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Latest & greatest articles for children
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on children or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents - assessment of adverse events in non-randomised studies. BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. The psychostimulant methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication to treat it. Several studies have investigated the benefits of methylphenidate, showing possible favourable effects on ADHD symptoms, but the true magnitude (...) of the effect is unknown. Concerning adverse events associated with the treatment, our systematic review of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) demonstrated no increase in serious adverse events, but a high proportion of participants suffered a range of non-serious adverse events. OBJECTIVES: To assess the adverse events associated with methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with ADHD in non-randomised studies. SEARCH METHODS: In January 2016, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO
Grommets (ventilation tubes) for recurrent acute otitis media in children. BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common childhood illnesses. While many children experience sporadic AOM episodes, an important group suffer from recurrent AOM (rAOM), defined as three or more episodes in six months, or four or more in one year. In this subset of children AOM poses a true burden through frequent episodes of ear pain, general illness, sleepless nights and time lost from nursery (...) or school. Grommets, also called ventilation or tympanostomy tubes, can be offered for rAOM. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of bilateral grommet insertion with or without concurrent adenoidectomy in children with rAOM. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Trials Register; CENTRAL; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 4 December
Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). BACKGROUND: The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) increases the need for evidence-based behavioral treatments to lessen the impact of symptoms on children's functioning. At present, there are no curative or psychopharmacological therapies to effectively treat all symptoms of the disorders. Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is a treatment based on the principles (...) of applied behavior analysis. Delivered for multiple years at an intensity of 20 to 40 hours per week, it is one of the more well-established treatments for ASD. This is an update of a Cochrane review last published in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence for the effectiveness of EIBI in increasing functional behaviors and skills, decreasing autism severity, and improving intelligence and communication skills for young children with ASD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE
Clonazepam add-on therapy for refractory epilepsy in adults and children. BACKGROUND: Epilepsy affects about 50 million people worldwide, nearly a quarter of whom have drug-refractory epilepsy. People with drug-refractory epilepsy have increased risks of premature death, injuries, psychosocial dysfunction, and a reduced quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of clonazepam when used as an add-on therapy for adults and children with refractory focal onset (...) ' CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence from double-blind randomised controlled trials for or against the use of clonazepam as an add-on therapy for adults and children with refractory focal or generalised onset epileptic seizures.
Epilepsy in Children After Pandemic Influenza Vaccination 29449342 2018 02 16 1098-4275 2018 Feb 15 PediatricsPediatrics Epilepsy in Children After Pandemic Influenza Vaccination. e20170752 10.1542/peds.2017-0752 To determine if pandemic influenza vaccination was associated with an increased risk of epilepsy in children. Information from Norwegian registries from 2006 through 2014 on all children <18 years living in Norway on October 1, 2009 was used in Cox regression models to estimate hazard (...) ratios for incident epilepsy after vaccination. A self-controlled case series analysis was used to estimate incidence rate ratios in defined risk periods after pandemic vaccination. In Norway, the main period of the influenza A subtype H1N1 pandemic was from October 2009 to December 2009. On October 1, 2009, 1 154 113 children <18 years of age were registered as residents in Norway. Of these, 572 875 (50.7%) were vaccinated against pandemic influenza. From October 2009 through 2014 there were 3628
Burosumab-twza (Crysvita) - To treat adults and children ages 1 year and older with x-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), a rare, inherited form of rickets Drug Approval Package: CRYSVITA (burosumab-twza) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Search FDA Submit search Drug Approval Package: CRYSVITA (burosumab-twza) Company: Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical, Inc. Application Number: 761068 Approval Date: 04/17/2018 Persons with disabilities having problems accessing the PDF files below may call (301
Icatibant (Firazyr) - symptomatic treatment of acute attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE) in adolescents and children Published 7 May 2018 Product Update: icatibant acetate, 30mg, solution for injection in pre-filled syringe (Firazyr ® ) SMC No 1332/18 Shire Human Genetic Therapies 6 April 2018 The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) has completed its assessment of the above product and advises NHS Boards and Area Drug and Therapeutic Committees (ADTCs) on its use in NHS Scotland. The advice (...) is summarised as follows: ADVICE: following an abbreviated submission icatibant acetate (Firazyr ® ) is accepted for use within NHS Scotland. Indication under review: symptomatic treatment of acute attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE) in adolescents and children aged 2 years and older, with C1-esterase-inhibitor deficiency. SMC has previously accepted icatibant acetate for use in adults. This SMC advice takes account of the benefits of a Patient Access Scheme (PAS) that improves the cost-effectiveness
Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children More than 1 in 10 HIV-related deaths are as a result of cryptococcal me n i n g i t i s. Three quarters of deaths from cryptococcal meningitis are in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO/CDS/HIV/18.2 POLICY BRIEF WHO / James Oatway: Namibia Living with HIV / AIDS at the Katatura State Hospital in Windhoek, Namibia. GUIDELINES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS, PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT (...) OF CRYPTOCOCCAL DISEASE IN HIV-INFECTED ADULTS, ADOLESCENTS AND CHILDREN SUPPLEMENT TO THE 2016 CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING HIV INFECTION MARCH 2018 HIV TREATMENT 1 Cryptococcal meningitis is by far the commonest manifestation of cryptococcal disease representing 70–90% of HIV-related cryptococcal disease. Other less common disease presentations include pulmonary disease and skin, lymph node and bone involvement. The burden of morbidity and mortality
Determining treatment goal weights for children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa One of the challenges faced by paediatric health professionals treating children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) is determining the specific weight needed to achieve physical, emotional and cognitive recovery. Clinicians and researchers have struggled to standardize process, methods and terminology around what is now referred to as the “treatment goal weight” (TGW).This practice point (...) summarizes recommendations drawn from common methods used to determine TGWs in children and adolescents with AN, which are based on both the evidence-based literature and expert consensus. An individualized approach to the determination of the TGW is offered, with some specifics for special clinical situations. Multiple factors inform the process of establishing a TGW for a child or adolescent with AN but individualized attention, especially to premorbid weights, heights, BMI percentiles and paediatric
Use of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in infants and children Heated, humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) therapy provides warmed, humidified oxygen to infants and children in respiratory distress at flow rates that deliver higher oxygen concentrations and some positive airway pressure compared with standard low-flow therapy. Increased use and experience is informing practice and establishing the benefits of HHHFNC use in a variety of clinical conditions.  (...) ;The focus of this practice point is to describe best practices for HHHFNC in (non-neonatal) paediatric patients with moderate-to-severe respiratory distress and to offer a safe, practical approach to oxygen delivery and support. Keywords: Heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula; Paediatric
Decision-making around gastrostomy tube feeding in children with neurologic impairment: Engaging effectively with families Children with neurologic impairment may not be able to feed safely or sufficiently by mouth to maintain an adequate nutritional state. Gastrostomy tube (G-tube) feeding is an important, often essential, intervention in such situations. However, many parents and families struggle with the decision to proceed with G-tube feeding. This practice point reviews common reasons
Effects of postoperative pain management educational interventions on the outcomes of parents and their children who underwent an inpatient elective surgery: A randomized controlled trial 29574988 2018 04 23 1365-2648 2018 Mar 25 Journal of advanced nursing J Adv Nurs Effects of postoperative pain management educational interventions on the outcomes of parents and their children who underwent an inpatient elective surgery: A randomized controlled trial. 10.1111/jan.13573 To examine the effects (...) of a postoperative pain management educational intervention on the outcomes of parents and their children who underwent inpatient elective surgery. Equipping parents with knowledge and skills to manage their children's postoperative pains is essential. Very limited studies have examined the effects of educational interventions on parents' knowledge, attitudes and use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain relief methods. Three-group pre- and post-test randomized controlled trial. Parent-child pairs (N
Cognitive Outcomes of Children Born Extremely or Very Preterm Since the 1990s and Associated Risk Factors: A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression 29459939 2018 04 05 2168-6211 172 4 2018 Apr 01 JAMA pediatrics JAMA Pediatr Cognitive Outcomes of Children Born Extremely or Very Preterm Since the 1990s and Associated Risk Factors: A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression. 361-367 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.5323 Despite apparent progress in perinatal care, children born extremely or very preterm (EP/VP (...) ) remain at high risk for cognitive deficits. Insight into factors contributing to cognitive outcome is key to improve outcomes after EP/VP birth. To examine the cognitive abilities of children of EP/VP birth (EP/VP children) and the role of perinatal and demographic risk factors. PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO were searched without language restriction (last search March 2, 2017). Key search terms included preterm, low birth weight, and intelligence. Peer-reviewed studies reporting intelligence
Intravenous magnesium sulfate for acute wheezing in young children: a randomised double-blind trial 29437941 2018 02 13 1399-3003 51 2 2018 Feb The European respiratory journal Eur. Respir. J. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for acute wheezing in young children: a randomised double-blind trial. 1701579 10.1183/13993003.01579-2017 Magnesium sulfate has been shown to be an effective treatment in older children with asthma exacerbations, but it has not been investigated in acute severe virus-induced (...) wheezing in young children.The study enrolled 61 children aged 6 months to 4 years. Inclusion criteria were severe wheezing, classified as a score of ≥6 points as assessed by the Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument (RDAI) after initial treatment with salbutamol, and the symptoms of acute viral infection. The children were randomly allocated to receive either an infusion of magnesium sulfate (40 mg·kg -1 ) or 0.9% sodium chloride as a placebo infusion for 20 min. Primary outcome measure was mean
Hearing children of Deaf parents: Gender and birth order in the delegation of the interpreter role in culturally Deaf families 29850437 2018 11 14 2223-9170 7 2018 African journal of disability Afr J Disabil Hearing children of Deaf parents: Gender and birth order in the delegation of the interpreter role in culturally Deaf families. 365 10.4102/ajod.v7i0.365 Culturally, hearing children born to Deaf parents may have to mediate two different positions within the hearing and Deaf cultures (...) . However, there appears to be little written about the experiences of hearing children born to Deaf parents in the South African context. This study sought to investigate the roles of children of Deaf adults (CODAs) as interpreters in Deaf-parented families, more specifically, the influence of gender and birth order in language brokering. Two male and eight female participants between the ages of 21 and 40 years were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling strategies. A qualitative design
Randomized phase 2 trial of monthly vitamin D to prevent respiratory complications in children with sickle cell disease 29712666 2018 12 04 2473-9537 2 9 2018 05 08 Blood advances Blood Adv Randomized phase 2 trial of monthly vitamin D to prevent respiratory complications in children with sickle cell disease. 969-978 10.1182/bloodadvances.2017013979 In sickle cell disease, respiratory infection and asthma may lead to respiratory complications that are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality (...) . Vitamin D has anti-infective and immunomodulatory effects that may decrease the risk for respiratory infections, asthma, and acute chest syndrome. We conducted a randomized double-blind active-controlled clinical trial to determine whether monthly oral vitamin D 3 can reduce the rate of respiratory events in children with sickle cell disease. Seventy sickle cell subjects, ages 3-20 years, with baseline records of respiratory events over 1 year before randomization, underwent screening. Sixty-two
Accuracy of pediatric residents in determination of dehydration in children with gastroenteritis 29881534 2018 11 14 2008-5842 10 4 2018 Apr Electronic physician Electron Physician Accuracy of pediatric residents in determination of dehydration in children with gastroenteritis. 6707-6711 10.19082/6707 The aim of the present study was to determine the accuracy of pediatric residents in diagnosis of dehydration in children with gastroenteritis. This was a cross-sectional study in Dr. Sheikh (...) Hospital, affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran), in 2016. One hundred fifteen children aged 1 month to 14 years with gastroenteritis were included according to easy sampling. All patients were weighed. Dehydration was scored as mild, moderate and severe by pediatric residents according to Nelson standard table including pulse rate, blood pressure, blood skin supplement, skin turgor, fontanel, mucus membrane, tear respiration and urine output criteria. Patients were