Latest & greatest articles for children

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Top results for children

81. Vomiting is the most common adverse effect among children and young people sedated for emergency procedures

Vomiting is the most common adverse effect among children and young people sedated for emergency procedures Signal - Vomiting is the most common adverse effect among children and young people sedated for emergency procedures Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Vomiting is the most common adverse effect among children and young people sedated for emergency procedures Published on 27 September 2016 Vomiting is the most common adverse event when sedating a child or young person (...) undergoing a procedure in the emergency department, occurring in 55.5 out of 1,000 cases. Agitation occurred in 17.9/1,000 cases, and hypoxia – lack of oxygen – in 14.8 out of 1,000 cases. Serious breathing problems needing intervention to provide ventilation were rare, but highlight the need for experienced staff when giving sedation to children. This systematic review included 41 studies, six of which were UK-based. It pooled the frequency of adverse events when using different sedation drugs, alone

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

82. Education targeted at both parents and GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing for children

Education targeted at both parents and GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing for children Signal - Education targeted at both parents and GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing for children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Education targeted at both parents and GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing for children Published on 30 August 2016 Interventions aimed at improving communication between GPs and parents could reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for childhood upper (...) , one in the UK. It could be used to improve the training and information provided to help tackle inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. Perhaps most importantly it highlights the need to ensure parental involvement in the process. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Upper respiratory infections include the common cold, tonsillitis and flu. Children tend to get these infections more often than adults because they have yet to build up immunity to them. The majority of upper

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

83. Ultrasound shows potential for confirming the diagnosis of pneumonia in children

Ultrasound shows potential for confirming the diagnosis of pneumonia in children Diagnosis of pneumonia in children may be confirmed by ultrasound Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Ultrasound shows potential for confirming the diagnosis of pneumonia in children Published on 24 July 2018 doi: Ultrasound scans of the lungs can be more accurate than chest X-rays for diagnosing pneumonia in children in some circumstances. A review of the published evidence found that lung (...) ultrasound was more sensitive (missed fewer cases) and about as specific (gave about the same number of false alarms) as chest X-ray, when used to confirm suspected community-acquired pneumonia in children. While pneumonia is a clinical diagnosis, X-ray is often used for confirmation. Ultrasound also spares the child from the radiation associated with X-ray imaging. Many emergency departments already use ultrasound, so it might be practical to train paediatric staff to use it as a first-line test

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

84. Cartoons are promising for reducing dental anxiety in children

Cartoons are promising for reducing dental anxiety in children Dental anxiety in children may be reduced through cartoons Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Cartoons are promising for reducing dental anxiety in children Published on 3 July 2018 doi: Cartoons delivered on laptops, projectors or 3D goggles with sound can help distract anxious children who fear dental procedures. Dental anxiety can prevent children from attending the dentist for care, and this type (...) of distraction could offer a useful tool to help them. This review looked at a range of audiovisual approaches tested in trials of healthy children receiving dental treatment under local anaesthetic. The children were assessed for physiological measures related to emotional state (such as pulse rate), anxiety and observed behaviour. Childhood dental anxiety is a common problem, and these distraction approaches sound promising, safe and relatively easy to implement. Share your views on the research. Why

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

85. Vaccination likely to reduce flu in healthy children

Vaccination likely to reduce flu in healthy children Vaccination likely to reduce flu in healthy children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Vaccination likely to reduce influenza in healthy children Published on 22 May 2018 doi: In healthy children aged two to 16, vaccines are likely to reduce laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza and may reduce the risk of influenza-like illness compared to placebo. Seven children need to receive the live vaccine to prevent one case (...) of confirmed influenza. Twenty children need to be vaccinated to prevent one case of influenza-like illness. This updated Cochrane review included 41 trials of either live attenuated (weakened) or inactivated influenza vaccines, with over 200,000 participants. The evidence gave a moderate to high level of certainty about their effects on influenza, but only a low certainty about the effect on influenza-like illness due to problems in reporting and data capture. The finding supports the benefits

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

86. Lorazepam confirmed as first-line treatment for stopping prolonged seizures in children

Lorazepam confirmed as first-line treatment for stopping prolonged seizures in children Lorazepam confirmed as first-line treatment for stopping prolonged seizures in children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Lorazepam confirmed as first-line treatment for stopping prolonged seizures in children Published on 17 April 2018 Intravenous lorazepam is as effective as intravenous diazepam for stopping children’s tonic-clonic seizures in hospital. Lorazepam also results in fewer (...) breathing problems than diazepam. Giving antiepileptic drugs intravenously generally stops seizures more quickly than giving the drugs buccally (in the cheek), intranasally (in the nose) or rectally. However, this effect can be cancelled out if administering the drug into the veins takes too long. Two of the 18 included trials were carried out in the UK, but they were all carried out in large children’s hospitals or departments similar to the UK. The new evidence confirms advice in the existing NICE

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

87. Adding emollients to the bath unlikely to help children with eczema

Adding emollients to the bath unlikely to help children with eczema Adding emollients to the bath unlikely to help children with eczema Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Adding emollients to the bath unlikely to help children with eczema Published on 7 August 2018 doi: Adding emollients to children’s bath water does not significantly improve their eczema. Prescriptions should focus on emollients applied directly to the skin or used as a soap substitute. Using emollients (...) to lock in moisture is the standard treatment for childhood eczema. These can be applied in a number of ways, but there is uncertainty surrounding their use as a bath additive. This NIHR-funded year-long trial included 482 children, mostly with mild eczema. It found there was little change in skin-related outcomes or quality of life between those that did or did not have emollients poured into their bath. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Eczema often starts in childhood

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

88. General hospital care for children with learning disabilities has scope for improvement

General hospital care for children with learning disabilities has scope for improvement General hospital care for children with learning disabilities has scope for improvement Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover General hospital care for children with learning disabilities has scope for improvement Published on 18 September 2018 doi: Less than half of NHS staff surveyed said they were routinely informed that a child has learning disabilities through a dedicated flagging system (...) on admission. Many general hospital staff lack confidence and organisational support in providing care for children and young people with learning disabilities. In an NIHR national hospital staff-awareness survey, staff were uncertain or unaware of local policy and practice. Only half of the children’s hospitals had a learning disability nurse, and where they did exist, there was disparity in the status and importance attributed to the role. This is likely to prevent the needs of these children being fully

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

89. Parents of children with disabilities: A systematic review of parenting interventions and self-efficacy

Parents of children with disabilities: A systematic review of parenting interventions and self-efficacy 30473997 2018 11 28 2223-9170 7 2018 African journal of disability Afr J Disabil Parents of children with disabilities: A systematic review of parenting interventions and self-efficacy. 437 10.4102/ajod.v7i0.437 An increasing body of empirical evidence suggests that early intervention has positive outcomes for parents of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Parental self-efficacy (...) has been used as an outcome measure in some empirical studies; however, there is a lack of evidence of the impact of parent training programmes on parenting self-efficacy beliefs. This systematic review sought to assess the effectiveness of parenting interventions to increase parental self-efficacy levels in parents of young children with neurodevelopmental disabilities. We conducted a broad literature search, which included grey literature, such as dissertations and unpublished conference

African journal of disability2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

90. Sepsis in children

Sepsis in children Sepsis in children - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Sepsis in children Last reviewed: September 2018 Last updated: October 2018 Summary Initial clinical presentation may be non-specific (especially in younger age groups). Given the time-critical nature of severe sepsis and septic shock, when sepsis is suspected on clinical grounds it is usually best to initiate sepsis investigations (...) . N Engl J Med. 2013 Aug 29;369(9):840-51. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1208623 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23984731?tool=bestpractice.com It encompasses a clinical spectrum of severity, including severe sepsis, septic shock, and multi-organ failure. Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A; International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis. International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med

BMJ Best Practice2018

91. Parent-mediated interventions for promoting communication and language development in young children with Down syndrome.

Parent-mediated interventions for promoting communication and language development in young children with Down syndrome. BACKGROUND: Communication and language development are areas of particular weakness for young children with Down syndrome. Caregivers' interaction with children influences language development, so many early interventions involve training parents how best to respond to their children and provide appropriate language stimulation. Thus, these interventions are mediated through (...) parents, who in turn are trained and coached in the implementation of interventions by clinicians. As the interventions involve a considerable commitment from clinicians and families, we undertook this review to synthesise the evidence of their effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of parent-mediated interventions for improving communication and language development in young children with Down syndrome. Other outcomes are parental behaviour and responsivity, parental stress and satisfaction

Cochrane2018

92. Short-term and long-term effects of caesarean section on the health of women and children.

Short-term and long-term effects of caesarean section on the health of women and children. A caesarean section (CS) can be a life-saving intervention when medically indicated, but this procedure can also lead to short-term and long-term health effects for women and children. Given the increasing use of CS, particularly without medical indication, an increased understanding of its health effects on women and children has become crucial, which we discuss in this Series paper. The prevalence (...) development, an increased likelihood of allergy, atopy, and asthma, and reduced intestinal gut microbiome diversity. The persistence of these risks into later life is less well investigated, although an association between CS use and greater incidence of late childhood obesity and asthma are frequently reported. There are few studies that focus on the effects of CS on cognitive and educational outcomes. Understanding potential mechanisms that link CS with childhood outcomes, such as the role

Lancet2018

93. Inflammation and psychopathology in children following PICU admission: an exploratory study

Inflammation and psychopathology in children following PICU admission: an exploratory study 30301824 2018 11 28 1468-960X 21 4 2018 Nov Evidence-based mental health Evid Based Ment Health Inflammation and psychopathology in children following PICU admission: an exploratory study. 139-144 10.1136/ebmental-2018-300027 Survivors of critical illness in childhood commonly display subsequent psychiatric symptoms including emotional and behavioural difficulties, and manifestations (...) of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Anomalies in inflammatory profiles are an established finding in these childhood psychiatric conditions. This exploratory study aimed to investigate whether abnormal peripheral blood inflammatory markers measured during paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission were associated with psychiatric symptoms after discharge. We performed a prospective observational cohort study on 71 children with septic illness, meningoencephalitis and other critical disorders admitted to two PICUs

Evidence-Based Mental Health2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

94. A simple test can help point to serious illness in children

A simple test can help point to serious illness in children Signal - A simple test can help point to serious illness in children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover A simple test can help point to serious illness in children Published on 18 November 2015 This review found that the capillary refill test was useful in diagnosing serious illness or dehydration in children. The quick test, done by pressing on the nail bed, is used to monitor blood flow. The review of studies (...) testing its accuracy showed it can be used as a “red-flag” to identify (i.e.rule in) potential serious disease when present. The test’s low sensitivity means that a normal capillary refill time should not reassure clinicians that serious illness is absent (i.e.rule it out). Children with prolonged capillary refill time were shown to have a four-fold risk of dying compared with children with normal capillary refill time. However, other clinical markers of risk were more useful for prediction

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

95. Assessment of nausea and vomiting in children

Assessment of nausea and vomiting in children Assessment of nausea and vomiting in children - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of nausea and vomiting in children Last reviewed: September 2018 Last updated: October 2018 Summary Nausea and vomiting are very common symptoms in the paediatric population. Whether presenting in the emergency department or in an outpatient clinic (...) , usually postprandial, emesis of food content. According to the Rome foundation, chronic nausea is defined as bothersome nausea occurring several times per week, not usually associated with vomiting, in the absence of endoscopic or metabolic disease. These criteria must be fulfilled for the last 3 months, with the symptom onset at least 6 months prior to diagnosis. Hyams JS, Di Lorenzo C, Saps M, et al. Functional disorders: children and adolescents. Gastroenterology. 2016 Feb 15;150:1456-68. http

BMJ Best Practice2018

96. Psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents.

Psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents. BACKGROUND: This is the second update of a Cochrane Review (Issue 4, 2006). Pain and distress from needle-related procedures are common during childhood and can be reduced through use of psychological interventions (cognitive or behavioral strategies, or both). Our first review update (Issue 10, 2013) showed efficacy of distraction and hypnosis for needle-related pain and distress (...) in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched six electronic databases for relevant trials: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; PsycINFO; Embase; Web of Science (ISI Web of Knowledge); and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). We sent requests for additional studies to pediatric pain and child

Cochrane2018

97. Urinary tract infections in children

Urinary tract infections in children Urinary tract infections in children - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Urinary tract infections in children Last reviewed: September 2018 Last updated: October 2018 Summary A common diagnosis among infants and children; if missed, can lead to renal scarring, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease. Non-specific signs and symptoms may herald UTI, and practitioners (...) should have a high index of suspicion in a febrile infant. An appropriately obtained urine specimen can confirm the diagnosis and pathogen; urine culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing will define the appropriate antibiotic for treatment. Of children <6 years of age with first-time UTI, 25% have vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and, of those, 25% have significant VUR (grade IV or V), placing them at risk for renal scarring. Infection can recur in young infants and those with voiding dysfunction

BMJ Best Practice2018

98. Pushing the envelope through the Global Financing Facility: potential impact of mobilising additional support to scale-up life-saving interventions for women, children and adolescents in 50 high-burden countries

Pushing the envelope through the Global Financing Facility: potential impact of mobilising additional support to scale-up life-saving interventions for women, children and adolescents in 50 high-burden countries 30498583 2018 12 03 2059-7908 3 5 2018 BMJ global health BMJ Glob Health Pushing the envelope through the Global Financing Facility: potential impact of mobilising additional support to scale-up life-saving interventions for women, children and adolescents in 50 high-burden countries (...) . e001126 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001126 The Global Financing Facility (GFF) was launched to accelerate progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through scaled and sustainable financing for Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health and Nutrition (RMNCAH-N) outcomes. Our objective was to estimate the potential impact of increased resources available to improve RMNCAH-N outcomes, from expanding and scaling up GFF support in 50 high-burden countries. The potential impact

BMJ global health2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

99. Transdermal fentanyl patches: life-threatening and fatal opioid toxicity from accidental exposure, particularly in children

Transdermal fentanyl patches: life-threatening and fatal opioid toxicity from accidental exposure, particularly in children Transdermal fentanyl patches: life-threatening and fatal opioid toxicity from accidental exposure, particularly in children - GOV.UK GOV.UK uses cookies to make the site simpler. Search Transdermal fentanyl patches: life-threatening and fatal opioid toxicity from accidental exposure, particularly in children Provide clear information to patients and caregivers about how (...) on the patch packaging, the carton, and in the accompanying Patient Information Leaflet. To help you discuss this with patients, we have produced an updated ( ) Urgent medical attention should be sought for anyone accidentally exposed to a fentanyl patches. Administration of naloxone may help to reverse an opioid overdose. Storage and disposal of fentanyl patches Fentanyl patches should be stored out of sight and reach of children. After use, patches should be folded so that the adhesive side of the patch

MHRA Drug Safety Update2018

100. Autism spectrum disorder: Warning signs, detection, diagnosis and assessment in children and adolescents

Autism spectrum disorder: Warning signs, detection, diagnosis and assessment in children and adolescents Haute Autorité de Santé - Trouble du spectre de l’autisme - Signes d’alerte, repérage, diagnostic et évaluation chez l’enfant et l’adolescent Développer la qualité dans le champ sanitaire, social et médico-social Recherche La HAS Accréditation & Certification Outils, Guides & Méthodes Recommandation de bonne pratique Trouble du spectre de l’autisme - Signes d’alerte, repérage, diagnostic et

HAS Guidelines2018