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Top results for hiv

141. Isoniazid for preventing tuberculosis in HIV-infected children.

Isoniazid for preventing tuberculosis in HIV-infected children. BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of illness and death in HIV-positive children living in areas of high TB prevalence. We know that isoniazid prophylaxis prevents TB in HIV-negative children following TB exposure, but there is uncertainty related to its role in TB preventive treatment in HIV-positive children. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the effects of TB preventive treatment versus placebo in HIV-positive children (...) with no known TB contact on active TB, death, and reported adverse events. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase and two trial registers up to February 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included trials of HIV-positive children with and without known TB exposure, randomized to receive TB preventive treatment or placebo. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently used the study selection criteria, assessed risk of bias

Cochrane2017

142. Do Less Harm: Evaluating HIV Programmatic Alternatives in Response to Cutbacks in Foreign Aid.

Do Less Harm: Evaluating HIV Programmatic Alternatives in Response to Cutbacks in Foreign Aid. Background: Resource-limited nations must consider their response to potential contractions in international support for HIV programs. Objective: To evaluate the clinical, epidemiologic, and budgetary consequences of alternative HIV program scale-back strategies in 2 recipient nations, the Republic of South Africa (RSA) and Côte d'Ivoire (CI). Design: Model-based comparison between current standard (...) (CD4 count at presentation of 0.260 × 109 cells/L, universal antiretroviral therapy [ART] eligibility, and 5-year retention rate of 84%) and scale-back alternatives, including reduced HIV detection, no ART or delayed initiation (when CD4 count is <0.350 × 109 cells/L), reduced investment in retention, and no viral load monitoring or second-line ART. Data Sources: Published RSA- and CI-specific estimates of the HIV care continuum, ART efficacy, and HIV-related costs. Target Population: HIV

Annals of Internal Medicine2017

143. Safety and Tolerability of Maraviroc-Containing Regimens to Prevent HIV Infection in Women: A Phase 2 Randomized Trial.

Safety and Tolerability of Maraviroc-Containing Regimens to Prevent HIV Infection in Women: A Phase 2 Randomized Trial. Background: Maraviroc (MVC) is a candidate drug for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Objective: To assess the safety and tolerability of MVC-containing PrEP over 48 weeks in U.S. women at risk for HIV infection. Design: Phase 2 randomized, controlled, double-blinded study of 4 antiretroviral regimens used as PrEP. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01505114 ). Setting: 12 clinical (...) research sites of the HIV Prevention Trials Network and AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Participants: HIV-uninfected women reporting condomless vaginal or anal intercourse with at least 1 man with HIV infection or unknown serostatus within 90 days. Intervention: MVC only, MVC-emtricitabine (FTC), MVC-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and TDF-FTC (control). Measurements: At each visit, clinical and laboratory (including HIV) assessments were done. Primary outcomes were grade 3 and 4 adverse events and

Annals of Internal Medicine2017

144. HIV drug resistance infographics

HIV drug resistance infographics WHO | HIV drug resistance infographics Access Search Search the Navigation Language HIV/AIDS Menu HIV drug resistance infographics Related links You are here: Quick Links Sitemap Help and Services WHO Regional Offices Email Address

World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines2017

150. Long-acting intramuscular cabotegravir and rilpivirine in adults with HIV-1 infection (LATTE-2): 96-week results of a randomised, open-label, phase 2b, non-inferiority trial.

Long-acting intramuscular cabotegravir and rilpivirine in adults with HIV-1 infection (LATTE-2): 96-week results of a randomised, open-label, phase 2b, non-inferiority trial. BACKGROUND: Cabotegravir and rilpivirine are antiretroviral drugs in development as long-acting injectable formulations. The LATTE-2 study evaluated long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine for maintenance of HIV-1 viral suppression through 96 weeks. METHODS: In this randomised, phase 2b, open-label study, treatment-naive (...) adults infected with HIV-1 initially received oral cabotegravir 30 mg plus abacavir-lamivudine 600-300 mg once daily. The objective of this study was to select an intramuscular dosing regimen based on a comparison of the antiviral activity, tolerability, and safety of the two intramuscular dosing regimens relative to oral cabotegravir plus abacavir-lamivudine. After a 20-week induction period on oral cabotegravir plus abacavir-lamivudine, patients with viral suppression (plasma HIV-1 RNA <50

Lancet2017

151. Enhanced Prophylaxis plus Antiretroviral Therapy for Advanced HIV Infection in Africa.

Enhanced Prophylaxis plus Antiretroviral Therapy for Advanced HIV Infection in Africa. BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of death from infection (including tuberculosis and cryptococcus) shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approximately 10%. METHODS: In this factorial open-label trial conducted in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya, we enrolled HIV-infected adults and children 5 (...) the enhanced-prophylaxis group (P=0.08 and P=0.09, respectively). Rates of HIV viral suppression and adherence to ART were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among HIV-infected patients with advanced immunosuppression, enhanced antimicrobial prophylaxis combined with ART resulted in reduced rates of death at both 24 weeks and 48 weeks without compromising viral suppression or increasing toxic effects. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and others; REALITY Current Controlled Trials number

NEJM2017

152. Management of Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection.

Management of Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection. No field in medicine has moved as swiftly as HIV/AIDS over the past 35 years. Because of the rapid turnover of key information, this In the Clinic focuses on essential principles of care for newly diagnosed adults with HIV-1 infection and how to prevent infection in persons at risk. To ensure continued usefulness, future directions in therapy and how to access updated information on a continuous basis are emphasized.

Annals of Internal Medicine2017

154. Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil 200mg/245mg film-coated tablets (Truvada) - Treatment of HIV-1 infected adolescents

Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil 200mg/245mg film-coated tablets (Truvada) - Treatment of HIV-1 infected adolescents Published 10 July 2017 Statement of Advice: emtricitabine / tenofovir disoproxil 200mg/245mg film-coated tablets (Truvada ® ) (No: 1263/17) Gilead Sciences Ltd 09 June 2017 ADVICE: in the absence of a submission from the holder of the marketing authorisation emtricitabine / tenofovir disoproxil (Truvada ® ) is not recommended for use within NHS Scotland. Indication under review (...) : Treatment of HIV-1 infected adolescents aged 12 to <18 years with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance or toxicities precluding the use of first line agents. The holder of the marketing authorisation has not made a submission to SMC regarding this product in this setting. As a result we cannot recommend its use within NHSScotland. Advice context: No part of this advice may be used without the whole of the advice being quoted in full. This advice represents the view of the Scottish

Scottish Medicines Consortium2017

156. Financial Incentives for Linkage to Care and Viral Suppression Among HIV-Positive Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial (HPTN 065)

Financial Incentives for Linkage to Care and Viral Suppression Among HIV-Positive Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial (HPTN 065) 28628702 2017 06 19 2017 06 19 2168-6114 2017 Jun 19 JAMA internal medicine JAMA Intern Med Financial Incentives for Linkage to Care and Viral Suppression Among HIV-Positive Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial (HPTN 065). 10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.2158 Achieving linkage to care and viral suppression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients improves (...) their well-being and prevents new infections. Current gaps in the HIV care continuum substantially limit such benefits. To evaluate the effectiveness of financial incentives on linkage to care and viral suppression in HIV-positive patients. A large community-based clinical trial that randomized 37 HIV test and 39 HIV care sites in the Bronx, New York, and Washington, DC, to financial incentives or standard of care. Participants at financial incentive test sites who had positive test results for HIV

EvidenceUpdates2017

157. A Trial of Itraconazole or Amphotericin B for HIV-Associated Talaromycosis.

A Trial of Itraconazole or Amphotericin B for HIV-Associated Talaromycosis. Background Talaromyces marneffei infection is a major cause of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related death in South and Southeast Asia. Guidelines recommend initial treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate, but this drug has substantial side effects, a high cost, and limited availability. Itraconazole is available in oral form, is associated with fewer unacceptable side effects than amphotericin, and is widely (...) used in place of amphotericin; however, clinical trials comparing these two treatments are lacking. Methods In this open-label, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 440 HIV-infected adults who had talaromycosis, confirmed by either microscopy or culture, to receive either intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate (amphotericin) (219 patients), at a dose of 0.7 to 1.0 mg per kilogram of body weight per day, or itraconazole capsules (221 patients), at a dose of 600 mg per day for 3 days, followed

NEJM2017

158. Association of Implementation of a Universal Testing and Treatment Intervention With HIV Diagnosis, Receipt of Antiretroviral Therapy, and Viral Suppression in East Africa.

Association of Implementation of a Universal Testing and Treatment Intervention With HIV Diagnosis, Receipt of Antiretroviral Therapy, and Viral Suppression in East Africa. Importance: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) is now recommended for all HIV-positive persons. UNAIDS has set global targets to diagnose 90% of HIV-positive individuals, treat 90% of diagnosed individuals with ART, and suppress viral replication among 90% of treated individuals, for a population-level target of 73% of all HIV (...) -positive persons with HIV viral suppression. Objective: To describe changes in the proportions of HIV-positive individuals with HIV viral suppression, HIV-positive individuals who had received a diagnosis, diagnosed individuals treated with ART, and treated individuals with HIV viral suppression, following implementation of a community-based testing and treatment program in rural East Africa. Design, Setting, and Participants: Observational analysis based on interim data from 16 rural Kenyan (n = 6

JAMA2017

159. Tenofovir alafenamide + emtricitabine + elvitegravir + cobicistat (Genvoya) and HIV

Tenofovir alafenamide + emtricitabine + elvitegravir + cobicistat (Genvoya) and HIV Prescrire IN ENGLISH - Spotlight ''Tenofovir alafenamide + emtricitabine + elvitegravir + cobicistat (Genvoya°) and HIV'', 1 June 2017 {1} {1} {1} | | > > > Tenofovir alafenamide + emtricitabine + elvitegravir + cobicistat (Genvoya°) and HIV Spotlight Every month, the subjects in Prescrire’s Spotlight. 100 most recent :  |   |   |   |   |   |   |    (...) |   |  Spotlight Tenofovir alafenamide + emtricitabine + elvitegravir + cobicistat (Genvoya°) and HIV FEATURED REVIEW First-line therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is based on a combination of at least three antiretroviral drugs. A formulation of tenofovir, tenofovir alafenamide, was authorised in the EU in late 2015 as part of a fixed-dose combination containing emtricitabine + elvitegravir + cobicistat (Genvoya°). This four-drug fixed-dose combination does

Prescrire2017

160. HIV PrEP

HIV PrEP HIV PrEP | CADTH.ca Find the information you need HIV PrEP HIV PrEP Published on: May 19, 2017 Project Number: ES0315-000 Product Line: Result type: Report CADTH is undertaking an Environmental Scan to identify the current international context around the public provision of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using the antiviral combination emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF). HIV PrEP therapy using FTC/TDF before engaging in sexual encounters that may carry a risk (...) of HIV transmission constitutes an effective prevention strategy against infection. Therefore, it is crucial to identify individuals who are most at risk of HIV infection. This scan will inform the development of appropriate funding policies by Canadian decision-makers. The key objectives of this Environmental Scan are as follows: Describe national and international regulations and policies for the public provision of HIV PrEP with FTC/TDF. Describe patient eligibility criteria for the public

Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Environmental Scanning2017