference on Human Retroviruses and Related Diseases were selcted. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Controlled clinical trials, uncontrolled trials, retrospective studies and prospective observational studies. Specific interventions included in the review The prophylactic use of anti-microbial agents in patients with HIV

DARE.1994

1762. Risk, knowledge and behaviour: HIV/AIDS education programmes and young people

Risk, knowledge and behaviour: HIV/AIDS education programmes and young people Risk, knowledge and behaviour: HIV/AIDS education programmes and young people Risk, knowledge and behaviour: HIV/AIDS education programmes and young people Oakley A, Fullerton D Authors' objectives The authors had 3 main objectives: (1) to examine the methodologies and findings of research relevant to HIV or AIDS knowledge with particular relevance to young people in the North East Thames Region of the UK; (2 (...) ) to examine the impact of different intervention programmes on knowledge of risk and on behavioural outcomes; and (3) to make recommendations as to the most effective HIV or AIDS education strategies for future implementation within the North East Thames Region of the UK. Searching Social Science Citation Index on BIDS, MEDLINE, PsycLIT, ERIC, the Health Education Authority's Unicorn database (internal library management system) and the National HIV/AIDS Prevention Information Service database were

DARE.1994

1763. The cost-effectiveness of HIV testing of physicians and dentists in the United States

The cost-effectiveness of HIV testing of physicians and dentists in the United States The cost-effectiveness of HIV testing of physicians and dentists in the United States The cost-effectiveness of HIV testing of physicians and dentists in the United States Phillips K A, Lowe R A, Kahn J G, Lurie P, Avins A L, Ciccarone D Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods (...) , the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Human immunodeficiency testing(HIV) testing of physicians and dentists. Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-benefits analysis. Study population Hypothetical cohort of physicians and dentists. Setting Hospital or diagnostic centres. The economic study was carried out in the USA. Dates to which data

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1994

1764. The cost-effectiveness of voluntary counseling and testing of hospital inpatients for HIV infection

The cost-effectiveness of voluntary counseling and testing of hospital inpatients for HIV infection The cost-effectiveness of voluntary counseling and testing of hospital inpatients for HIV infection The cost-effectiveness of voluntary counseling and testing of hospital inpatients for HIV infection Lurie P, Avins A L, Phillips K A, Kahn J G, Lowe R A, Ciccarone D Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract (...) contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Voluntary counselling and testing of hospital inpatients for HIV infection. Type of intervention Diagnosis. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population US hospital inpatients. Setting Hospital. The economic study was carried out in California, USA. Dates to which data relate The analysis

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1994

1765. Concorde: MRC/ANRS randomised double-blind controlled trial of immediate and deferred zidovudine in symptom-free HIV infection. Concorde Coordinating Committee.

Concorde: MRC/ANRS randomised double-blind controlled trial of immediate and deferred zidovudine in symptom-free HIV infection. Concorde Coordinating Committee. 7908356 1994 05 05 1994 05 05 2015 06 16 0140-6736 343 8902 1994 Apr 09 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Concorde: MRC/ANRS randomised double-blind controlled trial of immediate and deferred zidovudine in symptom-free HIV infection. Concorde Coordinating Committee. 871-81 Concorde is a double-blind randomised comparison of two policies (...) of zidovudine treatment in symptom-free individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): (a) immediate zidovudine from the time of randomisation (Imm); and (b) deferred zidovudine (Def) until the onset of AIDS-related complex (ARC) or AIDS (CDC group IV disease) or the development of persistently low CD4 cell counts if the clinician judged that treatment was indicated. Between October, 1988, and October, 1991, 1749 HIV-infected individuals from centres in the UK, Ireland, and France were

Lancet1994

1766. The duration of zidovudine benefit in persons with asymptomatic HIV infection. Prolonged evaluation of protocol 019 of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group.

The duration of zidovudine benefit in persons with asymptomatic HIV infection. Prolonged evaluation of protocol 019 of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. 7913730 1994 08 19 1994 08 19 2016 10 17 0098-7484 272 6 1994 Aug 10 JAMA JAMA The duration of zidovudine benefit in persons with asymptomatic HIV infection. Prolonged evaluation of protocol 019 of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. 437-42 To determine the durability of zidovudine-induced delay in clinical progression of asymptomatic (...) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and to assess the relationship between this effect and the entry CD4+ cell count. Extended follow-up data from subjects participating in protocol 019 of the AIDS [acquired immunodeficiency syndrome] Clinical Trials Group were examined. Subjects were offered a total daily dose of 500 mg of open-label zidovudine after the unblinding of the original randomized trial in 1989. Original treatment groups included placebo, 500 mg of zidovudine, or 1500 mg of zidovudine daily in divided

JAMA1994

1767. Neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 in seronegative volunteers immunized with recombinant gp120 from the MN strain of HIV-1. NIAID AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trials Network.

Neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 in seronegative volunteers immunized with recombinant gp120 from the MN strain of HIV-1. NIAID AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trials Network. 7913731 1994 08 19 1994 08 19 2016 10 17 0098-7484 272 6 1994 Aug 10 JAMA JAMA Neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 in seronegative volunteers immunized with recombinant gp120 from the MN strain of HIV-1. NIAID AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trials Network. 475-80 To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the MN strain of recombinant gp120 (...) (MN rgp120) as a vaccine prototype to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with subjects vaccinated at 0, 4, 24, and 48 weeks and followed up through 64 weeks. The AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Units in St Louis, Mo, Nashville, Tenn, and Rochester, NY, conducted the clinical study. Laboratory studies were conducted at Duke University, Raleigh, NC; data analysis was done by the Data Coordinating and Analysis Center at the EMMES Corporation

JAMA1994

1768. Randomised trial of thiacetazone and rifampicin-containing regimens for pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected Ugandans. The Makerere University-Case Western University Research Collaboration.

Randomised trial of thiacetazone and rifampicin-containing regimens for pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected Ugandans. The Makerere University-Case Western University Research Collaboration. 7526098 1994 12 13 1994 12 13 2015 06 16 0140-6736 344 8933 1994 Nov 12 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Randomised trial of thiacetazone and rifampicin-containing regimens for pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected Ugandans. The Makerere University-Case Western University Research Collaboration. 1323-8 (...) Among HIV-positive patients who received treatment for active tuberculosis, thiacetazone has been associated with cutaneous hypersensitivity and recurrent tuberculosis. No controlled trials have investigated the safety and efficacy of thiacetazone-containing regimens compared with alternative regimens among patients with HIV. In a randomised clinical trial of 191 HIV-positive patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis, we examined the safety and short-term efficacy of isoniazid, rifampicin

Lancet1994

1769. Dapsone-pyrimethamine compared with aerosolized pentamidine as primary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and toxoplasmosis in HIV infection. The PRIO Study Group.

Dapsone-pyrimethamine compared with aerosolized pentamidine as primary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and toxoplasmosis in HIV infection. The PRIO Study Group. 8479488 1993 05 27 1993 05 27 2013 11 21 0028-4793 328 21 1993 May 27 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Dapsone-pyrimethamine compared with aerosolized pentamidine as primary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and toxoplasmosis in HIV infection. The PRIO Study Group. 1514-20 (...) Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and toxoplasmic encephalitis are frequent life-threatening opportunistic infections in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Primary prophylaxis against P. carinii pneumonia is now common, but there are few data on regimens for primary prophylaxis against toxoplasmosis. We conducted a randomized trial that compared two prophylactic regimens: dapsone (50 mg per day) plus pyrimethamine (50 mg per week) was compared with aerosolized pentamidine (300 mg per

NEJM1993

1770. A short-term clinical evaluation of L-697,661, a non-nucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. L-697,661 Working Group.

A short-term clinical evaluation of L-697,661, a non-nucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. L-697,661 Working Group. 7690462 1993 10 14 1993 10 14 2013 11 21 0028-4793 329 15 1993 Oct 07 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. A short-term clinical evaluation of L-697,661, a non-nucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. L-697,661 Working Group. 1065-72 The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are novel antiretroviral agents with selective (...) activity in vitro against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). They act through direct inhibition of reverse transcriptase and are not incorporated into DNA. We evaluated a pyridinone non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, L-697,661, in separate six-week double-blind trials in patients with HIV-1 infection whose CD4 counts ranged from 200 to 500 cells per cubic millimeter (68 patients) or less than 200 cells per cubic millimeter (67 patients). Eligible patients were randomly assigned

NEJM1993

1771. Three-year randomised study of high-purity or intermediate-purity factor VIII concentrates in symptom-free HIV-seropositive haemophiliacs: effects on immune status.

Three-year randomised study of high-purity or intermediate-purity factor VIII concentrates in symptom-free HIV-seropositive haemophiliacs: effects on immune status. 8103820 1993 10 08 1993 10 08 2015 06 16 0140-6736 342 8873 1993 Sep 18 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Three-year randomised study of high-purity or intermediate-purity factor VIII concentrates in symptom-free HIV-seropositive haemophiliacs: effects on immune status. 700-3 The availability of monoclonal-antibody-purified factor (...) VIII (FVIII) concentrates allows us to test the hypothesis, based on in vitro observations, that their use in HIV seropositive haemophiliacs would result in a difference in the rate of deterioration of immune function. We designed a multicentre, prospective, randomised, controlled study of symptom-free HIV-infected patients with haemophilia A who were assigned to receive either an intermediate-purity or monoclonal-antibody-purified product. All had CD4 lymphocyte counts of 100-600/microL, were

Lancet1993

1772. Cost effectiveness analysis of early zidovudine treatment of HIV infected patients.

Cost effectiveness analysis of early zidovudine treatment of HIV infected patients. 8257887 1994 01 14 1994 01 14 2013 11 21 0959-8138 307 6915 1993 Nov 20 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Cost effectiveness analysis of early zidovudine treatment of HIV infected patients. 1322-5 OBJECTIVE--To compare cost effectiveness of early and later treatment with zidovudine for patients infected with HIV. DESIGN--Markov chain analysis of cost effectiveness based on results of use of health care (...) and efficacy from a trial of zidovudine treatment. SETTING--Seven Veterans Affairs medical centres in the United States. SUBJECTS--338 patients with symptomatic HIV infection and a lymphocyte count of 200 x 10(6) to 500 x 10(6) CD4 cells/l. INTERVENTIONS--Zidovudine 1500 mg/day started either at recruitment to the trial or when CD4 cell count fell below 200 x 10(6)/l. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Health care costs and rates of disease progression between six clinical states of HIV infection. RESULTS--Patients

BMJ1993 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

1773. Induction of HIV-1-neutralising and syncytium-inhibiting antibodies in uninfected recipients of HIV-1IIIB rgp120 subunit vaccine.

Induction of HIV-1-neutralising and syncytium-inhibiting antibodies in uninfected recipients of HIV-1IIIB rgp120 subunit vaccine. 8100910 1993 08 09 1993 08 09 2015 06 16 0140-6736 342 8863 1993 Jul 10 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Induction of HIV-1-neutralising and syncytium-inhibiting antibodies in uninfected recipients of HIV-1IIIB rgp120 subunit vaccine. 69-73 A recombinant human immunodeficiency virus 1 IIIB (HIV-1IIIB) gp120 subunit vaccine (IIIB-rgp120/HIV-1, Genentech) was tested (...) for safety and immunogenicity in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase-I trial. HIV-1-seronegative adult volunteers received three 100 micrograms or 300 micrograms doses of IIIB-rgp120/HIV-1 in alum adjuvant (10 vaccinees in each group), or alum adjuvant alone (8 vaccinees), at 0, 4, and 32 weeks by intramuscular injection. The three injections were well tolerated in both vaccine groups. Antibodies that neutralised homologous HIV-1IIIB were induced in 9 of 10 recipients after three 300

Lancet1993

1774. Zidovudine in persons with asymptomatic HIV infection and CD4+ cell counts greater than 400 per cubic millimeter. The European-Australian Collaborative Group.

Zidovudine in persons with asymptomatic HIV infection and CD4+ cell counts greater than 400 per cubic millimeter. The European-Australian Collaborative Group. 8100611 1993 08 05 1993 08 05 2013 11 21 0028-4793 329 5 1993 Jul 29 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Zidovudine in persons with asymptomatic HIV infection and CD4+ cell counts greater than 400 per cubic millimeter. The European-Australian Collaborative Group. 297-303 Zidovudine therapy is of benefit in the treatment (...) of symptomatic and asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in persons with CD4+ cell counts of less than 500 per cubic millimeter. The efficacy, safety, and duration of benefit of zidovudine in those with 500 or more CD4+ cells per cubic millimeter are uncertain. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 993 patients with asymptomatic HIV infection and CD4+ cell counts above 400 per cubic millimeter were randomly assigned to receive zidovudine (500 mg twice daily) or placebo for three

NEJM1993

1775. Effect of isoniazid prophylaxis on incidence of active tuberculosis and progression of HIV infection.

Effect of isoniazid prophylaxis on incidence of active tuberculosis and progression of HIV infection. 8101302 1993 08 17 1993 08 17 2015 11 19 0140-6736 342 8866 1993 Jul 31 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Effect of isoniazid prophylaxis on incidence of active tuberculosis and progression of HIV infection. 268-72 Tuberculosis occurring with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a serious and growing public health problem. We have carried out a randomised clinical trial of a 12-month (...) course of isoniazid plus vitamin B6 versus vitamin B6 alone in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, to assess the efficacy of isoniazid in preventing active tuberculosis in symptom-free HIV-infected individuals. The effect of prophylaxis on the development of HIV disease, AIDS, and death was also investigated. 118 subjects were assigned treatment with isoniazid plus B6 (n = 58) or B6 alone (n = 60) between 1986 and 1989. The treatment groups were similar at study entry in demographic, clinical, and immunological

Lancet1993

1776. Efficacy of nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge use in preventing heterosexual acquisition of HIV in Nairobi prostitutes.

Efficacy of nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge use in preventing heterosexual acquisition of HIV in Nairobi prostitutes. 1320133 1992 07 31 1992 07 31 2016 11 23 0098-7484 268 4 1992 Jul 22-29 JAMA JAMA Efficacy of nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge use in preventing heterosexual acquisition of HIV in Nairobi prostitutes. 477-82 To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Prospective, randomized (...) placebo-controlled trial. Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned

JAMA1992

1777. Prophylactic intravenous immunoglobulin in HIV-infected children with CD4+ counts of 0.20 x 10(9)/L or more. Effect on viral, opportunistic, and bacterial infections. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Intravenous Immunoglobulin

Prophylactic intravenous immunoglobulin in HIV-infected children with CD4+ counts of 0.20 x 10(9)/L or more. Effect on viral, opportunistic, and bacterial infections. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Intravenous Immunoglobulin 1352363 1992 07 31 1992 07 31 2016 10 17 0098-7484 268 4 1992 Jul 22-29 JAMA JAMA Prophylactic intravenous immunoglobulin in HIV-infected children with CD4+ counts of 0.20 x 10(9)/L or more. Effect on viral, opportunistic, and bacterial (...) infections. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Intravenous Immunoglobulin Clinical Trial Study Group. 483-8 To evaluate the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for prevention of viral, opportunistic, and minor bacterial infections in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, outpatient clinical trial comparing subjects treated with 400 mg of IVIG per kilogram of body weight every 28 days with those given

JAMA1992

1778. Difficult-to-reuse needles for the prevention of HIV infection among injecting drug users

Difficult-to-reuse needles for the prevention of HIV infection among injecting drug users Difficult-to-reuse needles for the prevention of HIV infection among injecting drug users Difficult-to-reuse needles for the prevention of HIV infection among injecting drug users Office of Technology Assessment Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. The agency responsible for the publication, formerly a member of INAHTA, has subsequently been disbanded (...) . No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Office of Technology Assessment. Difficult-to-reuse needles for the prevention of HIV infection among injecting drug users. U. S. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). HIV-related issues. Background paper 9. OTA-BP-H-103. 1992 Authors' objectives To analyze the potential of "single use" or "difficult-to- reuse" injection equipment to reduce the spread of HIV among injecting drug users. Authors

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.1992

1779. Computer-based interview for screening blood donors for risk of HIV transmission.

Computer-based interview for screening blood donors for risk of HIV transmission. 1507376 1992 09 22 1992 09 22 2016 10 17 0098-7484 268 10 1992 Sep 09 JAMA JAMA Computer-based interview for screening blood donors for risk of HIV transmission. 1301-5 To test the ability of a computer-based interview to detect factors related to the risk of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among potential blood donors and to determine donor reactions to the use of the interview. A comparison of the rate (...) of detection of HIV-related factors elicited by a computer interview with that obtained by standard American Red Cross procedures for assessment of donor suitability, including a randomized crossover trial in which the order of the two methods was reversed. Information obtained by the computer was not available to influence the use of blood components for transfusion. The computer interview was administered to donors at an American Red Cross blood donor center and at a mobile blood drive at a hospital

JAMA1992

1780. Trial of glucose versus fat emulsion in preparation of amphotericin for use in HIV infected patients with candidiasis.

Trial of glucose versus fat emulsion in preparation of amphotericin for use in HIV infected patients with candidiasis. 1458072 1993 01 12 1993 01 12 2013 11 21 0959-8138 305 6859 1992 Oct 17 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Trial of glucose versus fat emulsion in preparation of amphotericin for use in HIV infected patients with candidiasis. 921-5 To compare the tolerance, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of amphotericin deoxycholate (Fungizone) prepared in a parenteral fat emulsion (Intralipid 20 (...) %) or glucose in HIV patients with candidiasis. Non-blind randomised controlled trial. University hospital; tertiary clinical care. 22 HIV positive patients with oral candidiasis. Amphotericin 1 mg/kg/day given on four consecutive days as a one hour infusion dissolved in either 5% glucose (amphotericin-glucose) or parenteral fat emulsion at a final concentration of 2 g/l fat emulsion (amphotericin-fat emulsion). Clinical tolerance (fever, chills, sweats, nausea, arterial pressure, and pulse rate

BMJ1992 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro