Latest & greatest articles for children

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Top results for children

61. Central lines coated with antibiotics reduce bloodstream infections in children

Central lines coated with antibiotics reduce bloodstream infections in children Signal - Central lines coated with antibiotics reduce bloodstream infections in children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Central lines coated with antibiotics reduce bloodstream infections in children Published on 10 May 2016 Children in intensive care had lower rates of infection when using antibiotic coated central lines (also called central venous catheters) compared to standard central (...) lines or those coated with heparin – an anti-clotting agent. Antibiotic or heparin coated central lines have long been used in adults to reduce catheter-associated bloodstream infections, but evidence for benefits in children was lacking. This NIHR funded trial provides evidence that use of antibiotic coated central lines could reduce bloodstream infections in paediatric intensive care units. The researchers say cost-effectiveness, based on six-month hospital resource data, will be reported

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

62. Regular use of fluoride mouthrinse is an option to reduce tooth decay in school children

Regular use of fluoride mouthrinse is an option to reduce tooth decay in school children Signal - Regular use of fluoride mouthrinse is an option to reduce tooth decay in school children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Regular use of fluoride mouthrinse is an option to reduce tooth decay in school children Published on 8 November 2016 A reduction in tooth decay of about 27% can be expected from the supervised regular use of fluoride mouthrinsing by school children (...) . Tooth decay has a significant impact on health and wellbeing. It is more common in disadvantaged communities and can be prevented by good oral hygiene and diet with reduced sugar intake. Children and young people are encouraged to brush their teeth regularly with fluoride toothpaste and some schools in the UK have supervised programmes to encourage this. This review included 37 trials where children received supervised mouthrinsing in schools, but did not compare this with supervised toothbrushing

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

63. Simple approaches to weight management of children and adolescents in primary care may not work

Simple approaches to weight management of children and adolescents in primary care may not work Signal - Simple approaches to weight management of children and adolescents in primary care may not work Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Simple approaches to weight management of children and adolescents in primary care may not work Published on 8 November 2016 Brief education and motivational interventions delivered by primary care professionals in several short consultations (...) had only a marginal effect on weight loss among overweight or mildly obese children and young people. Obesity can cause immediate health and wellbeing issues in children but also has significant implications for their long term health. Given that many of these health problems will present in a primary care setting, commissioners have been interested in primary care based programmes to tackle obesity and the “intensity” of the intervention required to make a difference. The findings that a few

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

64. Fluoride-based treatments alone are not enough to stop tooth decay in young children

Fluoride-based treatments alone are not enough to stop tooth decay in young children Signal - Fluoride-based treatments alone are not enough to stop tooth decay in young children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Fluoride-based treatments alone are not enough to stop tooth decay in young children Published on 22 November 2016 Providing a set of additional fluoride-based treatments at dental appointments for children aged two to three years was no better than health education (...) at preventing tooth decay. A range of public health measures to reduce sugar consumption are also needed. The treatment involved providing fluoride toothpaste and applying a fluoride varnish to the teeth at each six-monthly appointment for three years. This large NIHR-funded trial in Northern Ireland found no difference in the number of children developing tooth decay, though children in the treatment arm had fewer teeth showing signs of decay. The estimated cost was £2,093 per child who avoided tooth decay

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

65. “Triptans” can relieve migraines in children and adolescents

“Triptans” can relieve migraines in children and adolescents Signal - “Triptans” can relieve migraines in children and adolescents Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover “Triptans” can relieve migraines in children and adolescents Published on 13 September 2016 Triptans, a migraine medication, relieve migraine headache completely within two hours compared to placebo. Ibuprofen was also effective but less well studied. This review was also reassuring in that any side effects (...) of treatment were mild. Most evidence identified in this Cochrane review was for sumatriptan, a commonly prescribed treatment for adults, compared to placebo or dummy pills. A few studies examined other triptans or other painkillers, such as ibuprofen or paracetamol against placebo in children and adults. The findings support current guideline recommendations to prescribe nasal triptans for migraine in adolescents. Only nasal preparations are currently licensed for adolescents, whereas oral administration

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

66. Vomiting is the most common adverse effect among children and young people sedated for emergency procedures

Vomiting is the most common adverse effect among children and young people sedated for emergency procedures Signal - Vomiting is the most common adverse effect among children and young people sedated for emergency procedures Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Vomiting is the most common adverse effect among children and young people sedated for emergency procedures Published on 27 September 2016 Vomiting is the most common adverse event when sedating a child or young person (...) undergoing a procedure in the emergency department, occurring in 55.5 out of 1,000 cases. Agitation occurred in 17.9/1,000 cases, and hypoxia – lack of oxygen – in 14.8 out of 1,000 cases. Serious breathing problems needing intervention to provide ventilation were rare, but highlight the need for experienced staff when giving sedation to children. This systematic review included 41 studies, six of which were UK-based. It pooled the frequency of adverse events when using different sedation drugs, alone

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

67. Education targeted at both parents and GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing for children

Education targeted at both parents and GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing for children Signal - Education targeted at both parents and GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing for children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Education targeted at both parents and GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing for children Published on 30 August 2016 Interventions aimed at improving communication between GPs and parents could reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for childhood upper (...) , one in the UK. It could be used to improve the training and information provided to help tackle inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. Perhaps most importantly it highlights the need to ensure parental involvement in the process. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Upper respiratory infections include the common cold, tonsillitis and flu. Children tend to get these infections more often than adults because they have yet to build up immunity to them. The majority of upper

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

68. Ultrasound shows potential for confirming the diagnosis of pneumonia in children

Ultrasound shows potential for confirming the diagnosis of pneumonia in children Diagnosis of pneumonia in children may be confirmed by ultrasound Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Ultrasound shows potential for confirming the diagnosis of pneumonia in children Published on 24 July 2018 doi: Ultrasound scans of the lungs can be more accurate than chest X-rays for diagnosing pneumonia in children in some circumstances. A review of the published evidence found that lung (...) ultrasound was more sensitive (missed fewer cases) and about as specific (gave about the same number of false alarms) as chest X-ray, when used to confirm suspected community-acquired pneumonia in children. While pneumonia is a clinical diagnosis, X-ray is often used for confirmation. Ultrasound also spares the child from the radiation associated with X-ray imaging. Many emergency departments already use ultrasound, so it might be practical to train paediatric staff to use it as a first-line test

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

69. Cartoons are promising for reducing dental anxiety in children

Cartoons are promising for reducing dental anxiety in children Dental anxiety in children may be reduced through cartoons Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Cartoons are promising for reducing dental anxiety in children Published on 3 July 2018 doi: Cartoons delivered on laptops, projectors or 3D goggles with sound can help distract anxious children who fear dental procedures. Dental anxiety can prevent children from attending the dentist for care, and this type (...) of distraction could offer a useful tool to help them. This review looked at a range of audiovisual approaches tested in trials of healthy children receiving dental treatment under local anaesthetic. The children were assessed for physiological measures related to emotional state (such as pulse rate), anxiety and observed behaviour. Childhood dental anxiety is a common problem, and these distraction approaches sound promising, safe and relatively easy to implement. Share your views on the research. Why

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

70. Vaccination likely to reduce flu in healthy children

Vaccination likely to reduce flu in healthy children Vaccination likely to reduce flu in healthy children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Vaccination likely to reduce influenza in healthy children Published on 22 May 2018 doi: In healthy children aged two to 16, vaccines are likely to reduce laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza and may reduce the risk of influenza-like illness compared to placebo. Seven children need to receive the live vaccine to prevent one case (...) of confirmed influenza. Twenty children need to be vaccinated to prevent one case of influenza-like illness. This updated Cochrane review included 41 trials of either live attenuated (weakened) or inactivated influenza vaccines, with over 200,000 participants. The evidence gave a moderate to high level of certainty about their effects on influenza, but only a low certainty about the effect on influenza-like illness due to problems in reporting and data capture. The finding supports the benefits

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

71. Lorazepam confirmed as first-line treatment for stopping prolonged seizures in children

Lorazepam confirmed as first-line treatment for stopping prolonged seizures in children Lorazepam confirmed as first-line treatment for stopping prolonged seizures in children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Lorazepam confirmed as first-line treatment for stopping prolonged seizures in children Published on 17 April 2018 Intravenous lorazepam is as effective as intravenous diazepam for stopping children’s tonic-clonic seizures in hospital. Lorazepam also results in fewer (...) breathing problems than diazepam. Giving antiepileptic drugs intravenously generally stops seizures more quickly than giving the drugs buccally (in the cheek), intranasally (in the nose) or rectally. However, this effect can be cancelled out if administering the drug into the veins takes too long. Two of the 18 included trials were carried out in the UK, but they were all carried out in large children’s hospitals or departments similar to the UK. The new evidence confirms advice in the existing NICE

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

72. Adding emollients to the bath unlikely to help children with eczema

Adding emollients to the bath unlikely to help children with eczema Adding emollients to the bath unlikely to help children with eczema Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Adding emollients to the bath unlikely to help children with eczema Published on 7 August 2018 doi: Adding emollients to children’s bath water does not significantly improve their eczema. Prescriptions should focus on emollients applied directly to the skin or used as a soap substitute. Using emollients (...) to lock in moisture is the standard treatment for childhood eczema. These can be applied in a number of ways, but there is uncertainty surrounding their use as a bath additive. This NIHR-funded year-long trial included 482 children, mostly with mild eczema. It found there was little change in skin-related outcomes or quality of life between those that did or did not have emollients poured into their bath. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Eczema often starts in childhood

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

73. General hospital care for children with learning disabilities has scope for improvement

General hospital care for children with learning disabilities has scope for improvement General hospital care for children with learning disabilities has scope for improvement Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover General hospital care for children with learning disabilities has scope for improvement Published on 18 September 2018 doi: Less than half of NHS staff surveyed said they were routinely informed that a child has learning disabilities through a dedicated flagging system (...) on admission. Many general hospital staff lack confidence and organisational support in providing care for children and young people with learning disabilities. In an NIHR national hospital staff-awareness survey, staff were uncertain or unaware of local policy and practice. Only half of the children’s hospitals had a learning disability nurse, and where they did exist, there was disparity in the status and importance attributed to the role. This is likely to prevent the needs of these children being fully

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

74. Parents of children with disabilities: A systematic review of parenting interventions and self-efficacy

Parents of children with disabilities: A systematic review of parenting interventions and self-efficacy 30473997 2018 11 28 2223-9170 7 2018 African journal of disability Afr J Disabil Parents of children with disabilities: A systematic review of parenting interventions and self-efficacy. 437 10.4102/ajod.v7i0.437 An increasing body of empirical evidence suggests that early intervention has positive outcomes for parents of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Parental self-efficacy (...) has been used as an outcome measure in some empirical studies; however, there is a lack of evidence of the impact of parent training programmes on parenting self-efficacy beliefs. This systematic review sought to assess the effectiveness of parenting interventions to increase parental self-efficacy levels in parents of young children with neurodevelopmental disabilities. We conducted a broad literature search, which included grey literature, such as dissertations and unpublished conference

African journal of disability2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

75. Sepsis in children

Sepsis in children Sepsis in children - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Sepsis in children Last reviewed: September 2018 Last updated: October 2018 Summary Initial clinical presentation may be non-specific (especially in younger age groups). Given the time-critical nature of severe sepsis and septic shock, when sepsis is suspected on clinical grounds it is usually best to initiate sepsis investigations (...) . N Engl J Med. 2013 Aug 29;369(9):840-51. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1208623 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23984731?tool=bestpractice.com It encompasses a clinical spectrum of severity, including severe sepsis, septic shock, and multi-organ failure. Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A; International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis. International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med

BMJ Best Practice2018

76. Parent-mediated interventions for promoting communication and language development in young children with Down syndrome.

Parent-mediated interventions for promoting communication and language development in young children with Down syndrome. BACKGROUND: Communication and language development are areas of particular weakness for young children with Down syndrome. Caregivers' interaction with children influences language development, so many early interventions involve training parents how best to respond to their children and provide appropriate language stimulation. Thus, these interventions are mediated through (...) parents, who in turn are trained and coached in the implementation of interventions by clinicians. As the interventions involve a considerable commitment from clinicians and families, we undertook this review to synthesise the evidence of their effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of parent-mediated interventions for improving communication and language development in young children with Down syndrome. Other outcomes are parental behaviour and responsivity, parental stress and satisfaction

Cochrane2018

77. Short-term and long-term effects of caesarean section on the health of women and children.

Short-term and long-term effects of caesarean section on the health of women and children. A caesarean section (CS) can be a life-saving intervention when medically indicated, but this procedure can also lead to short-term and long-term health effects for women and children. Given the increasing use of CS, particularly without medical indication, an increased understanding of its health effects on women and children has become crucial, which we discuss in this Series paper. The prevalence (...) development, an increased likelihood of allergy, atopy, and asthma, and reduced intestinal gut microbiome diversity. The persistence of these risks into later life is less well investigated, although an association between CS use and greater incidence of late childhood obesity and asthma are frequently reported. There are few studies that focus on the effects of CS on cognitive and educational outcomes. Understanding potential mechanisms that link CS with childhood outcomes, such as the role

Lancet2018

78. Inflammation and psychopathology in children following PICU admission: an exploratory study

Inflammation and psychopathology in children following PICU admission: an exploratory study 30301824 2018 11 28 1468-960X 21 4 2018 Nov Evidence-based mental health Evid Based Ment Health Inflammation and psychopathology in children following PICU admission: an exploratory study. 139-144 10.1136/ebmental-2018-300027 Survivors of critical illness in childhood commonly display subsequent psychiatric symptoms including emotional and behavioural difficulties, and manifestations (...) of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Anomalies in inflammatory profiles are an established finding in these childhood psychiatric conditions. This exploratory study aimed to investigate whether abnormal peripheral blood inflammatory markers measured during paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission were associated with psychiatric symptoms after discharge. We performed a prospective observational cohort study on 71 children with septic illness, meningoencephalitis and other critical disorders admitted to two PICUs

Evidence-Based Mental Health2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

79. A simple test can help point to serious illness in children

A simple test can help point to serious illness in children Signal - A simple test can help point to serious illness in children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover A simple test can help point to serious illness in children Published on 18 November 2015 This review found that the capillary refill test was useful in diagnosing serious illness or dehydration in children. The quick test, done by pressing on the nail bed, is used to monitor blood flow. The review of studies (...) testing its accuracy showed it can be used as a “red-flag” to identify (i.e.rule in) potential serious disease when present. The test’s low sensitivity means that a normal capillary refill time should not reassure clinicians that serious illness is absent (i.e.rule it out). Children with prolonged capillary refill time were shown to have a four-fold risk of dying compared with children with normal capillary refill time. However, other clinical markers of risk were more useful for prediction

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

80. Assessment of nausea and vomiting in children

Assessment of nausea and vomiting in children Assessment of nausea and vomiting in children - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of nausea and vomiting in children Last reviewed: September 2018 Last updated: October 2018 Summary Nausea and vomiting are very common symptoms in the paediatric population. Whether presenting in the emergency department or in an outpatient clinic (...) , usually postprandial, emesis of food content. According to the Rome foundation, chronic nausea is defined as bothersome nausea occurring several times per week, not usually associated with vomiting, in the absence of endoscopic or metabolic disease. These criteria must be fulfilled for the last 3 months, with the symptom onset at least 6 months prior to diagnosis. Hyams JS, Di Lorenzo C, Saps M, et al. Functional disorders: children and adolescents. Gastroenterology. 2016 Feb 15;150:1456-68. http

BMJ Best Practice2018