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Latest & greatest articles for hiv
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Magnitude and causes of first-line antiretroviral therapy regimen changes among HIV patients in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has markedly decreased the morbidity and mortality due to HIV/AIDS. ART regimen change is a major challenge for the sustainability of humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) treatment program. This is found to be a major concern among HIV/AIDS patients in a resource-limited setting, where treatment options are limited.The aim (...) of this review is to generate the best available evidence regarding the magnitude of first-line antiretroviral therapy regimen change and the causes for regimen change among HIV patients on ART in Ethiopia.The reviewed studies were accessed through electronic web-based search strategy from PubMed Medline, EMBASE, Hinari, Springer link and Google Scholar. Data were extracted using Microsoft Excel and exported to Stata software version 13 for analyses. The overall pooled estimation of outcomes was calculated
Good practices for retention in the circuit of prevention of Mother-Child Transmission of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the literature. This review assesses the effectiveness of interventions to improve Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) retention and adherence to treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa since the adoption of Option B +. PubMed, Cochrane, African Index Medicus and the graey literature were used to select articles that used as endpoints whose judgement
Incident HIV among pregnant and breast-feeding women in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. A previous meta-analysis reported high HIV incidence among pregnant and breast-feeding women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but limited evidence of elevated risk of HIV acquisition during pregnancy or breast-feeding when compared with nonpregnant periods. The rapidly evolving HIV prevention and treatment landscape since publication of this review may have important implications (...) for maternal HIV incidence.Systematic review and meta-analysis.We searched four databases and abstracts from relevant conferences through 1 December 2018, for literature on maternal HIV incidence in SSA. We used random-effects meta-analysis to summarize incidence rates and ratios, and to estimate 95% prediction intervals. We evaluated potential sources of heterogeneity with random-effects meta-regression.Thirty-seven publications contributed 100 758 person-years of follow-up. The estimated average HIV
Meta-analysis of the associations of CYP2B6-516G>T polymorphisms with efavirenz-induced central nervous system side effects and virological outcome in HIV-infected adults. Clinical data on the relationships of cytochrome P450 (CYP2) B6 516G>T polymorphisms with efavirenz-induced central nervous system (CNS) side effects and virological response in HIV-infected adults are controversial. We sought to analyze the associations by meta-analysis. To identify eligible studies, we systematically (...) searched PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science. The strength of the associations was measured by odds ratio (OR) and effect size (ES) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Seventeen studies comprising a total of 3598 HIV-infected adults were included. The results showed that the CYP2B6-516 GG genotype was significantly associated with a decreased risk of efavirenz-induced CNS side effects compared with the GT and TT genotypes (GG + GT vs. TT: OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.41-0.87, P = 0.006; GG vs. GT
The prevalence, temporal trends, and geographical distribution of HIV-1 subtypes among men who have sex with men in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a comprehensive overview of humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV)-1 subtypes and to investigate temporal and geographical trends of the HIV-1 epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Chinese and English articles published between January 2007 and December 2017 were (...) systematically searched. Pooled HIV-1 prevalence was calculated, and its stability was analysed using sensitivity analysis. Subgroups were based on study time period, sampling area and prevalence. Publication bias was measured using Funnel plot and Egger's test. A total of 68 independent studies that included HIV-1 molecular investigations were eligible for meta-analysis. Circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE (57.36%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 53.76-60.92) was confirmed as the most prevalent HIV-1
Strength-based interventions for HIV prevention and sexual risk reduction among girls and young women: A resilience-focused systematic review. Despite significant public health efforts, girls and young women still face gender-specific barriers to achieving optimal physical and mental health. Public health interventions have historically addressed the health needs of girls and young women using risk-focused, or deficit-based, approaches. Emerging research in public health and prevention provides (...) an alternative approach, focusing instead on strengths and resilience. However, evidence remains limited regarding strength-based interventions to improve health outcomes for young women, including outcomes within the critically important areas of sexual and reproductive health. To address this gap in evidence, this review analyses the evidence base for intervention research using a strength-based resilience-focused approach to reduce HIV and sexual risk for girls and young women globally. A systematic
Inflammatory mediators and lung abnormalities in HIV: A systematic review. HIV and pneumonia infections have both been shown to negatively impact lung function. However, evidence of the role of inflammation on lung dysfunction in HIV and pneumonia co-infected individuals remains limited. We aimed to systematically review the association of inflammatory markers and lung abnormalities in HIV and pneumonia co-infected individuals. This systematic review was registered with the International (...) Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews on August 15, 2017 (registration number CRD42017069254) and used 4 databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed Central, Clinical Trials.gov and Google Scholar). All clinical trial, observational, and comparative studies targeting adult (> 18 years old) populations with HIV, pneumonia, or both, that report on immune response (cytokine, chemokine, or biomarker), and lung abnormality as an outcome were eligible. Data selection, risk of bias
Fostemsavir in Adults with Multidrug-Resistant HIV-1 Infection. Among some patients with humanimmunodeficiencyvirus type 1 (HIV-1) infection who have undergone multiple antiretroviral therapies and have limited options for treatment, new classes of antiretroviral drugs with novel mechanisms of action are needed. Fostemsavir is the prodrug of temsavir, a first-in-class investigational HIV-1 attachment inhibitor.In this ongoing phase 3 trial in 23 countries, we enrolled patients with multidrug (...) -resistant HIV-1 infection in two cohorts, according to their remaining treatment options. In the first cohort, we assigned (in a 3:1 ratio) patients who had the option of using at least one fully active, approved antiretroviral drug in at least one but no more than two antiretroviral classes to add either fostemsavir (at a dose of 600 mg twice daily) or placebo to their failing regimen for 8 days, followed by open-label fostemsavir plus optimized background therapy (randomized cohort). In the second
Social network strategy as a promising intervention to better reach key populations for promoting HIV prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM), drug users and sex workers are at high risk of HIV infection, but they are marginalised and hidden. Social network strategy (SNS) is purposeful to use social networks to generate social influence, accelerate behaviour change and achieve desirable outcomes among individuals or communities (...) and have been increasingly used for HIV interventions. This study aims to investigate the effects of SNS on HIV prevention among key populations.We searched six databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect and Wiley for randomised controlled trials published between January 1999 and May 2019. Eligibility criteria included SNS conducted among key populations for HIV interventions, with a comparator group. Outcomes included changes in HIV high-risk behaviour, HIV
Supervised Physical Activity and Improved Functional Capacity among Adults Living with HIV: A Systematic Review. Physical activity (PA) combats the effects of multimorbidity and antiretroviral therapy in people living with HIV (PLWH), but PLWH often don't meet recommended PA guidelines. The purpose of our review was to investigate whether supervised PA improved functional capacity in PLWH. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses were followed. Five databases were
Effectiveness of naltrexone treatment for alcohol use disorders in HIV: a systematic review. Because alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in patients living with HIV/AIDS are associated with a reduction in therapeutic outcomes and increases the risk of morbidity/mortality, finding an appropriate pharmacotherapy treatment for this disorder is necessary.This systematic review contains studies that examine the effects of pharmacological intervention (oral naltrexone (NTX) or injectable extended-release (...) naltrexone (XR-NTX)) on the persons living with HIV and AUDs.A systematic literature search using three electronic databases including Pubmed Medline, Scopus and the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar was conducted and includes articles published from 1995 to 2019. Records were collected by searching relevant keywords and those that meet the inclusion/exclusion criteria are included.Overall, in this systematic review, the results of 7 relevant studies including pilot and randomized controlled/clinical
Adjunctive corticosteroids may be associated with better outcome for non-HIV Pneumocystis pneumonia with respiratory failure: a systemic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Evidence supporting corticosteroids adjunctive treatment (CAT) for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV patients is highly controversial. We aimed to systematically review the literature and perform a meta-analysis of available data relating to the effect of CAT on mortality of PCP in non-HIV (...) patients.We searched Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane database from 1989 through 2019. Data on clinical outcomes from non-HIV PCP were extracted with a standardized instrument. Heterogeneity was assessed with the I2 index. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using a fixed effects model. We analyzed the impact of CAT on mortality of non-HIV PCP in the whole PCP population, those who had hypoxemia (PaO2 < 70 mmHg) and who had respiratory failure (PaO2 < 60 mmHg).In total, 259
Barriers to and enablers of uptake of and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in the context of integrated HIV and tuberculosis treatment among adults in sub-Saharan Africa: a protocol for a systematic literature review. The scale-up of integrated HumanImmunodeficiencyVirus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) treatment has been an important intervention to curb the burden of HIV and TB co-infection worldwide. Uptake of and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) are key determinants of the quality (...) and therapeutic endpoints of this intervention. This study aims to conduct an up-to-date collection and synthesis of evidence on barriers to and facilitators of uptake of and adherence to ART in HIV/TB integrated treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on the uptake of and adherence to ART in the context of integrated therapy for HIV and TB in SSA will be performed. We will review qualitative and quantitative studies reporting on the uptake
Adjuvanted-influenza vaccination in patients infected with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis of immunogenicity and safety. Adjuvanted-influenza vaccination is an efficient method for enhancing the immunogenicity of influenza split-virus vaccines for preventing influenza. However, the medical community's understanding of its performance in patients infected with HIV remains limited. To identify the advantages, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with randomized controlled (...) trials (RCTs) and cohort and case-control studies that have the immunogenicity and safety of influenza vaccines in patients infected with HIV as outcomes. We searched six different databases, and 1698 patients infected with HIV in 11 studies were included. Statistical analysis was performed to calculate the pooled standardized mean differences (SMD) or relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Regarding immunogenicity, the pooled SMD of GMT (Geometric mean titer) for A/H1N1 was 0.61 (95%CI
Growth in proportion and disparities of HIV PrEP use among key populations identified in the United States national goals: systematic review & meta-analysis of published surveys. PrEP use among populations most vulnerable to HIV as identified in national HIV prevention goals is not fully known. This systematic review assessed trends of lifetime self-reported PrEP use and disparities among key populations.We used CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis cumulative database of electronic (...) are essential to increase PrEP use to reduce disparities in HIV acquisition.
Systematic review of the accuracy of plasma preparation tubesÂ for HIV viral load testing. Expanding access to HIV viral load testing is essential to improving the care and treatment of people living with HIV/AIDS and ending the AIDS epidemic. Though significant investments have been made in the past five years, many high burden, low resource countries continue to have viral load access rates below 50%. Plasma preparation tubes (PPTs) can simplify storage, transport, and preparation of plasma (...) used for viral load testing. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of plasma preparation tubes for HIV viral load testing. Study results regarding the accuracy of PPT viral load measurements across various storage and transportation conditions were examined. The quality of evidence was evaluated using GRADE and QUADAS-2 criteria. The review identified 16 studies using PPTs with data from 6,141 individuals from 1995 to 2014. Overall the quality of evidence was rated as moderate
Sociodemographic and health profile of TB/HIV co-infection in Brazil: a systematic review. to ascertain the epidemiological profile of TB/HIV co-infection in Brazilian scenarios.this is a systematic review conducted via electronic search in databases PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS and SciELO, having as inclusion criterion articles based on the Brazilian scenario of TB/HIV co-infection.of the total 174 studies, 15 were selected, revealing the epidemiological profile of the co-infection in different (...) scenarios: male, economically active age, low education level, brown/black ethnicity, low income, heterosexual, pulmonary clinical form, alcoholism and Directly Observed Therapy.the sociodemographic and epidemiological profile of people with TB/HIV co-infection has an expected occurrence pattern, which corroborates articles found in the literature, either at national level or by grouping the studies according to region or state.
Social and demographical determinants of quality of life in people who live with HIV/AIDS infection: evidence from a meta-analysis. The aim of this meta-analysis is to summarize the available evidence on the social and demographic determinants of health-related quality of life (QoL) for HIV-infected populations in order to provide a direction to policy makers, planners, and program developers on how best to use their resources to improve the QoL of HIV-infected people.PubMed, Science Direct (...) . Of these, 2107 articles were selected for full-text review. We included 19 studies that met the eligibility criteria. The pooled effect size shows a relative positive impact of social support for QoL among HIV/AIDS patients and its lower boundary is about 0.61 and the higher about 1.49. The pooled effect size has a considerable negative impact stigma on people who live with HIV/AIDS (PWLHs') QoL ranges from -0.34 to -0.32. Low socioeconomic status (poverty situation) was found to have a degenerative impact
A systematic review of immunogenicity, clinical efficacy and safety of human papillomavirus vaccines in people living with the humanimmunodeficiencyvirus. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide. People living with the humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) are at high risk of HPV infection. This systematic review evaluates the immunogenicity, clinical efficacy, and safety of prophylactic HPV vaccines in people living with HIV. We registered (...) no differences in the incident and persistent HPV infections in both groups. None of the studies reported data on the incidence of precancerous lesions, or cancer. There were no reports of serious adverse events following vaccination in any of the trials. None of the included studies assessed the effects of HPV vaccines in adolescents living with HIV. Very limited evidence suggests lower immunogenicity of HPV vaccines in HIV positive compared to HIV-negative people. Finally, the long-term effect of the HPV
HIV testing strategies outside of health care settings in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA): a systematic review to inform European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control guidance. In recent years, new technologies and new approaches to scale up HIV testing have emerged. The objective of this paper was to synthesize the body of recent evidence on strategies aimed at increasing the uptake and coverage of HIV testing outside of health care settings in the European Union (EU (...) )/European Economic Area (EEA).Systematic searches to identify studies describing effective HIV testing interventions and barriers to testing were run in five databases (2010-2017) with no language restrictions; the grey literature was searched for similar unpublished studies (2014-2017). Study selection, data extraction and critical appraisal were performed by two independent reviewers following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.Eighty studies on HIV