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Latest & greatest articles for diazepam
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Comparison of intranasal midazolam with intravenous diazepam for treating febrile seizures in children: prospective randomised study PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?
Comparison of intranasal midazolam with intravenous diazepam for treating febrile seizures in children: prospective randomised study. To compare the safety and efficacy of midazolam given intranasally with diazepam given intravenously in the treatment of children with prolonged febrile seizures.Prospective randomised study.Paediatric emergency department in a general hospital.47 children aged six months to five years with prolonged febrile seizure (at least 10 minutes) during a 12 month (...) period.Intranasal midazolam (0.2 mg/kg) and intravenous diazepam (0.3 mg/kg).Time from arrival at hospital to starting treatment and cessation of seizures.Intranasal midazolam and intravenous diazepam were equally effective. Overall, 23 of 26 seizures were controlled with midazolam and 24 out of 26 with diazepam. The mean time from arrival at hospital to starting treatment was significantly shorter in the midazolam group (3.5 (SD 1.8) minutes, 95% confidence interval 3.3 to 3.7) than the diazepam group (5.5
Magnesium sulphate versus diazepam for eclampsia. A number of different anticonvulsants are used to control eclamptic fits and to prevent future seizures.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of magnesium sulphate compared with diazepam when used for the care of women with eclampsia. Magnesium sulphate is compared with phenytoin and with lytic cocktail (in preparation) in other Cochrane reviews.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth trials register and the Cochrane (...) Controlled Trials Register, 1999 Issue 3.Randomised trials comparing magnesium sulphate (intravenous or intramuscular administration) with diazepam for women with a clinical diagnosis of eclampsia.Trial quality was assessed and data extraction was done by the two reviewers.Five trials involving 1236 women were included. Most of these trials were of good quality. Magnesium sulphate was associated with a substantial reduction in the recurrence of convulsions, when compared to diazepam (relative risk 0.45
Buccal midazolam and rectal diazepam for treatment of prolonged seizures in childhood and adolescence: a randomised trial. Convulsive status epilepticus is the most common neurological medical emergency and has high morbidity and mortality. Early treatment before admission to hospital is best with an effective medication that can be administered safely. We aimed to find out whether there are differences in efficacy and adverse events between buccal administration of liquid midazolam and rectal (...) administration of liquid diazepam in the acute treatment of seizures.At a residential school with on-site medical facilities 42 young people with severe epilepsy were enrolled. Continuous seizures of more than 5 min duration were randomly treated with buccal midazolam or rectal diazepam. If the seizure did not stop within 10 min additional medication chosen by the attending physician was administered. We monitored oxygen saturation and blood pressure for 30 min after treatment. The main outcome measures were
A randomized, prospective, double-blind comparison of midazolam (Versed) and emulsified diazepam (Dizac) for opioid-based, conscious sedation in endoscopic procedures Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.
A comparison of rectal diazepam gel and placebo for acute repetitive seizures. Acute repetitive seizures are readily recognizable episodes involving increased seizure frequency. Urgent treatment is often required. Rectal diazepam gel is a promising therapy.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study of home-based treatment for acute repetitive seizures. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either rectal diazepam gel, at a dosage varying from 0.2 (...) assigned to diazepam and 61 to placebo) with a history of acute repetitive seizures, 91 (47 children and 44 adults) were treated for an exacerbation of seizures during the study period. Diazepam treatment was superior to placebo with regard to the outcome variables related to efficacy: reduced seizure frequency (P<0.001) and improved global assessment of treatment outcome by the care giver (frequency and severity of seizures and drug toxicity) (P<0.001). Post hoc analysis showed diazepam to be superior
A controlled trial of diazepam administered during febrile illnesses to prevent recurrence of febrile seizures. Phenobarbital, once widely prescribed to prevent febrile seizures, is now in disfavor because of its side effects and lack of efficacy. Diazepam, administered only during episodes of fever, may be a safe, effective agent to prevent the recurrence of febrile seizures.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among 406 children (mean age, 24 months) who had (...) at least one febrile seizure. Diazepam (0.33 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo was administered orally every eight hours during all febrile illnesses.During a mean follow-up of 1.9 years (a period during which 90 percent of febrile seizures recur), our intention-to-treat analysis showed a reduction of 44 percent in the risk of febrile seizures per person-year with diazepam (relative risk = 0.56; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.81; P = 0.002). A survival analysis of the length of time
Reducing long-term diazepam prescribing in office practice. A controlled trial of educational visits. We conducted a controlled, statewide trial of the efficacy of an educational visit by a physician counselor in the reduction of diazepam prescribing in outpatient practice. A novel aspect of this trial was the provision of a schedule for gradual withdrawal of long-term diazepam users from drug therapy; 51% of visited doctors attempted to withdraw patients from diazepam therapy and 26% utilized (...) the withdrawal schedule. The entire group of 43 visited doctors reduced the rate of long-term diazepam users in their practice by 18% relative to the control group; the subgroup of doctors who utilized the withdrawal schedule had and even greater reduction of 33%. These results suggest that practicing doctors are concerned with long-term use of diazepam and that the educational visit by another physician is one method for reducing such use.
Clinical importance of the interaction of diazepam and cimetidine. Cimetidine is known to impair the hepatic microsomal oxidation of diazepam, reducing its clearance and prolonging its half-life. We studied the clinical importance of this effect in 10 patients, who were receiving long-term treatment with diazepam for anxiety, tension, or difficulty in sleeping, in an eight-week double-blind controlled study during which the diazepam dosage remained constant. The study was in four two-week (...) phases: base-line or adaptation, coadministration of cimetidine (300 mg) or matching placebo four times daily, crossover to the opposite treatment (placebo or cimetidine), and recovery treatment with diazepam alone. During the cimetidine phase, plasma concentrations of diazepam plus desmethyldiazepam rose an average of 57 per cent (P less than 0.005), then fell when cimetidine was withdrawn. However, there were no significant changes in scores on the digit-symbol-substitution test, a tracking task
Long-term diazepam therapy and clinical outcome. This double-blind study involved the continuous (six to 22 weeks) treatment of 180 chronically anxious outpatients with diazepam, 15 to 40 mg/day. Our findings indicate that a significant number of patients benefit from prolonged diazepam treatment and that tolerance to the anxiolytic effect of diazepam does not develop during a 22-week study period. The duration of continual treatment with sedative-benzodiazepines was clearly the most important
Gradual withdrawal of diazepam after long-term therapy. 41 outpatients who were long-term consumers of diazepam in therapeutic dosage were gradually withdrawn from the drug over 3 months by stepwise reduction. In a double-blind procedure half the patients began withdrawal immediately and half after 8 weeks. Of 36 patients who completed treatment, 16 (44.4%) experienced true withdrawal phenomena on reducing their drugs, but 8 other patients had pseudo-withdrawal reactions at a time when
Double-blind study of lorazepam and diazepam in status epilepticus. Lorazepam was compared with diazepam for the treatment of status epilepticus in a double-blind, randomized trial. Seventy-eight patients with 81 episodes were enrolled. Patients received one or two doses of either 4 mg of lorazepam or 10 mg of diazepam intravenously. Seizures were controlled in 89% of the episodes treated with lorazepam and in 76% treated with diazepam. The times for onset of action of the medications did (...) not differ significantly. Adverse effects occurred in 13% of the lorazepam-treated patients and in 12% of the diazepam-treated patients. Respiratory depression and arrest, the most frequent adverse effects, were treated symptomatically; no adverse sequelae were noted.