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Latest & greatest articles for hiv
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HIV and syphilis and sexual risk behaviours among men who have sex with men attending university in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Background This study was conducted to summarise the HIV epidemic, sexual behaviours and HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending university in China.Five databases were searched for student MSM information in English and Chinese language publications. Meta-analyses were performed to calculate the pooled prevalence of HIV (...) and syphilis, pooled mean age at first anal intercourse (AFAI) and the rate of other HIV-related behaviours among MSM attending university in China. Univariate meta-regression and subgroup analysis were conducted to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was measured using Egger's test.Thirty-three articles representing 31 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled HIV prevalence was 4.1% (95% CI 3.1-5.0%). The estimated AFAI was 18.7 years, but 37.5% of students had
Meta-analysis comparing placebo responses in clinical trials of painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy and diabetic polyneuropathy. Background and aims The placebo response has been identified as one factor responsible for the lack of therapeutic trials with positive outcomes in neuropathic pain. Reviews have suggested that certain neuropathic pain conditions, including HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN), exhibit a greater placebo response than other neuropathic aetiologies. If true (...) , such a finding could substantially affect clinical trial design and therapeutic developments for these conditions. This study aimed to identify any difference in placebo response between trials of systemic pharmacological intervention in HIV-SN and a comparable neuropathic condition, diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and to identify factors influencing the placebo response. Methods A systematic review search to identify randomised, double-blind studies of systemic pharmacological interventions for painful HIV-SN
A systematic review of the geospatial barriers to antiretroviral initiation, adherence and viral suppression among people living with HIV. Background With the emergence of antiretroviral therapy (ART), Treatment as Prevention (TasP) has become the cornerstone of both HIV clinical care and HIV prevention. However, despite the efficacy of treatment-based programs and policies, structural barriers to ART initiation, adherence and viral suppression have the potential to reduce TasP effectiveness (...) . These barriers have been studied using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). While previous reviews have examined the use of GIS for HIV testing - an essential antecedent to clinical care - to date, no reviews have summarised the research with respect to other ART-related outcomes.Therefore, the present review leveraged the PubMed database to identify studies that leveraged GIS to examine the barriers to ART initiation, adherence and viral suppression, with the overall goal of understanding how GIS has been
The burden of vaccine-preventable diseases among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. There are knowledge gaps regarding evidence-based research on the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases among humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV)-infected and HIV-exposed children aged <18 years in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore essential to determine the trend and burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. We completed a systematic review (...) and meta-analysis to identify the incidence, prevalence and case-fatality rates (CFR) attributed to various vaccine-preventable diseases among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children in sub-Saharan Africa. The trends in the prevalence of vaccine-preventable diseases among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children were also determined. Nine studies on tuberculosis (TB) were pooled to give an overall incidence rate estimate of 60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 30-70) per 1,000 child-years. The incidence
Vaccination among HIV-infected, HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-uninfected children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence related to vaccine efficacy and effectiveness. Evidence-based approaches were used in making recommendations for vaccination against vaccine-preventable diseases for HIV-infected and HIV-exposed individuals but with limited substantiation. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with randomized-controlled trials (RCTs), cohort and case-control studies (...) that have efficacy and effectiveness of vaccines in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children as outcomes. Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for articles. Efficacy of 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV9) against total vaccine serotype invasive pneumococcal disease was 32% in HIV-infected children and 78% among HIV-uninfected children. Vaccine effectiveness of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine in preventing tuberculosis in HIV-infected children was zero
Self-Disclosure of HIV Status Among Youth Living with HIV: A Global Systematic Review. Self-disclosure of HIV serostatus by youth has been considered an essential component of HIV prevention and medication adherence efforts. Therefore, a comprehensive investigation of disclosure goals, processes, and outcomes is warranted. We conducted a global systematic review in accordance with the 2015 Preferred Items for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis tool to assess HIV self-disclosure
Effects of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Cardiovascular Parameters for People Living With HIV: A Meta-analysis. People living with HIV (PLWH) have limited exercise capacity because of anemia, neuromuscular disorders, and pulmonary limitations. We used a meta-analysis to examine the effect of aerobic and resistance exercise alone and in combination on cardiovascular parameters. Subgroup meta-analyses were conducted and long-term effects of exercise were investigated. A systematic literature
[HIV infection rate in people aged 50 years and older in China: a Meta-analysis]. Objective: The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in people aged ≥50 years is increasing in China, resulting in another focus for AIDS prevention and control. A Meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the HIV infection, its area and time distributions in people aged ≥50 years in China to provide evidence for the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. Methods: Information on HIV infection rate in people aged ≥50 years in China (...) were collected from Wanfang digital database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), PubMed and Embase. The R Studio1.1.456 software was used to calculate the pooled infection rate, and assessed the publication bias. Results: A total of 30 studies which covered 13 provinces were selected. From 2010 to 2018, the pooled HIV infection rate in people aged ≥50 years was 1.68% (95%CI:1.00%-2.79%). The HIV infection rate (2.60%) was higher in eastern China than in central and western China (0.16
Immunological and Virological Responses in Older HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: An Evidence-Based Meta-Analysis. Millions of people living with the HIV have received antiretroviral therapy (ART). Older adults make up a significant portion of these individuals; however, the immunological and virological responses to ART for older patients still need to be clarified.Meta-analysis.In this article, we systematically reviewed research articles published between 2001 and 2018 (...) that reported immunological and virological responses and AIDS-related mortality among HIV- infected adults (including individuals aged 50 years and older) receiving ART, using meta-analysis. ART efficiency was measured using 3 outcomes: (1) immunological response, (2) virological response, and (3) mortality.We identified 4937 citations, and 40 studies were eventually selected to investigate ART efficiency in older HIV-infected patients, comprising more than 888,151 patients initiating ART. We report
Copper intrauterine device use and HIV acquisition in women: a systematic review. To review systematically copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) use and HIV acquisition in women.We searched Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library between database inception and 26 June 2019 for longitudinal studies comparing incident HIV infection among women using an unspecified IUD or Cu-IUD compared with non-hormonal or no contraceptive users, or hormonal contraceptive users. We extracted information from (...) included studies, assessed study quality, and summarised study findings.From 2494 publications identified, seven met our inclusion criteria. One randomised controlled trial (RCT), judged "informative with few limitations", found no statistically significant differences in HIV risk between users of the Cu-IUD and either intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM) or levonorgestrel implant. One observational study, deemed "informative but with important limitations", found no statistically
Chronic kidney disease among humanimmunodeficiencyvirus positive patients on antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV)-infected patients are at risk for renal disease as a consequence of complications of antiretroviral treatment. Particularly, the complication of kidney disease is high in patients who switched to Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. The treatment is associated with nephrotoxicity, decrease in glomerular (...) filtration rate, leading to kidney disease. This review focused on assessing the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on kidney function among HIV-positive patients. Initially, the study protocol was registered on Prospero and given a unique identification number of CRD42018087686. We then conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Google Scholar, the Cochrane library, and Google from 2008 to September 2018. We found 742 study results eligible for this review. After stringent filtration mechanism, 15
Validity of Social Support Scales Utilized Among HIV-Infected and HIV-Affected Populations: A Systematic Review. Social support enhances self-management and prevention of behaviors and is typically assessed using self-report scales; however, little is known about the validity of these scales in HIV-infected or affected populations. This systematic review aims to identify available validated social support scales used in HIV-infected and HIV-affected populations. A systematic literature search (...) validity and construct validity and the least was criterion-related validity. Future research should seek to build evidence for validation for existing scales used in HIV-infected or HIV-affected populations.
A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Adherence Interventions for Women Living with HIV. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the efficacy of women-focused ART adherence interventions. Included studies (a) reported on a behavioral ART adherence intervention for cis-women living with HIV, (b) measured ART adherence as an outcome, and (c) employed a randomized controlled trial design. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis
Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Adults Living with HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. This meta-analysis examined the effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on stress, psychological symptoms, and biomarkers of disease among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Comprehensive searches identified 16 studies that met the inclusion criteria (N = 1059; M age = 42 years; 20% women). Participants had been living with HIV for an average of 8 years (range = < 1-20 years); 65
A Systematic Review of the Current Status of Safer Conception Strategies for HIV Affected Heterosexual Couples in Sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a systematic review of safer conception strategies (SCS) for HIV-affected couples in sub-Saharan Africa to inform evidence-based safer conception interventions. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched fifteen electronic databases using the following inclusion criteria: SCS research in HIV-affected couples; published after 2007; in sub-Saharan Africa (...) -insemination, sperm washing, and voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC). SCS were largely unavailable outside of research settings, except for general availability (i.e., not specifically for safer conception) of ART and VMMC. SCS acceptability was impacted by low client and provider knowledge about safer conception services, stigma around HIV-affected couples wanting children, and difficulty with HIV disclosure in HIV-affected couples. Couples expressed desire to learn more about SCS; however
Intergenerational Interventions for People Living with HIV and Their Families: A Systematic Review. A variety of interventions have been tested targeting people living with HIV (PLH) and their relationships with their children. The purpose of this study was to synthesize evidence on the goals, types, scope, and outcomes of such intergenerational interventions for PLH. Randomized trials targeting PLH alone or together with their children, published in English, with an intergenerational (...) intervention component were included in this review. Thirteen studies met eligibility criteria. The types and goals of interventions varied greatly but often involved educational sessions with groups of PLH, skill-building sessions, or parental disclosure of HIV status among mothers living with HIV; six studies targeted problem behaviors, resilience, and self-esteem among their children. Two studies addressed general family coping with HIV. Seven studies reported positive outcomes as a result
and HIV infection acquisition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent curable STI globally, with the highest incidence and prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). STIs have largely been associated with an increase in HIV acquisition. Our objective was to assess the existing literature available in English regarding the association of Trichomoniasis and HIV-1 acquisition.The review protocol was registered at the International Prospective Register (...) of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) under number CRD42018082702. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases to collect articles measuring the association of Trichomonas vaginalis infection and HIV acquisition and performed a meta-analysis and qualitative synthesis of the literature.We identified 1806 unduplicated citations, of which 18 papers and 1 conference abstract were eligible for inclusion in the review after applying our inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the studies included in the systematic
Stroke in HumanImmunodeficiencyVirus-infected Individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): A Systematic Review. Humanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) infection is associated with worse outcomes after stroke, but this association is less well-described in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We reviewed literature on stroke among people living with HIV (PLWH) in SSA.We systematically reviewed published literature for original clinical stroke studies conducted in SSA that included PLWH. We included studies (...) in the anterior circulation territory. In studies comparing PLWH with HIV-uninfected individuals, PLWH had more frequent coagulopathy, greater stroke severity, (72% versus 36% National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale >13, P = .02), longer hospital length of stay (30.5 versus <10 days), and a higher 30-day mortality rate (23% versus 10.5%, P = .007).Stroke in PLWH in SSA occurs at a young age, in those with advanced disease, and is associated with worse outcomes than in HIV-uninfected comparators. Stroke
Comparison of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among HIV-Infected Older Adults with Younger Adults in Africa: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. As access to antiretroviral treatment in low- and middle-income countries improves, the number of older adults (aged ≥ 50 years) living with HIV is increasing. This study compares the adherence to antiretroviral treatment among older adults to that of younger adults living in Africa. We searched PubMed, Medline, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, Google (...) Scholar and EMBASE for keywords (HIV, ART, compliance, adherence, age, Africa) on publications from 1st Jan 2000 to 1st March 2016. Eligible studies were pooled for meta-analysis using a random-effects model, with the odds ratio as the primary outcome. Twenty studies were included, among them were five randomised trials and five cohort studies. Overall, we pooled data for 148,819 individuals in two groups (older and younger adults) and found no significant difference in adherence between them [odds
Seroprevalence of HIV among pregnant women in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the pooled prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in Ethiopia.PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct and Google scholar databases were searched to retrieve 15 relevant articles based on the inclusion criteria. A total of 13,746 participants were included in the original studies and considered in this analysis. Among subjects, 717 were infected (...) with HIV only, and 12 were HIV-HBV co-infected pregnant women. In this meta-analysis, the pooled prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in Ethiopia was 5.74% (95% CI 3.96-7.53%). Regional analysis showed that 9.50% (95% CI 7.76-11.23%) in Amhara, 4.80% (95% CI 3.12-6.49%) in Addis Ababa, 2.14% (95% CI - 0.54 to 4.82%) in SNNP and 4.48% (95% CI 2.56-6.41%) in Oromia region. Besides, six studies reported HIV-HBV co-infection and the pooled prevalence was 0.68% (95% CI 0.27-1.08%) among pregnant women