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Attrition of HIV-positive children from HIV services in low and middle-income countries. Identification and retention of HIV-positive children in HIV services is essential to ensure optimal health outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the magnitude of attrition [loss to follow-up (LTFU) and death) of HIV-positive children from HIV services in low and middle-income countries (LMICs).We performed a comprehensive multidatabase search of original studies reporting retention (...) /attrition data for HIV-positive children in LMICs through April 2016. Outcomes included LTFU, death, and overall attrition (LTFU + death) at intervals up to 60 months of follow-up. At least two authors determined study eligibility, performed data extraction, and made quality assessments. We used random-effects meta-analytic methods to aggregate effect sizes and perform meta-regression analyses.We identified 3040 unique studies; 91 met eligibility criteria and were included in the analysis
Association of antiretroviral therapy with anal high-risk human papillomavirus, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal cancer in people living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the natural history of anal high-risk HPV and anal lesion progression is not well established. We reviewed the association of ART and other HIV-related factors on anal HPV infection, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), and anal cancer among people living (...) with HIV.For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies published between Jan 1, 1996, and Oct 30, 2019, that reported the association of HIV-related exposures (ART or highly active ART [HAART], HIV-RNA plasma viral load [PVL], and nadir or current CD4 cell count) with outcomes of anal high-risk HPV prevalence, incidence, and persistence; prevalence, incidence, progression, or regression of anal histological and cytological abnormalities; and anal cancer incidence
Prevalence of sexually transmissible infections and HIV in men attending sex-on-premises venues in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Background In Australia, men who have sex with men (MSM) have high rates sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and sex-on-premises venue (SOPV) patrons are at risk. This paper assesses Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), syphilis and HIV prevalence in men tested at Australian SOPVs and describes (...) and NG (9/12), HIV (8/12) and syphilis (5/12). CT and NG prevalence overall summary estimates were 3.4% (95% CI 1.9-5.2%, I2 = 88.7%, P < 0.01) and 1.3% (95% CI 0.7-2.2%, I2 = 75.5%, P < 0.01) respectively. CT and NG prevalence was highest in the ano-rectum and oro-pharynx respectively. The HIV and syphilis pooled estimates were 2.3% (95% CI 1.6-2.9%, I2 = 93.1%, P < 0.01) and 3.2% (95% CI 1.8-4.6%, I2 = 72.8%, P < 0.01) respectively. Participation rate varied.This review examines HIV and STI testing
The effect of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy on carotid intima-media thickness: A systematic review and meta-analysis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) to elucidate the role of HIV infection and ART. Also, an analysis on the role of ethnicity and gender on cIMT in HIV-infected populations was performed.We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, the WHO websites (...) and International AIDS Society for published observational studies were conducted by two independent reviewers for studies comparing HIV-infected antiretroviral-experienced patients and/or inexperienced with healthy controls on cIMT. The primary outcome was the standardized mean difference (SMD) of cIMT.Twenty studies (five cohort, 15 cross-sectional, and two both cohort and cross-sectional studies) were identified comprising 7948 subjects (4656 HIV-infected; 3292 controls). In cohort studies, the standardized
Health Care Provider Barriers to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in the United States: A Systematic Review. Increasing prescription of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is imperative to ending the HIV epidemic in the United States. The objective of this review was to identify health care provider barriers to PrEP implementation. A systematic review was conducted in February 2019 using PubMed to identify barriers to PrEP prescribing practices in the United States. Targeted search terms surrounding (...) PrEP and providers resulted in 222 original studies, 28 of which were ultimately included in our review, with data collected between 2011 and 2018. Six themes were identified across reviewed studies: (i) a lack of PrEP knowledge, (ii) the presence of the Purview Paradox, which refers to discordance in beliefs between HIV specialists and primary care providers on who should prescribe PrEP, (iii) concerns about PrEP costs, (iv) concerns about behavioral and health consequences, (v) interpersonal
Meta-analysis of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection in China. With the widespread implementation of antiretroviral therapy in many countries, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has declined. However, little is known about the prevalence of adherence rate to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in patients with HIV infection in China. This is the first meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies of treatment adherence (≥ 95%) to HAART in Chinese patients (...) %) at one week, 80.9% (95%CI: 74.7%-85.9%, I2 = 96.6%) at one month, and 68.3% (95%CI: 46.1%-84.4%, I2 = 97.1%) at 3 months or longer. Subgroup analyses revealed that samples with no gender predominance, low education level, middle economic region, rural area, older age (42.3 years), and recent publication (2013 or later) were correlated to higher HAART adherence. The average rate of HAART adherence was relatively high in China, which indicates effective HIV/AIDS policy, prevention and control measures
Peer-led Self-management Interventions and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among People Living with HIV: A Systematic Review. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV (PLWH). However, adherence remains suboptimal, and PLWH may benefit from more self-management support to address the complexities of chronic illness. Our objective was to identify the impact of peer-led self-management interventions on adherence
Disparities in Retention in Care Among Adults Living with HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review. As national HIV prevention goals aim to increase the proportion of persons living with HIV, determining existing disparities in retention in care will allow for targeted intervention. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify existing disparities in retention in care. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 guided this systematic review (...) . Electronic databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Sociological Collection, PsychInfo, and Cab Direct/Global Health, were systematically searched and twenty studies were included. This review identified disparities in retention in care that have been documented by race, gender, age, HIV exposure, incarceration history, place of birth, and U.S. geographic location. Research is necessary to further identify existing disparities in retention in care and to better understand determinants of health
infection among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are inconsistent and heterogeneous. Therefore, this systematic review with meta-analysis was performed to assess the burden of the infection relative to the proportion of CD4 + T cell count among PLWHA in Ethiopia. Articles published before 15 May 2019, have been retrieved for this systematic review using (...) five databases; PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and ProQuest, supplemented by the search for gray literature. The overall pooled prevalence and pooled Odds Ratio (OR) with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were estimated using STATA 14 statistical Software. Of the 255 studies retrieved, 31 were considered for the final analysis. As many as 8,645 Ethiopians infected with HIV were included in the final quantitative synthesis. The overall pooled prevalence estimate of Cryptosporidium
higher among children ≤5 years (OR 5.51, 95%CI 2.83-10.74) compared to people aged >5 years (OR 1.48, 95%CI 1.17-1.89); p = 0.0002. There was no difference between children (15 years) and adults and between regions of Africa. There was no difference for viral respiratory aetiologies (Enterovirus, Adenovirus, Bocavirus, Coronavirus, Metapneumovirus, Parainfluenza, Influenza, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus) of ARTI between HIV-positive and HIV-negative people, except for Rhinovirus where being HIV (...) Case fatality rate and viral aetiologies of acute respiratory tract infections in HIV positive and negative people in Africa: The VARIAFRICA-HIV systematic review and meta-analysis. To set priorities for efficient control of acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) in Africa, it is necessary to have accurate estimate of its burden, especially among HIV-infected populations.To compare case fatality rate (CFR) and viral aetiologies of ARTI between HIV-positive and HIV-negative populations
A Systematic Review on the Effect of HIV Infection on the Pharmacokinetics of First-Line Tuberculosis Drugs. Contrasting findings have been published regarding the effect of humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) on tuberculosis (TB) drug pharmacokinetics (PK).The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of HIV infection on the PK of the first-line TB drugs (FLDs) rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol by assessing all published literature.Searches were performed (...) in MEDLINE (through PubMed) and EMBASE to find original studies evaluating the effect of HIV infection on the PK of FLDs. The included studies were assessed for bias and clinical relevance. PK data were extracted to provide insight into the difference of FLD PK between HIV-positive and HIV-negative TB patients. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and its protocol was registered at PROSPERO (registration
Older African Americans and the HIV Care Continuum: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2003-2018. Evidence suggests that racial disparities in the HIV care continuum persist in older age groups, particularly among African Americans. The objective of this systematic review was to identify factors that facilitate or hinder older African Americans' engagement in the HIV care continuum. For studies published between 2003 and 2018, we: (1) searched databases using keywords, (2) excluded non-peer (...) -reviewed studies, (3) limited findings to older African Americans and the HIV care continuum, and (4) retrieved and summarized data focused on barriers and facilitators of the HIV care continuum. Among the 1023 studies extracted, 13 were included: diagnosis/testing (n = 1), engagement in care (n = 7), and antiretroviral adherence (n = 5). Barriers included lack of HIV risk awareness, routine testing, and healthcare access, stigma, and multimorbidities. Social support, health/medication literacy
A Systematic Review of Interventions that Promote Frequent HIV Testing. As of 2017, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HIV testing guidelines recommend that those at increased risk for HIV are tested two to four times per year. Evidence-based interventions that promote frequent and repeated testing remain sparse. We conducted a systematic review to: (1) identify frequent testing interventions; and (2) determine which were successful in increasing frequent testing rates. We (...) searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Embase, and CINAHL for peer-reviewed articles published between January 1, 2010 and September 30, 2017. Ten studies met inclusion criteria. Operationalization of frequent HIV testing varied widely across studies. Four interventions involved text message reminders for HIV testing, three involved community-based testing, two self-testing, and one rapid testing. Text message reminder interventions were most successful in increasing rates of frequent HIV testing
HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Implementation Cascade Among Health Care Professionals in the United States: Implications from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been approved for primary HIV prevention for individuals aged 18 years or older since 2012, PrEP utilization has been suboptimal. To understand trends in PrEP provision from the health care providers' perspective, we systematically assessed each specific stage along the PrEP implementation
with HIV and 9-valent HPV vaccine introduction Guidance on HPV vaccination in EU countries: focus on boys, people living with HIV and 9-valent HPV vaccine introduction Technical guidance 30 Mar 2020 Cite: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Guidance on HPV vaccination in EU countries: focus on boys, people living with HIV and 9-valent HPV vaccine introduction, 2020. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020. This guidance on human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination in EU countries covers the following areas (...) Guidance on HPV vaccination in EU countries: focus on boys, people living with HIV and 9-valent HPV vaccine introduction Guidance on HPV vaccination in EU countries: focus on boys, people living with HIV and 9-valent HPV vaccine introduction Global Navigation Other sites: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control An agency of the European Union Main Navigation Secondary Navigation Search Search Search Search Guidance on HPV vaccination in EU countries: focus on boys, people living
of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection and tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2011; 365:1482-1491. 33. Meintjes G, Wilkinson R, Morroni C, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of prednisone for paradoxical tuberculosis- associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. AIDS 2010; 24:2381-2390. 34. Torok ME, Nguyen TB, Tran THC, et al Timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy in humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV)-associated tuberculous meningitis. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 52:1374. 35. Hughes JP (...) OF CONTENTS TABLE 3: Factors to Consider when Selecting an ARV Regimen FACTOR CHARACTERISTICS Regimen Regimen efficacy Genetic barrier to resistance Tolerability and short-term adverse events Potential for drug-drug interactions Toxicity and long-term safety Pill burden and dosing frequency Food requirements Virus Resistance test results Individual HIV infection ? Baseline CD4 cell count and HIV viral load HLA-B*5701 test result Co-existing conditions ? Bone disease (osteoporosis) ? Cardiovascular disease
care providers caring for persons who have experienced significant exposure to blood and/or body fluids in the work place or community setting. The risk of HumanImmunodeficiencyVirus (HIV) acquisition from a given exposure depends on the likelihood the source has transmissible HIV infection, and the biological risk of HIV transmission based on the exposure that has occurred. This guideline is designed to deal specifically with exposures to HIV and is not applicable to other exposures (...) -arv-guidelines/0 Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network Immunodeficiency Clinic. HIV/HCV Drug Therapy Guide. http://app.hivclinic.ca/ 19 XI REFERENCES 1. Kuhar DT, Henderson DK, Struble KA, et al. for the US Public Health Service Working Group. Updated US Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HumanImmunodeficiencyVirus and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013; 34: 875-92 2. Centers for Disease
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Combination Behavioral Interventions Co-Targeting Psychosocial Syndemics and HIV-Related Health Behaviors for Sexual Minority Men. In the U.S., sexual minority men (SMM) are disproportionately affected by HIV. Interventions are needed to increase HIV prevention and treatment behaviors, especially among syndemically exposed SMM. In recent years, researchers have created and tested combination behavioral interventions co-targeting syndemics and HIV-related
Different roles of frontal versus striatal atrophy in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Gray matter (GM) atrophy is frequently detected in persons living with HIV, even in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the specificity of regions affected remains elusive. For instance, which regions are consistently affected in HIV? In addition, atrophy at which regions is frequently associated with neurocognitive impairment in HIV? Resolving these questions can potentially (...) help to establish the possible neural profiles of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) severity, which currently is solely defined by neurobehavioral assessments. Here, we addressed these questions using a novel meta-analysis technique, the colocalization-likelihood estimation (CLE) technique, to quantitatively synthesize the findings of GM atrophy in HIV+ adults. Twenty-one of 386 studies published between 1988 and November 2017 and identified in PubMed were selected, plus four
Men's perspectives on HIV self-testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a qualitative systematic review protocol. The aim of this review is to synthesize the best available evidence on men's perspectives on humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) self-testing in sub-Saharan Africa.Many factors influence men's poor HIV testing uptake in healthcare facilities, including stigma and confidentiality. Due to men's low engagement with healthcare facilities, there remains a high proportion of HIV-positive men who (...) are unaware of their HIV status. The HIV self-testing models enable individuals to conduct and interpret their own HIV test at their own convenient time and private space, removing some of the barriers associated with accessing healthcare facility-based HIV testing services.This review will consider studies that explore men's perspectives and experiences on the use of HIV self-testing in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies with men of any age will be considered. The studies must provide evidence on HIV self