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Latest & greatest articles for chlorhexidine
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Hydrogen Peroxide or Chlorhexidine Mouth Rinse After Scaling and Root Planing Are Equally Effective in Improving Clinical Attachment and Gingival Inflammation Levels in Adult Patients with Chronic Periodontitis UTCAT3147, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title Hydrogen Peroxide or Chlorhexidine Mouth Rinse After Scaling and Root Planing Are Equally Effective in Improving Clinical Attachment and Gingival (...) Inflammation Levels in Adult Patients with Chronic Periodontitis Clinical Question In an adult patient with chronic periodontitis, is home use of hydrogen peroxide rinse as an adjunct to scaling and root planing more effective in improving clinical attachment level than chlorhexidine home rinse after scaling and root planing? Clinical Bottom Line Neither a 10-day course of hydrogen peroxide mouth rinse or chlorhexidine mouth rinse after scaling and root planing yielded significant improvements in clinical
Does Chlorhexidine Prevent Alveolar Osteitis After Third Molar Extractions? Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The prevention of alveolar osteitis (AO) in dental extractions remains a controversial issue. Chlorhexidine is one of the most widely studied antiseptics for the prevention of AO. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy and effectiveness of chlorhexidine in the prevention of AO after third molar extractions.The authors searched databases (...) and the references of each article retrieved up to December 2015. Clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using only chlorhexidine were included. The predictor variable was whether chlorhexidine was used in any formulation, concentration, or regimen. The outcome measurement was the incidence of postoperative AO. The authors also recorded variables describing the characteristics of the included studies. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. Meta-analysis of binary data was conducted using
Preoperative chlorhexidine reduces the incidence of surgical site infections in total knee and hip arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis. This meta-analysis aims to assess the incidences of surgical site infection of patients who applied preadmission chlorhexidine skin preparation, versus those who applied the traditional skin preparation before undergoing total knee and hip arthroplasty.A systematic search is carried out through Medline (1966-2016.11), PubMed (1966-2016.11 (...) to -0.01, P < 0.00001) and length of stay (MD = -0.29, 95% CI: -0.48 to -0.11, P = 0.002) between groups.Preoperative chlorhexidine skin preparation appears to reduce the risk of infection, the incidence of revision surgery, and the length of stay for patients undergoing total knee and hip arthroplasty. No adverse effects, such as DVT or PE, appear to be related to chlorhexidine preparation. Due to the limited quality of the evidence currently available, high quality RCTs with better study designs
Preoperative bathing of the surgical site with chlorhexidine for infection prevention: Systematic review with meta-analysis. Preoperative bathing with 4% chlorhexidine is recommended as a measure to prevent surgical site infection (SSI) despite uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of the intervention. This review aimed to assess the effect of bathing with 4% chlorhexidine on the prevention of SSIs in clean surgeries compared with bathing with placebo solution or soap.Preferred Reporting (...) on the Jadad Scale. Data were gathered from 10,655 patients. The global SSI rate was 7.2%. The SSI rate for chlorhexidine bathing, placebo, and soap without antiseptic groups was 7.1%, 9.1%, and 5.1%, respectively. A significant reduction in the infection rates was not found in the comparison between patients subjected to preoperative bathing with 4% chlorhexidine versus placebo solution (relative risk, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.09). The same absence of benefit was observed comparing
Impact of Oral Chlorhexidine on Bloodstream Infection in Critically Ill Patients: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Oropharyngeal overgrowth of microorganisms in the critically ill is a risk factor for lower respiratory tract infection and subsequent invasion of the bloodstream. Oral chlorhexidine has been used to prevent pneumonia, but its effect on bloodstream infection never has been assessed in meta-analyses. The authors explored the effect of oral (...) chlorhexidine on the incidence of bloodstream infection, the causative microorganism, and on all-cause mortality in critically ill patients.Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies.Intensive care unit.The study comprised critically ill patients receiving oral chlorhexidine (test group) and placebo or standard oral care (control group).PubMed and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using the random-effects model.Five studies including 1,655
Efficacy of Chlorhexidine for the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Mucositis in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review with Meta-analyses. Oral mucositis occurs in patients undergoing chemoradiation for cancer treatment. It is believed that colonization of ulcerated mucosa by bacteria, fungi, and virus results in secondary infections. The effect of chlorhexidine on the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in patients with cancer was evaluated in this review.Studies were limited to randomized (...) placebo-controlled trials. Three databases were searched: MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library up to May 25, 2016.Ninety-eight abstracts were evaluated by three independent reviewers. Twelve studies met the criteria for inclusion. Four of these studies were assessed at unclear risk of bias and eight of them at high risk. Of the 12 studies, nine were included in two meta-analyses. Pooled results showed that chlorhexidine did not significantly reduce incidence of mucositis
Chlorhexidine (CHX) May Improve Bond Longevity and Reduce Failure of Resin Composites UTCAT3128, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title Chlorhexidine (CHX) May Improve Bond Longevity and Reduce Failure of Resin Composites Clinical Question Does pretreatment with chlorhexidine (CHX) improve bond longevity in patients with composite restorations? Clinical Bottom Line Pretreatment with chlorhexidine does improve (...) the microtensile strength of the bond in resin composites, but more studies are needed to determine if the results are clinically significant and if CHX extends the life of the restoration. Pretreatment with chlorhexidine has been found to be potentially deleterious only in self-etching adhesive systems. Best Evidence (you may view more info by clicking on the PubMed ID link) PubMed ID Author / Year Patient Group Study type (level of evidence) #1) Dionysopoulos/2016 14 studies that used CHX as pre-treatment
Prevention of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections through chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated washcloth bathing in intensive care units: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised crossover trials. We assessed the impact of 2% daily patient bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) washcloths on the incidence of hospital-acquired (HA) and central line-associated (CLA) bloodstream infections (BSI) in intensive care units (ICUs). We searched randomised studies in Medline, EMBASE
Effects of chlorhexidine varnish on caries during orthodontic treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. This study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorhexidine varnish on the reduction of caries incidence during fixed orthodontic treatment. The literature searches involved The Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, OpenSigle databases and manual searches. The search on OpenSigle did not produce any additional articles. Clinical (...) studies conducted in patients with orthodontic fixed appliances that used professional application of chlorhexidine varnish were included. The effect-size was calculated and a meta-analysis was performed. From 182 abstracts, a total of six articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. After reading the full articles, one was excluded because of lack of a control group. Three articles were used for continuous data analysis, and two articles were used for the dichotomous data analysis. The pooled meta
Chlorhexidine bathing and health care-associated infections among adult intensive care patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Health care-associated infections (HAI) have been shown to increase length of stay, the cost of care, and rates of hospital deaths (Kaye and Marchaim, J Am Geriatr Soc 62(2):306-11, 2014; Roberts and Scott, Med Care 48(11):1026-35, 2010; Warren and Quadir, Crit Care Med 34(8):2084-9, 2006; Zimlichman and Henderson, JAMA Intern Med 173(22):2039-46, 2013 (...) ). Importantly, infections acquired during a hospital stay have been shown to be preventable (Loveday and Wilson, J Hosp Infect 86:S1-70, 2014). In particular, due to more invasive procedures, mechanical ventilation, and critical illness, patients cared for in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at greater risk of HAI and associated poor outcomes. This meta-analysis aims to summarise the effectiveness of chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing, in adult intensive care patients, to reduce infection.A systematic literature
Skin antisepsis with chlorhexidine versus iodine for the prevention of surgical site infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most frequent health care-associated infections. One of the practices to reduce their incidence is preoperative skin antisepsis. Two of the most commonly active components used are chlorhexidine gluconate and povidone iodine. Of 3 reviews conducted between 2010 and 2012 comparing antiseptics, 2 were in favor (...) of chlorhexidine; however, the latest was unable to draw conclusions.To verify whether recent evidence supports the hypothesis that chlorhexidine in preoperative antisepsis is more efficient than other antiseptics in reducing SSI rates.We conducted a systematic review from 2000-2014 in all languages. The primary end point was SSI incidence and secondary skin bacterial colonization.Nineteen studies were included. Meta-analysis were conducted for comparable studies for both outcomes. The results of the meta
Effectiveness of Intraoral Chlorhexidine Protocols in the Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common in critical patients and related with increased morbidity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, with intention-to-treat analysis, of randomized controlled clinical trials that assessed the effectiveness of different intraoral chlorhexidine protocols for the prevention (...) of VAP.Search strategies were developed for the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS databases. MeSH terms were combined with Boolean operators and used to search the databases. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials of mechanically ventilated subjects receiving oral care with chlorhexidine or standard oral care protocols consisting of or associated with the use of a placebo or no chemicals. Pooled estimates of the relative risk and corresponding 95% CIs were calculated with random effects models
Effect of Chlorhexidine Bathing Every Other Day on Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections in the Surgical ICU: A Single-Center, Randomized Controlled Trial To test the hypothesis that compared with daily soap and water bathing, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate bathing every other day for up to 28 days decreases the risk of hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, incisional surgical site infection, and primary bloodstream infection (...) in surgical ICU patients.This was a single-center, pragmatic, randomized trial. Patients and clinicians were aware of treatment-group assignment; investigators who determined outcomes were blinded.Twenty-four-bed surgical ICU at a quaternary academic medical center.Adults admitted to the surgical ICU from July 2012 to May 2013 with an anticipated surgical ICU stay for 48 hours or more were included.Patients were randomized to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine every other day alternating with soap and water
A Randomized, Clinical Trial of Preadmission Chlorhexidine Skin Preparation Following Lower Extremity Total Joint Arthroplasty Periprosthetic infections are devastating postoperative complications of total joint arthroplasty (TJA), with native skin flora commonly identified as causative organisms. We compared 2% chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated cloths to standard-of-care antiseptic bathing in patients before TJA, to evaluate periprosthetic infection risk at 1-year follow-up.This (...) was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial at a single institution of patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty. Chlorhexidine-treated patients (275 arthroplasties) applied 2% chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated cloths the night before and morning of admission. The standard-of-care cohort (279 arthroplasties) bathed with soap and water preadmission. Patients were excluded according to the following: (1) unable to comply with study requirements, (2) pregnant, (3) <18 years, (4) medical history
The Efficacy of Intra-Alveolar 0.2% Chlorhexidine Gel on Alveolar Osteitis: A Meta-Analysis. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of 0.2% chlorhexidine gel in preventing alveolar osteitis following mandibular third molar extraction(s).PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, Science Direct and the references of identified articles were searched for relevant studies that met our eligibility criteria. Treatment effects were combined by meta-analysis using RevMan (...) 5.3 and Stata 12.0 software.We included 11 trials in this meta-analysis. Compared to the control, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel reduced the risk of alveolar osteitis by 62% (RR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.28-0.53, P < 0.00001) following mandibular third molar extraction(s). The subgroup analysis results indicated that 0.2% chlorhexidine gel reduced the risk of alveolar osteitis after mandibular third molar extraction(s) by 75% (RR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.11-0.58) and 56% (RR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.30-0.63) compared
The Mouthwash War - Chlorhexidine vs. Herbal Mouth Rinses: A Meta-Analysis. Mouthwashes are often prescribed in dentistry for prevention and treatment of several oral conditions. In the recent times the use of naturally occurring products what is otherwise known as grandmothers remedy are used on a large scale. This has now called for a newer age of mouth washes but is the new age mouth washes at par with the gold standard or even better than them this study investigates.The aim of the present (...) study was to compare the effect of two broad categories of mouth washes namely chlorhexidine and herbal mouth washes.Eleven randomized control studies were pooled in for the meta-analysis. The search was done from the Pub Med Central listed studies with the use keywords with Boolean operators (chlorhexidine, herbal, mouth wash, randomized control trials). The fixed effects model was used for analysis.This meta-analysis brings to light, the fact that a wide range of newer herbal products are now
In-hospital patient bathing with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate cloths (Sage Products Inc.) for prevention of hospital-acquired infections In-hospital patient bathing with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate cloths (Sage Products Inc.) for prevention of hospital-acquired infections In-hospital patient bathing with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate cloths (Sage Products Inc.) for prevention of hospital-acquired infections HAYES, Inc. Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology (...) assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation HAYES, Inc.. In-hospital patient bathing with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate cloths (Sage Products Inc.) for prevention of hospital-acquired infections. Lansdale: HAYES, Inc.. Directory Publication. 2016 Authors' conclusions Purpose of Technology: The purpose of bathing hospitalized patients with cloths impregnated with the antiseptic 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is, as part of a comprehensive
Neonatal mortality and topical application of chlorhexidine on umbilical cord stump: a meta-analysis of randomized control trials. To examine the efficacy of topical chlorhexidine as an intervention on neonatal umbilical cord stumps and its association with neonatal mortality and omphalitis.Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, IMSEAR, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (...) , I2 = 58%; χ2 = 9.5; P = 0.05). Additionally, decreased incidence in omphalitis was seen in the intervention group as compared to the control group (pooled RR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3-0.7; P < 0.001; random effects model, I2 = 50%; χ2 = 8.0; P = 0.09).Application of chlorhexidine to newborn umbilical cord stumps, significantly reduce the incidences of both neonatal mortality and omphalitis. However, high-quality trials from different regions and obstetric settings may help form more conclusive judgement
Effectiveness of Decolonization With Chlorhexidine and Mupirocin in Reducing Surgical Site Infections: A Systematic Review. Surgical site infections (SSI) are a serious complication of surgery. Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus) is 1 of the most common causative organisms responsible for SSI. Patients who are carriers of methicillin-resistant S aureus and methicillin-sensitive S aureus are at increased risk of developing S aureus-associated SSIs. Decolonization of skin with chlorhexidine (...) and nares with mupirocin may reduce the risk of SSI.The primary object of this systematic review is to examine the effectiveness of preoperative universal decolonization of skin with chlorhexidine and nares with intranasal mupirocin in preventing SSIs.The following databases were searched: Ovid Medline (from 1946 to September week 3, 2015), Embase (1947 to 2015, week 38), EBSCO CINHAL (1980-2015), Cochrane Collaboration for Systematic Reviews, EBM Reviews, and Google Scholar.All experimental
Umbilical cord cleansing with chlorhexidine in neonates: a systematic review. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy of chlorhexidine application to the umbilical cord in neonates. We searched MEDLINE and other electronic databases, and included all RCTs that evaluated the effect of single or multiple chlorhexidine cord applications on the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and/or the incidence of systemic sepsis (...) and omphalitis. A total of six RCTs-four community-based cluster RCTs and two hospital-based trials-were included in the review. Of the four cluster RCTs, three were conducted in South Asia in settings with high rates of home births (>92%) while the fourth, available only as an abstract, was conducted in Africa. Pooled analysis by the 'intention-to-treat' principle showed a significant reduction in NMR after chlorhexidine application (four studies; relative risk (RR) 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76