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Top results for hiv

41. The global response and unmet actions for HIV and sex workers.

The global response and unmet actions for HIV and sex workers. Female, male, and transgender sex workers continue to have disproportionately high burdens of HIV infection in low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries in 2018. 4 years since our Lancet Series on HIV and sex work, our updated analysis of the global HIV burden among female sex workers shows that HIV prevalence is unacceptably high at 10·4% (95% CI 9·5-11·5) and is largely unchanged. Comprehensive epidemiological data (...) on HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage are scarce, particularly among transgender women. Sustained coverage of treatment is markedly uneven and challenged by lack of progress on stigma and criminalisation, and sustained human rights violations. Although important progress has been made in biomedical interventions with pre-exposure prophylaxis and early ART feasibility and demonstration projects, limited coverage and retention suggest that sustained investment in community and structural

Lancet2018

42. Rapid urine-based screening for tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients admitted to hospital in Africa (STAMP): a pragmatic, multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

Rapid urine-based screening for tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients admitted to hospital in Africa (STAMP): a pragmatic, multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. BACKGROUND: Current diagnostics for HIV-associated tuberculosis are suboptimal, with missed diagnoses contributing to high hospital mortality and approximately 374 000 annual HIV-positive deaths globally. Urine-based assays have a good diagnostic yield; therefore, we aimed to assess whether urine-based (...) screening in HIV-positive inpatients for tuberculosis improved outcomes. METHODS: We did a pragmatic, multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial in two hospitals in Malawi and South Africa. We included HIV-positive medical inpatients aged 18 years or more who were not taking tuberculosis treatment. We randomly assigned patients (1:1), using a computer-generated list of random block size stratified by site, to either the standard-of-care or the intervention screening group, irrespective

Lancet2018

43. New study suggests risk of birth defects in babies born to women on HIV medicine dolutegravir

New study suggests risk of birth defects in babies born to women on HIV medicine dolutegravir European Medicines Agency - News and Events - New study suggests risk of birth defects in babies born to women on HIV medicine dolutegravir Search for medicines Main navigation News and press releases New study suggests risk of birth defects in babies born to women on HIV medicine dolutegravir Press release 18/05/2018 New study suggests risk of birth defects in babies born to women on HIV medicine (...) dolutegravir While EMA review is ongoing, dolutegravir should not be used in women seeking to become pregnant The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is evaluating preliminary results from a study which found 4 cases of birth defects such as spina bifida (malformed spinal cord) in babies born to mothers who became pregnant while taking dolutegravir. While EMA is assessing the new evidence it has issued the following precautionary advice: Dolutegravir HIV medicines should not be prescribed to women seeking

European Medicines Agency - EPARs2018

46. Depression and Suicidal Ideation Among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Efavirenz Versus Nevirapine in Uganda: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Depression and Suicidal Ideation Among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Efavirenz Versus Nevirapine in Uganda: A Prospective Cohort Study. Background: Evidence regarding potential adverse neuropsychiatric effects of efavirenz is conflicting, and data from sub-Saharan Africa, where 70% of persons living with HIV (PLHIV) reside and efavirenz is used as first-line therapy, are limited. Objective: To estimate associations between efavirenz use and depression and suicidal ideation among PLHIV in Uganda

Annals of Internal Medicine2018

47. Association of Viral Suppression With Lower AIDS-Defining and Non-AIDS-Defining Cancer Incidence in HIV-Infected Veterans: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Association of Viral Suppression With Lower AIDS-Defining and Non-AIDS-Defining Cancer Incidence in HIV-Infected Veterans: A Prospective Cohort Study. Background: Viral suppression is a primary marker of HIV treatment success. Persons with HIV are at increased risk for AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) and several types of non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC), some of which are caused by oncogenic viruses. Objective: To determine whether viral suppression is associated with decreased cancer risk. Design (...) : Prospective cohort. Setting: Department of Veterans Affairs. Participants: HIV-positive veterans (n = 42 441) and demographically matched uninfected veterans (n = 104 712) from 1999 to 2015. Measurements: Standardized cancer incidence rates and Poisson regression rate ratios (RRs; HIV-positive vs. uninfected persons) by viral suppression status (unsuppressed: person-time with HIV RNA levels ≥500 copies/mL; early suppression: initial 2 years with HIV RNA levels <500 copies/mL; long-term suppression

Annals of Internal Medicine2018

48. Nutrition and HIV

Nutrition and HIV Nutrition and HIV | The Ontario HIV Treatment Network The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Nutrition and HIV Nutrition and HIV , , Questions Do people living with symptomatic HIV infection or AIDS require a therapeutic diet? Key take-home messages Nutrition is an important component of care for people living with HIV (1–5). Nutritional needs for people living with HIV can vary; therefore, dietary recommendations should be individualized to meet specific needs (1–3, 6). In general (...) , asymptomatic people living with HIV appear to have greater energy requirements compared to the general population (2, 3, 7–10). After symptomatic periods, it is critical that people living with HIV recover lost weight (6); it is suggested that energy requirements during recovery may be increased by 20-30% (11). Treatment for dyslipidemia, a metabolic complication independently associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (12–14), includes dietary management (6, 15–21). Some systematic reviews (22–25

Ontario HIV Treatment Network2018

50. Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Functions Underestimate Risk in HIV Infection

Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Functions Underestimate Risk in HIV Infection 29444987 2018 05 22 1524-4539 137 21 2018 May 22 Circulation Circulation Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Functions Underestimate Risk in HIV Infection. 2203-2214 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.028975 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is elevated in HIV-infected individuals, with contributions from both traditional and nontraditional risk factors. The accuracy of established CVD risk prediction functions in HIV is uncertain (...) . We sought to assess the performance of 3 established CVD risk prediction functions in a longitudinal cohort of HIV-infected men. The FHS (Framingham Heart Study) functions for hard coronary heart disease (FHS CHD) and atherosclerotic CVD (FHS ASCVD) and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association ASCVD function were applied to the Partners HIV cohort. Risk scores were calculated between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2008. Outcomes included CHD (myocardial

EvidenceUpdates2018

51. Projected Cancer Incidence Rates and Burden of Incident Cancer Cases in HIV-Infected Adults in the United States Through 2030.

Projected Cancer Incidence Rates and Burden of Incident Cancer Cases in HIV-Infected Adults in the United States Through 2030. Background: Persons living with HIV (PLWH) have an elevated risk for certain types of cancer. With modern antiretroviral therapy, PLWH are aging and cancer rates are changing. Objective: To project cancer incidence rates and burden (number of new cancer diagnoses) among adult PLWH in the United States through 2030. Design: Descriptive. Setting: HIV/AIDS Cancer Match (...) Study to project cancer rates and HIV Optimization and Prevention Economics model to project HIV prevalence. Participants: HIV-infected adults. Measurements: Projected cancer rates and burden among HIV-infected adults in the United States by age during 2006 to 2030 for AIDS-defining cancer (ADC)-that is, Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer-and certain types of non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC). All other cancer types were combined. Results: The proportion of adult PLWH

Annals of Internal Medicine2018

52. Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children

Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children

World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines2018

53. Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children

Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children

World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines2018

54. Self-sampling kits to increase HIV testing among black Africans in the UK: the HAUS mixed-methods study

Self-sampling kits to increase HIV testing among black Africans in the UK: the HAUS mixed-methods study Self-sampling kits to increase HIV testing among black Africans in the UK: the HAUS mixed-methods study Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need (...) College London, London, UK 9 BHA for Equality in Health and Social Care, Leeds, UK 10 UK Community Advisory Board, London, UK 11 Centre for the Study of Sexual Health and HIV, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK 12 Virology Department, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK 13 Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK * Corresponding author Email: {{metadata.Journal}} Volume: {{metadata.Volume}}, Issue: {{metadata.Issue}}, Published

NIHR HTA programme2018

55. Integration of postpartum healthcare services for HIV-infected women and their infants in South Africa: A randomised controlled trial

Integration of postpartum healthcare services for HIV-infected women and their infants in South Africa: A randomised controlled trial 29601570 2018 04 15 1549-1676 15 3 2018 Mar PLoS medicine PLoS Med. Integration of postpartum healthcare services for HIV-infected women and their infants in South Africa: A randomised controlled trial. e1002547 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002547 As the number of HIV-infected women initiating lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy increases globally (...) , concerns have emerged regarding low levels of retention in HIV services and suboptimal adherence to ART during the postpartum period. We examined the impact of integrating postpartum ART for HIV+ mothers alongside infant follow-up within maternal and child health (MCH) services in Cape Town, South Africa. We conducted a randomised trial among HIV+ postpartum women aged ≥18 years who initiated ART during pregnancy in the local antenatal care clinic and were breastfeeding when screened before 6 weeks

EvidenceUpdates2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

56. Birth Outcomes for Pregnant Women with HIV Using Tenofovir-Emtricitabine.

Birth Outcomes for Pregnant Women with HIV Using Tenofovir-Emtricitabine. BACKGROUND: In a previous trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) involving pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, those randomly assigned to receive tenofovir, emtricitabine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (TDF-FTC-LPV/r) had infants at greater risk for very premature birth and death within 14 days after delivery than those assigned to receive zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir-boosted (...) among HIV-infected women and their infants in the United States, although power was limited for some comparisons. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

NEJM2018

57. Spending on health and HIV/AIDS: domestic health spending and development assistance in 188 countries, 1995-2015.

Spending on health and HIV/AIDS: domestic health spending and development assistance in 188 countries, 1995-2015. BACKGROUND: Comparable estimates of health spending are crucial for the assessment of health systems and to optimally deploy health resources. The methods used to track health spending continue to evolve, but little is known about the distribution of spending across diseases. We developed improved estimates of health spending by source, including development assistance for health (...) , and, for the first time, estimated HIV/AIDS spending on prevention and treatment and by source of funding, for 188 countries. METHODS: We collected published data on domestic health spending, from 1995 to 2015, from a diverse set of international agencies. We tracked development assistance for health from 1990 to 2017. We also extracted 5385 datapoints about HIV/AIDS spending, between 2000 and 2015, from online databases, country reports, and proposals submitted to multilateral organisations. We used

Lancet2018

58. Single therapy an option for adults with suppressed HIV

Single therapy an option for adults with suppressed HIV NIHR DC | Signal - Single therapy an option for adults with suppressed HIV Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover NIHR Signal Single therapy an option for adults with suppressed HIV Published on 28 June 2016 For adults with HIV who have achieved a low level of the HIV virus after initial treatment, further treatment with a protease inhibitor alone instead of standard triple drug therapy does not reduce future drug options (...) . It is also cost-effective for long-term management of HIV. In this large NIHR funded trial, switching to single therapy after the virus level is suppressed did not lead to treatment resistance compared to triple therapy, as earlier evidence had suggested. A return to detectable levels, called a rebound increase, was ten-fold higher on single therapy but this was managed with a change in drug regime. There was no difference between the groups in terms of quality of life, disease complications or side

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

59. Individual support of nurses using electronic medicine monitors can improve HIV treatment

Individual support of nurses using electronic medicine monitors can improve HIV treatment NIHR DC | Signal - Individual support of nurses using electronic medicine monitors can improve HIV treatment Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover NIHR Signal Individual support of nurses using electronic medicine monitors can improve HIV treatment Published on 10 October 2017 Use of electronic pill bottles that record when they are opened and follow-up discussion of the printed readouts (...) with nurses improved HIV outcomes. It is thought that patients became more reliable in taking the medication, which can have complicated scheduling. Overall, the HIV virus in the blood and the risk of treatment failure were lower in the group of patients who had access to this intervention compared to regular care. In addition to being more effective, the programme also reduced the estimated lifetime cost and disease burden per patient, considering quality and quantity of life lived. The readouts were

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

60. Starting antiretroviral therapy immediately after HIV diagnosis reduces transmission of the virus

Starting antiretroviral therapy immediately after HIV diagnosis reduces transmission of the virus NIHR DC | Signal - Starting antiretroviral therapy immediately after HIV diagnosis reduces transmission of the virus Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Starting antiretroviral therapy immediately after HIV diagnosis reduces transmission of the virus Published on 16 January 2018 Giving antiretroviral therapy to people newly diagnosed with HIV may be an effective and cost-effective (...) way of reducing new infections. Increased HIV testing in at-risk populations may identify more people for treatment and also reduce infection rates. Using data from a number of sources including NIHR funded projects, researchers developed a computer simulation model. The model looked at the relationship between HIV infections, sexual risk behaviours and antiretroviral therapy over a 30 year period. Introduction of antiretroviral therapies and increased condom use were associated with lower rates

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018