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Latest & greatest articles for hiv
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Ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion in humanimmunodeficiencyvirus infected adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hydrocephalus is a common, life threatening complication of humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV)-related central nervous system opportunistic infection which can be treated by insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). In HIV-infected patients there is concern that VPS might be associated with unacceptably high mortality. To identify prognostic indicators, we aimed (...) to compare survival and clinical outcome following VPS placement between all studied causes of hydrocephalus in HIV infected patients.The following electronic databases were searched: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, LILACS, Research Registry, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, African Journals Online, and the OpenGrey database. We included observational studies of HIV-infected patients treated with VPS which reported
Changes in smoking patterns after HIV diagnosis or antiretroviral treatment initiation: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. Tobacco consumption is more life-threatening in people living with humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) than within the general population; therefore, people living with HIV (PLWH) should be highly motivated to take action towards quitting smoking at or after HIV diagnosis. The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to investigate changes in smoking
Association of the polymorphisms of the genes APOC3 (rs2854116), ESR2 (rs3020450), HFE (rs1799945), MMP1 (rs1799750) and PPARG (rs1801282) with lipodystrophy in people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review to identify data reported in the literature concerning the association of APOC3 (rs2854116), ESR2 (rs3020450), HFE (rs1799945), MMP1 (rs1799750) and PPARG (rs1801282) polymorphisms with lipodystrophy in people (...) living with HIV (PLWHIV) on antirretroviral therapy. The research was conducted in six databases and the studies were selected in two steps. First, a search was undertaken in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, World Wide Science, Directory of Open Access Journals, Scielo, Lilacs and Medcarib. The titles and abstracts of 24,859 articles were read to select those that match the elegibilty criteria. Five papers that addressed the association of HAART, lipodystrophy
Verification of HIV Self-Testing Use and Results: A Global Systematic Review. HIV self-testing (HIVST) allows individuals to interpret and report their own test results, thus decentralizing testing. Yet, this decentralization can make it difficult to verify self-testing results, which is important for linkage to care and surveillance. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize methods for verifying HIVST use and results. We followed guidance from the Cochrane Handbook 5.1 on systematic
Undernutrition among Ethiopian adultsÂ living withÂ HIV: a meta-analysis. Malnutrition and humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) are interlaced in a vicious cycle and worsened in low and middle-income countries. In Ethiopia, even though individuals are dually affected by both malnutrition and HIV, there is no a nationwide study showing the proportion of malnutrition among HIV-positive adults. Consequently, this review addressed the pooled burden of undernutrition among HIV-positive adults (...) in a forest plot. Heterogeneity within the included studies was examined using the Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 test. Finally, a random-effects meta-analysis model was computed to estimate the pooled proportion of undernutrition among HIV-positive adults.After reviewing 418 studies, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Findings from 15 studies revealed that the pooled percentage of undernutrition among HIV-positive adults in Ethiopia was 26% (95% CI: 22, 30
analysed were few, insufficient to fully confirm the benefits and recommend supplementation. Therefore, intervention studies are needed to elucidate the role of vitamin D in human protection against HIV infections. (...) Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on HIV-infected adults: a systematic reviewVitamin DÓ¡ Supplementation on HIV-Infected Adults: A Systematic Review. Introduction: much evidence confirms that vitamin D may be associated with an improvement in CD4 cell counts in HIV-infected individuals, where antiretroviral therapy (ART) is used and associated with decreased 25(OH)D levels. Objective: to carry out a systematic review on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on HIV-infected adult patients
Burden of Depression in Outpatient HIV-Infected adults in Sub-Saharan Africa; Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Despite the substantial burden of HIV in Africa, and the knowledge that depression causes worse HIV outcomes, the burden of depression in people living with HIV in Africa is unknown. We searched Pubmed and four other databases using key terms: depression, Africa, HIV, and prevalence from 2008 to 2018. We summarized depression prevalence by country. We estimated the burden (...) of depression using our prevalence data and 2018 UNAIDS HIV estimates. Our search yielded 70 articles across 16 African countries. The overall prevalence of major depression in those HIV-infected using a diagnostic interview was 15.3% (95% CI 12.5-17.1%). We estimate that 3.63 million (99.7% CI 3.15-4.19 million) individuals with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa have major depression and provide country-level estimates. We estimate that 1.57 million (99.7% CI 1.37-1.82 million) DALYs are lost among people
Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with humanimmunodeficiencyvirus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) is one of the leading causes of death among people living with humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV). The current study was aimed to determine the frequency of MAC infection in patients infected with HIV.Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies. All statistical analyses were performed by STATA (...) version 14.From 6,627 retrieved articles, 23 were included in the final analysis. A total of 18,463 patients with HIV were included in the analysis. The frequency of MAC infection in patients with HIV was found to be 10.6% (95% confidence interval, 6.9-14.2).The relatively large fractions of HIV-infected patients were coinfected with MAC, which may poses significant public health problems. Continued progress in the development of rapid diagnostic methods and preventive therapy for MAC should lead
Oral Manifestations in HIV-Positive Children: A Systematic Review. Background: The number of pediatric patients affected by HIV still remains high, mainly in developing countries, where the main cause of infection is vertical transmission from the mother. Even today, a large number of these children do not have access to treatment, and, without proper care, they die in the first few years of life. Objective: The aim of our review was to assess the prevalence of oral hard and soft tissue lesions (...) in HIV-positive pediatric patients by identifying the most common manifestations and the overall impact that they may have on the children's quality of life. Study design: A systematic review of the articles in the English language in PubMed and Scopus was conducted in March 2019 in order to identify the main epidemiological and cross-sectional studies on the topic. Results: Oral diseases are still one of the most common manifestations in HIV-positive pediatric patients, and they often represent
Uptake of couples HIV testing and counselling among heterosexual couples in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. There is a need for further research to inform policy and practice on Couples HIV Testing and Counselling (CHTC) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate and characterise the uptake of CHTC in the SSA. A comprehensive search of published studies was carried out in six electronic databases. Of 30,273 (...) was higher among pregnant women and their partners (OR = 1.66, 95%CI: 1.58-1.84), and when one person in the dyad first tested individually (OR = 3.16, 95%CI: 2.69-3.72) compared to their counterparts. These findings suggest that people may be cautious of testing together as a couple. Further studies are required to explore how couples intend to use HIV-testing services including CHTC and under what circumstances CHTC may be beneficial to individuals in a relationship.
Evidence of sociodemographic heterogeneity across the HIV treatment cascade and progress towards 90-90-90 in sub-Saharan Africa - a systematic review and meta-analysis. Heterogeneity of sociodemographics and risk behaviours across the HIV treatment cascade could influence the public health impact of universal ART in sub-Saharan Africa if those not virologically suppressed are more likely to be part of a risk group contributing to onward infections. Sociodemographic and risk heterogeneity across (...) the treatment cascade has not yet been comprehensively described or quantified and we seek to systematically review and synthesize research on this topic among adults in Africa.We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature in Embase and MEDLINE databases as well as grey literature sources published in English between 2014 and 2018. We included studies that included people living with HIV (PLHIV) aged ≥15 years, and reported a 90-90-90 outcome: awareness of HIV-positive status, ART use among
chronic infections, X4 viruses increase 3-5 folds. We can draw two inferences from our observations: (1) to enhance the utility of Maraviroc in chronic HIV subtype C infections in Africa, prior virus co-receptor determination is needed; (2) on the flip side, research on the efficacy of CXCR4 antagonists for HIV-1-C infections is encouraged. Currently, the use of Maraviroc is very limited in Africa. (...) HIV-1 subtype C predicted co-receptor tropism in Africa: an individual sequence level meta-analysis. Entry inhibitors, such as Maraviroc, hold promise as components of HIV treatment and/or pre-exposure prophylaxis in Africa. Maraviroc inhibits the interaction between HIV Envelope gp120 V3-loop and CCR5 coreceptor. HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1-C) is predominant in Southern Africa and preferably uses CCR5 co-receptor. Therefore, a significant proportion of HIV-1-C CXCR4 utilizing viruses (X4) may
Atrial fibrillation and humanimmunodeficiencyvirus type-1 infection: a systematic review. Implications for anticoagulant and antiarrhythmic therapy. The prevalence and incidence of atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFL) in patients with humanimmunodeficiencyvirus type-1 (HIV-1) infection have been poorly investigated. We performed a systematic review using PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and screening of references, searching for clinical studies reporting (...) on the association between HIV-1 infection and AF/AFL. We also summarized the main interactions of antiretroviral agents with antithrombotic and antiarrhythmic drugs. We found a prevalence of AF/AFL ranging from 2.0% to 5.13% in patients with HIV-1, with an incidence rate of 3.6/1000 person-years. Low CD4+ count (<200-250 cells ml-1 ) and high viral load were predictors of AF/AFL. Regarding drugs interactions, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, integrase inhibitor and maraviroc have the lowest
HIV testing barriers and intervention strategies among men, transgender women, female sex workers and incarcerated persons in the Caribbean: a systematic review. This systematic review summarises evidence on the HIV testing barriers and intervention strategies among Caribbean populations and provides pertinent implications for future research endeavours designed to increase rates of HIV testing in the region.We used a systematic approach to survey all literature published between January 2008 (...) and November 2018 using four electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Global Health). Only peer-reviewed articles published in English that examined HIV testing uptake and interventions in the Caribbean with men, men who have sex with men, female sex workers, transgender women and incarcerated individuals were included.Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Lack of confidentiality, access to testing sites, stigma, discrimination, poverty and low HIV risk perception were
Prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV infection and sociodemographic characteristics of people who inject drugs in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Globally, China is the largest country by population and contributes substantially to the burden of people who inject drugs (PWID). The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) among PWID at the national and subnational level in China and examine characteristics of PWID.We (...) undertook a systematic review of studies published from 2008 to 2017 on HIV, HCV, and HBV seroprevalence among PWID, and characteristics of PWID in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. Meta-analyses were conducted to generate pooled prevalence estimates by province, region, and nationally.Eighty-five papers were included. The pooled HIV, HCV antibody and HBV prevalence among PWID in China was 10.5% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 8.6%-12.5%), 71.6% (65.7%-77.6%) and 19.6% (13.7%-25.5
Men's perspectives on HIV self-testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-synthesis. Despite the many HIV testing models implemented in Africa, the level of HIV testing uptake remains relatively poor, especially among men. The HIV self-testing (HIVST) model offers an additional approach for encouraging men to get tested. This study aimed to synthesise evidence on men's perspectives regarding HIVST in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).The databases searched included PubMed/MEDLINE (...) , American Doctoral Dissertations via EBSCO host; Union Catalogue of Theses and Dissertations; SA ePublications via SABINET Online; World Cat Dissertations; Theses via OCLC; ERIC; CINAH; PsychInfo; Embase, Sociological Abstract, Scopus; and Google Scholar. The World Health Organization (WHO) and The Joint United Nations' Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) websites were further searched. We only extracted qualitative information from the included studies, despite the research method used (qualitative
Selenium supplementation in HIV-infected individuals: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. HIV infection has been linked to selenium deficiency which, in turn, is thought to be associated with a high risk of tuberculosis and mortality in HIV-infected patients. Furthermore, several trials have reported the beneficial effects of selenium supplementation in patients with HIV. However, the evidence remains inconclusive. Our study aimed to investigate whether daily selenium (...) supplementation in patients infected with HIV delays the progression of HIV infection.A systematic review was performed using EMBASE and Medline databases from January 2000 to June 2018. We included randomized clinical trials in adults comparing selenium with placebo and reporting outcomes including its effect on HIV viral load and cluster of differentiation 4 cell count (CD4).Six out of the 507 retrieved articles that met the inclusion criteria were used in this review. Reviewed studies show that daily
Treatment of pre- and confirmed cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women from developing countries: a systematic review. Cervical cancer has become a major public health challenge in developing countries with a reported age-standardised incidence rate of about 17.9/100,000/year and lifetime risks approaching 1 in 20 in some settings. Evidence indicates that HIV-seropositive women are 2 to 12 times more likely to develop precancerous lesions that lead to cervical cancer than HIV-negative women (...) . There is a lack of rigorous evidence on which treatment methods are being utilised for HIV-positive women, and this review aims to synthesise available evidence on treatment modalities for both cervical neoplasia and cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women in developing countries.A systematic review guided by a published protocol was conducted. Online databases including MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and Emerald (via EBSCOhost), PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and health databases, which cover developing
Effectiveness of vaginal microbicides in preventing HIV transmission. To evaluate the evidence on the effectiveness of vaginal microbicides in preventing HIV transmission in women.Systematic review through a comprehensive search of relevant electronic databases for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published through June 2019. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts according to eligibility criteria, then extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies (...) . We conducted a random effects meta-analysis of risk ratios (RR) of HIV infection and assessed heterogeneity using Chi2 and I2 tests. Sources of heterogeneity were investigated through subgroup analysis, publication bias was assessed using funnel plots, and certainty of evidence was graded using GRADEPro software.We included 18 RCTs which enrolled 40,048 sexually-active, HIV-negative, non-pregnant women, aged 16 years and older, mainly from sub-Saharan Africa. The intravaginal ring containing