Latest & greatest articles for hiv

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Top results for hiv

1621. Three- or four- versus two-drug antiretroviral maintenance regimens for HIV infection.

Three- or four- versus two-drug antiretroviral maintenance regimens for HIV infection. BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy administered to HIV-infected individuals has been shown to improve immunologic function and delay the progression of HIV infection. However, because patient adherence to complicated combination-therapy antiretroviral regimens is difficult and because of concerns regarding cumulative toxicity of antiretroviral drugs, regimens that utilize fewer antiretroviral (...) agents are desirable. OBJECTIVES: To compare the use three- or four- versus two-drug antiretroviral maintenance regimens following successful induction therapy for HIV infection. SEARCH STRATEGY: The following electronic databases were searched for relevant randomized trials or reviews: 1. MEDLINE for the years 1982-1999 using the search terms human immunodeficiency virus, antiretroviral therapy, maintenance therapy, zidovudine, lamivudine, indinavir, stavudine, saquinivir, nelfinavir, didanosine

Cochrane2000

1622. Zidovudine (AZT) versus AZT plus didanosine (ddI) versus AZT plus zalcitabine (ddC) in HIV infected adults.

Zidovudine (AZT) versus AZT plus didanosine (ddI) versus AZT plus zalcitabine (ddC) in HIV infected adults. BACKGROUND: Zidovudine (AZT) monotherapy was the first antiretroviral drug to be tested widely. The next two drugs to be developed were didanosine (ddI) and zalcitabine (ddC). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of zidovudine (AZT), zidovudine plus didanosine (ddI) and zidovudine plus zalcitabine (ddC) on HIV disease progression and survival. SEARCH STRATEGY: Investigators (...) randomised comparisons of AZT+ddI versus AZT+ddC: in these, the AZT+ddI regimen had greater effects on disease progression (P=0.004) and death (P=0.009). REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: The use of ddI and, to a lesser extent, ddC delayed both HIV disease progression and death, at least when added to AZT.

Cochrane2000

1623. Immediate versus deferred zidovudine (AZT) in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic HIV infected adults.

Immediate versus deferred zidovudine (AZT) in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic HIV infected adults. BACKGROUND: Zidovudine (AZT) monotherapy was the first antiretroviral drug to be tested widely. Subsequent trials in asymptomatic or early symptomatic HIV infection indicated short-term delays in disease progression with AZT, but not improved survival. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of immediate versus deferred zidovudine (AZT) on HIV disease progression and survival. SEARCH STRATEGY

Cochrane2000

1624. Patient support and education for promoting adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS.

Patient support and education for promoting adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS. BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy is associated with improved health outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS. Unfortunately, full therapeutic benefit from HAART may require near-perfect adherence to prescribed regimens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of patient support and education interventions for improving adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (...) (HAART) in people living with HIV and AIDS. SEARCH STRATEGY: Studies were identified using AIDSLINE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, HEALTHSTAR, PSYCHLIT, SOCIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS, INTERNATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL ABSTRACTS, SCIENCE CITATION INDEX, EMBASE, and abstracts from global AIDS meetings, ICAAC, and other major meetings from January 1996 to April 1999. Further information was sought through contact with authors, reference lists, and Collaborative Review Group databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: To be included, studies

Cochrane2000

1625. Immediate versus deferred zidovudine (AZT) in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic HIV infected adults.

Immediate versus deferred zidovudine (AZT) in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic HIV infected adults. BACKGROUND: Zidovudine (AZT) monotherapy was the first antiretroviral drug to be tested widely. Subsequent trials in asymptomatic or early symptomatic HIV infection indicated short-term delays in disease progression with AZT, but not improved survival. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of immediate versus deferred zidovudine (AZT) on HIV disease progression and survival. SEARCH STRATEGY

Cochrane2000

1626. Zidovudine (AZT) versus AZT plus didanosine (ddI) versus AZT plus zalcitabine (ddC) in HIV infected adults.

Zidovudine (AZT) versus AZT plus didanosine (ddI) versus AZT plus zalcitabine (ddC) in HIV infected adults. BACKGROUND: Zidovudine (AZT) monotherapy was the first antiretroviral drug to be tested widely. The next two drugs to be developed were didanosine (ddI) and zalcitabine (ddC). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of zidovudine (AZT), zidovudine plus didanosine (ddI) and zidovudine plus zalcitabine (ddC) on HIV disease progression and survival. SEARCH STRATEGY: Investigators (...) randomised comparisons of AZT+ddI versus AZT+ddC: in these, the AZT+ddI regimen had greater effects on disease progression (P=0.004) and death (P=0.009). REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: The use of ddI and, to a lesser extent, ddC delayed both HIV disease progression and death, at least when added to AZT.

Cochrane2000

1627. Drugs for preventing tuberculosis in HIV infected persons.

Drugs for preventing tuberculosis in HIV infected persons. BACKGROUND: People with HIV have a increased risk of developing tuberculosis. Preventive therapy may help prevent progression of tuberculosis infection to disease. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of preventive therapy with anti-tuberculosis drugs in people with HIV infection. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group trials register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline (...) , Embase and reference lists of articles were searched. Researchers in the field were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials of anti-tuberculosis drugs in people with HIV infection but without evidence of active tuberculosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One reviewer assessed eligibility and trial quality. Study authors were contacted for additional information. MAIN RESULTS: Seven trials were included. Compared to placebo, preventive therapy was associated with a lower incidence of active

Cochrane2000

1628. HIV-1 Genotypic Resistance Patterns Predict Response to Saquinavir–Ritonavir Therapy in Patients in Whom Previous Protease Inhibitor Therapy Had Failed

HIV-1 Genotypic Resistance Patterns Predict Response to Saquinavir–Ritonavir Therapy in Patients in Whom Previous Protease Inhibitor Therapy Had Failed 10610625 1999 12 02 1999 12 02 2016 11 22 0003-4819 131 11 1999 Dec 07 Annals of internal medicine Ann. Intern. Med. HIV-1 genotypic resistance patterns predict response to saquinavir-ritonavir therapy in patients in whom previous protease inhibitor therapy had failed. 813-21 Tests for resistance to HIV drugs are available for clinical use (...) ; however, their predictive value has not been fully assessed. To determine HIV-1 genotypic predictors of a virologic response to saquinavir-ritonavir therapy in patients in whom at least one previous protease inhibitor-containing regimen had failed and to compare the predictive value of baseline genotype with that of standard clinical evaluation. Retrospective clinical cohort study. University-based HIV clinic. 54 HIV-1-infected adults treated with saquinavir-ritonavir who had experienced virologic

Annals of Internal Medicine1999 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

1629. The effectiveness of needle exchange programs in modifying HIV-related outcomes: a systematic review of the evidence 1997 - 1999

The effectiveness of needle exchange programs in modifying HIV-related outcomes: a systematic review of the evidence 1997 - 1999 The effectiveness of needle exchange programs in modifying HIV-related outcomes: a systematic review of the evidence 1997 - 1999 The effectiveness of needle exchange programs in modifying HIV-related outcomes: a systematic review of the evidence 1997 - 1999 Leonard L, Forrester L, Navarro C, Hansen J, Doucet C Authors' objectives To examine the effectiveness of needle (...) -exchange programmes (NEPs) in modifying outcomes related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in injection drug users (IDUs), to update a review completed in 1997 (see Other Publications of Related Interest). Searching The authors searched the following electronic databases from 1 January 1997 to 4 November 1998: AIDSLINE, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and PHEffect (the Public Health Effectiveness Project database maintained by the Public Health Research, Education and Development

DARE.1999

1630. Effects of HIV counseling and testing on sexual risk behavior: a meta-analytic review of published research, 1985-1997

Effects of HIV counseling and testing on sexual risk behavior: a meta-analytic review of published research, 1985-1997 Effects of HIV counseling and testing on sexual risk behavior: a meta-analytic review of published research, 1985-1997 Effects of HIV counseling and testing on sexual risk behavior: a meta-analytic review of published research, 1985-1997 Weinhardt L S, Carey M P, Johnson B T, Bickham N L Authors' objectives To assess the effects of HIV counselling and testing (HIV-CT) on sexual (...) risk behaviour. Searching MEDLINE and PsycLIT were searched from January 1985 to June 1997 using combinations of the following keywords: 'AIDS', 'HIV' 'test*', 'counseling', 'serodiagnosis', 'serostatus', 'sex*' and 'behavior'. The authors also handsearched the journals AIDS, AIDS Care, AIDS Education and Prevention, American Journal of Public Health, Health Psychology, Journal of the American Medical Association, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases for the years 1985 to 1997 and scanned

DARE.1999

1631. Zidovudine, didanosine, and zalcitabine in the treatment of HIV infection: meta-analyses of the randomised evidence

Zidovudine, didanosine, and zalcitabine in the treatment of HIV infection: meta-analyses of the randomised evidence Zidovudine, didanosine, and zalcitabine in the treatment of HIV infection: meta-analyses of the randomised evidence Zidovudine, didanosine, and zalcitabine in the treatment of HIV infection: meta-analyses of the randomised evidence HIV Trialists' Collaborative Group Authors' objectives To assess the effects of zidovudine, didanosine, and zalcitabine on HIV disease progression (...) in the review Adult participants with HIV infection but not AIDS between immediate and deferred treatment with zidovudine. Outcomes assessed in the review Time to death and to disease progression. How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made? The authors do not state how the papers were selected for the review, or how many of the authors performed the selection. Assessment of study quality No formal assessment of quality was undertaken. Data extraction The authors do not state who, or how

DARE.1999

1632. HIV sexual risk reduction interventions with heterosexual men: the forgotten group

HIV sexual risk reduction interventions with heterosexual men: the forgotten group HIV sexual risk reduction interventions with heterosexual men: the forgotten group HIV sexual risk reduction interventions with heterosexual men: the forgotten group Exner T M, Gardos P S, Seal D W, Ehrhardt A A Authors' objectives To evaluate HIV sexual risk reduction programmes conducted in the United States that have targeted adult heterosexual men. Searching Searches were conducted of the following databases (...) for articles published in the English language: AIDSLINE (1980 to November 1998); PsycLIT (January 1981 to November 1998); and MEDLINE (1966 to December 1998). A manual search was conducted of Social and Behavioural Sciences Current Contents (1995 to November 1998) using the category "HIV and AIDS". Articles published as abstracts were excluded. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Inclusion criteria were not defined in terms of study design. Randomised controlled studies

DARE.1999

1633. How effective are complementary therapies for HIV and AIDS: a systematic review

How effective are complementary therapies for HIV and AIDS: a systematic review How effective are complementary therapies for HIV and AIDS: a systematic review How effective are complementary therapies for HIV and AIDS: a systematic review Ozsoy M, Ernst E Authors' objectives To assess the effectiveness of complementary therapies in HIV- positive individuals. Searching The authors searched the electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and CISCOM (from their inception (...) to the end of 1997) using the search terms: 'alternative medicine', 'AIDS', 'complementary medicine', and 'HIV'. The authors also searched their own database on complementary medicine and experts were asked to contribute further references. The bibliographies of all papers were searched for additional relevant studies. There were no language restrictions. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with control interventions of placebo, sham

DARE.1999

1634. Outreach-based HIV prevention for injecting drug users: a review of published outcome data

Outreach-based HIV prevention for injecting drug users: a review of published outcome data Outreach-based HIV prevention for injecting drug users: a review of published outcome data Outreach-based HIV prevention for injecting drug users: a review of published outcome data Coyle S L, Needle R H, Normand J Authors' objectives To determine the effects of outreach-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interventions for drug users related to post intervention behaviour changes. Searching Computer (...) searches of the literature were conducted. No details were given. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Evaluations of interventions reporting HIV-related behavioural or serological outcomes for IDUs were included if they reported statistical significance, direction of change, or range of change in the outcome variables. One group pre-test post test designs, experimental and quasi experimental studies, and comparative studies using historical controls were eligible

DARE.1999

1635. Isoniazid prophylaxis for tuberculosis in HIV infection: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Isoniazid prophylaxis for tuberculosis in HIV infection: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Isoniazid prophylaxis for tuberculosis in HIV infection: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Isoniazid prophylaxis for tuberculosis in HIV infection: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Bucher H C, Griffith L E, Guyatt G H, Sudre P, Naef M, Sendi P, Battegay M Authors' objectives To evaluate the efficacy of isoniazid (INH) for the prevention of tuberculosis (...) in tuberculin skin test-positive and negative (TST) individuals with HIV infection. Searching The authors searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CAB Health, BIOSIS Previews, HEALTHSTAR, IDIS Drug File, DHSS-Data, Medical Toxicology and Health, Drug Information Full Text, AIDSLINE, AIDSTRIAL, AIDSDRUG and the Cochrane Library (1985 to October 1997) using the search terms: 'isoniazid', 'tuberculosis', human immunodeficiency syndrome', 'acquired immunodeficiency syndrome', 'HIV infection', and the textword 'randomized

DARE.1999

1636. The costs, clinical benefits, and cost-effectiveness of screening for cervical cancer in HIV-infected women

The costs, clinical benefits, and cost-effectiveness of screening for cervical cancer in HIV-infected women The costs, clinical benefits, and cost-effectiveness of screening for cervical cancer in HIV-infected women The costs, clinical benefits, and cost-effectiveness of screening for cervical cancer in HIV-infected women Goldie S J, Weinstein M C, Kuntz K M, Freedberg K A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each (...) abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Six screening strategies for cervical neoplasia and cancer in HIV-infected women were assessed. The main strategies considered were no screening, annual Papanicolaou smears, annual Papanicolaou smears after two initial smears obtained 6 months apart (the Centres for Disease Control (CDC) strategy), semi

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1999

1637. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in homosexual and bisexual HIV-positive men

The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in homosexual and bisexual HIV-positive men The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in homosexual and bisexual HIV-positive men The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in homosexual and bisexual HIV-positive men Goldie S J, Kuntz K M, Weinstein M C, Freedberg K (...) A, Welton M L, Palefsky J M Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Screening for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in HIV positive men using anal cytology. Type of intervention

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1999

1638. Clinical guidelines and pharmacist intervention program for HIV-infected patients requiring granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy

Clinical guidelines and pharmacist intervention program for HIV-infected patients requiring granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy Clinical guidelines and pharmacist intervention program for HIV-infected patients requiring granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy Clinical guidelines and pharmacist intervention program for HIV-infected patients requiring granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy Engles-Horton L L, Skowronski C, Mostashari F, Altice F L Record Status (...) This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of clinical guidelines, as implemented by pharmacists, for the treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who required

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1999

1639. Cost effectiveness analysis of antenatal HIV screening in United Kingdom

Cost effectiveness analysis of antenatal HIV screening in United Kingdom Cost effectiveness analysis of antenatal HIV screening in United Kingdom Cost effectiveness analysis of antenatal HIV screening in United Kingdom Ades A E, Sculpher M J, Gibb D M, Gupta R, Ratcliffe J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed (...) critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Universal and selective antenatal HIV screening in pregnant women. The universal policy involved offering HIV screening to all pregnant women while the selective strategy involved offering screening only to women at high risk of infection. Type of intervention Screening. Economic study type Cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Pregnant women in the UK. Setting Secondary

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1999

1640. Combined antiviral treatment in HIV infection: is it value for money?

Combined antiviral treatment in HIV infection: is it value for money? Combined antiviral treatment in HIV infection: is it value for money? Combined antiviral treatment in HIV infection: is it value for money? Davies D, Carne C, Camilleri-Ferrante C Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment (...) on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antiviral treatment in HIV infection. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Patients with HIV infection. Setting Hospital. The study was carried out at the Addenbrooke's NHS Trust, Cambridge, UK. Dates to which data relate Effectiveness data were collected from a study published in 1998. Resource use and cost data were collected from the authors' institution. The price year

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1999