Latest & greatest articles for children

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Top results for children

221. Schools can provide valuable help for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Schools can provide valuable help for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder NIHR DC | Signal - Schools can provide valuable help for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover NIHR Signal Schools can provide valuable help for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Published on 14 September 2015 This series of NIHR-funded systematic reviews found that some things schools do (interventions) can help (...) children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. These were grouped into 15 main approaches including reward and punishment, skills training and self-management, creative-based therapies, such as music therapy, and structured physical activity. These reviews covered different strategies to change behaviour other than giving children medication. Most showed positive effects. Due to substantial variation in the effect on symptoms, behaviour or educational achievement across the included studies

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

222. Inhaled anaesthesia with anti-sickness medication in children has the same risk of vomiting as intravenous anaesthesia

Inhaled anaesthesia with anti-sickness medication in children has the same risk of vomiting as intravenous anaesthesia NIHR DC | Signal - Inhaled anaesthesia with anti-sickness medication in children has the same risk of vomiting as intravenous anaesthesia Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Inhaled anaesthesia with anti-sickness medication in children has the same risk of vomiting as intravenous anaesthesia Published on 27 February 2018 Post-operative vomiting is common (...) in children. One strategy is to use an intravenous anaesthetic, which is known to cause lower rates of sickness than inhaled anaesthetics. There are disadvantages to this though, such as the need for injections before a child is asleep, slowing of the heart and difficulty in monitoring depth of the anaesthetic. This review of four trials included 558 children who had an operation to correct a squint. A third of children in each anaesthetic group had post-operative vomiting. There was no difference in time

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

223. A school-based lifestyle intervention didn’t help children avoid unhealthy weight gain

A school-based lifestyle intervention didn’t help children avoid unhealthy weight gain NIHR DC | Signal - A school-based lifestyle intervention didn’t help children avoid unhealthy weight gain Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover A school-based lifestyle intervention didn’t help children avoid unhealthy weight gain Published on 13 February 2018 The Healthy Lifestyle Programme delivered to 9-10-year-old school children did not reduce their weight over the course of two years (...) . Around a third remained overweight or obese, the same as in schools that followed the standard syllabus. This trial, funded by the NIHR, assigned schools across Devon to follow a lifestyle programme in Year five. The comprehensive curriculum included drama and activity workshops, personal goal setting and parental involvement. Children made better food choices, but this did not affect weight outcomes. It was almost certain the programme wouldn’t give value for money. Programmes addressing the wider

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

224. Takeaways linked to increased cardiovascular risk factors and obesity in children

Takeaways linked to increased cardiovascular risk factors and obesity in children NIHR DC | Signal - Takeaways linked to increased cardiovascular risk factors and obesity in children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Takeaways linked to increased cardiovascular risk factors and obesity in children Published on 13 February 2018 Children who eat takeaways once or more each week have more body fat and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) “bad” cholesterol levels than those who (...) never or hardly ever eat them. Their diets were also higher in fat and lower in protein and calcium. This cross-sectional study looked in depth at eating habits and risk markers for coronary heart disease, obesity and diabetes in 2,529 children in England. Though this type of study can only show an association between takeaways and risk markers, it is one of the first of its type, and the results do give cause for concern. Increasing numbers of people are eating takeaways in the UK. Local

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

225. Self-care support for children with long-term conditions may reduce emergency costs

Self-care support for children with long-term conditions may reduce emergency costs NIHR DC | Signal - Self-care support for children with long-term conditions may reduce emergency costs Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Self-care support for children with long-term conditions may reduce emergency costs Published on 27 March 2018 Helping children and parents to manage long-term conditions like asthma may reduce their need for emergency care, and is unlikely to reduce (...) children’s quality of life. This NIHR review found that structured professional help with self-care, including online support, provision of care plans, case management and face-to-face education, was linked to small increases in quality of life scores and fewer emergency department visits. However, there was no clear evidence that supported self-care reduced hospital admissions or overall costs. Most of the 97 studies reviewed included children with asthma (66 studies) or mental health conditions (18

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

226. National tobacco control policies linked to improvements in children’s health

National tobacco control policies linked to improvements in children’s health NIHR DC | Signal - National tobacco control policies linked to improvements in children’s health Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover National tobacco control policies linked to improvements in children’s health Published on 17 January 2018 National smoke-free legislation in advanced economies is linked to reduced rates of preterm birth, asthma hospitalisations and serious throat and chest infections (...) in children. Comprehensive smoke-free policies appear to be more effective than policies with only partial or selective introduction. Smoking increases health risks for the smoker and others through second-hand exposure. Although the number of people smoking in the UK is falling, eight million UK adults still smoke, and an estimated five million children are exposed to second-hand smoke. Children are vulnerable to smoke due to their small, developing lungs and immune systems. Evaluations of tobacco

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

227. Silk clothing for children does not reduce objective measures of eczema severity

Silk clothing for children does not reduce objective measures of eczema severity NIHR DC | Signal - Silk clothing for children does not reduce objective measures of eczema severity Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover NIHR Signal Silk clothing for children does not reduce objective measures of eczema severity Published on 22 August 2017 Six months of wearing special silk clothing had no effect on objective measures of child eczema severity, infection rates or medication use (...) . Children and carers reported some small improvements in eczema severity on two scales but their awareness of the clothing worn by their child may have slightly influenced their judgment. Overall quality of life did not significantly improve. Specialist silk clothing is currently available on NHS prescription, but prior to this trial there was limited evidence to guide its use. The findings from this NIHR funded trial indicate that silk clothing is not very effective, and at almost £60,000 per year

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

228. Fluoride varnish every six months helps protect children’s permanent teeth from decay

Fluoride varnish every six months helps protect children’s permanent teeth from decay NIHR DC | Signal - Fluoride varnish every six months helps protect children’s permanent teeth from decay Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover NIHR Signal Fluoride varnish every six months helps protect children’s permanent teeth from decay Published on 1 August 2017 Fluoride varnish and fissure sealant are equally good at preventing tooth decay on children’s first permanent back teeth when (...) applied to six or seven year olds in South Wales. Six applications of fluoride varnish were less expensive, by about £68 per child, for the NHS at 36 months compared to applying the more expensive fissure sealant. Children’s permanent back teeth are particularly vulnerable to decay when they first come through. The pitted biting surface can make these teeth difficult to keep clean to prevent decay. This NIHR-funded trial looked at two interventions to prevent decay: fluoride varnish applied six times

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

229. Online parental training may help to improve behaviour in children

Online parental training may help to improve behaviour in children NIHR DC | Signal - Online parental training may help to improve behaviour in children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover NIHR Signal Online parental training may help to improve behaviour in children Published on 1 August 2017 Online parental training led to reasonable improvements in behaviour problems in children and young people, compared to no training. The findings of this review suggest that additional (...) interactive computer training packages with eleven 45 minutes weekly support sessions by phone. All showed improvements in children’s behaviour compared to no treatment. Taken together the results are similar to those found with similar face to face delivery methods. Delivering parental training online may also be more efficient and enable commissioners and providers to deliver training to greater numbers of people. However, consideration should be given to how the support offered can ensure

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

230. Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in children

Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in children NIHR DC | Signal - Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover NIHR Signal Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in children Published on 25 July 2017 The number of children being diagnosed with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is rising, but new cases of type 2 diabetes, the form associated with being overweight, has risen five-fold in about five years. New analysis in this NIHR (...) -supported study suggest that type 2 diabetes now accounts for up to a third of diabetes diagnoses in children. Amongst 100,000 school age children about six new cases of type 2 diabetes a year could be expected in the 1990s. This increased to about 33 new cases per year by the end of the next decade (2009 to 2013). Data was taken from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a primary care database of electronic health records. Children who are obese have about a four times greater risk of developing

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

231. Specialist-led improvised music therapy did not improve children’s symptoms of autism

Specialist-led improvised music therapy did not improve children’s symptoms of autism NIHR DC | Signal - Specialist-led improvised music therapy did not improve children’s symptoms of autism Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Specialist-led improvised music therapy did not improve children’s symptoms of autism Published on 28 November 2017 After five months, improvised music therapy added to enhanced usual care was no better than enhanced usual care alone for young children (...) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Clinically meaningful improvements in social and communication skills were not achieved in either group over this time. This result from a large well designed NIHR-funded international trial contrasts with an earlier systematic review of small trials that suggested beneficial effects for this specialised therapy. Qualified music therapists provided social interactions with the children through music and singing once to three times per week. Centres in nine countries

NIHR Dissemination Centre2018

232. Association Between Fluid Balance and Outcomes in Critically Ill Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Association Between Fluid Balance and Outcomes in Critically Ill Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club2018

233. Adaptation and Validation of a Pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score and Evaluation of the Sepsis-3 Definitions in Critically Ill Children.

Adaptation and Validation of a Pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score and Evaluation of the Sepsis-3 Definitions in Critically Ill Children. PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club2018

234. Incidence, outcomes and outcome prediction of unplanned extubation in critically ill children: An 11year experience.

Incidence, outcomes and outcome prediction of unplanned extubation in critically ill children: An 11year experience. PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club2018

235. Inhalational versus IV Induction of Anesthesia in Children with a High Risk of Perioperative Respiratory Adverse Events: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Inhalational versus IV Induction of Anesthesia in Children with a High Risk of Perioperative Respiratory Adverse Events: A Randomized Controlled Trial 29498948 2018 03 26 1528-1175 2018 Mar 26 Anesthesiology Anesthesiology Inhalational versus IV Induction of Anesthesia in Children with a High Risk of Perioperative Respiratory Adverse Events: A Randomized Controlled Trial. 10.1097/ALN.0000000000002152 Limited evidence suggests that children have a lower incidence of perioperative respiratory (...) adverse events when intravenous propofol is used compared with inhalational sevoflurane for the anesthesia induction. Limiting these events can improve recovery time as well as decreasing surgery waitlists and healthcare costs. This single center open-label randomized controlled trial assessed the impact of the anesthesia induction technique on the occurrence of perioperative respiratory adverse events in children at high risk of those events. Children (N = 300; 0 to 8 yr) with at least two clinically

EvidenceUpdates2018

236. Neurodevelopment in Young Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers: A Meta-analysis

Neurodevelopment in Young Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers: A Meta-analysis 29374109 2018 02 17 1098-4275 141 2 2018 Feb Pediatrics Pediatrics Neurodevelopment in Young Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers: A Meta-analysis. e20172888 10.1542/peds.2017-2888 HIV-infected (HIV+) children have worse neurodevelopmental outcomes compared with HIV-uninfected children. However, little is known regarding the differences in neurodevelopment between young HIV+ children, HIV-exposed but uninfected (...) (HEU) children, and HIV-unexposed and uninfected (HUU) children. To systematically review and meta-analyze data on neurodevelopmental performance between young HIV+, HEU, and HUU children. We systematically searched the following electronic bibliographic databases: Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Education Resources Information Center, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Studies were selected on the basis of defined inclusion criteria. Titles, abstracts, and full texts were assessed

EvidenceUpdates2018

237. Quality of Health Care for Children in Australia, 2012-2013.

Quality of Health Care for Children in Australia, 2012-2013. Importance: The quality of routine care for children is rarely assessed, and then usually in single settings or for single clinical conditions. Objective: To estimate the quality of health care for children in Australia in inpatient and ambulatory health care settings. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multistage stratified sample with medical record review to assess adherence with quality indicators extracted from clinical practice (...) for anxiety and 133 for depression. Within each selected medical record, all visits for the 17 targeted conditions were identified, and separate quality assessments made for each. Care was evaluated for 6689 children 15 years of age and younger who had 15 240 visits to emergency departments, for inpatient admissions, or to pediatricians and general practitioners in selected urban and rural locations in 3 Australian states. These visits generated 160 202 quality indicator assessments. Exposures: Quality

JAMA2018

238. Antibiotic resistance patterns of urinary tract pathogens in Turkish children

Antibiotic resistance patterns of urinary tract pathogens in Turkish children 29568806 2018 11 14 2397-0642 3 2018 Global health research and policy Glob Health Res Policy Antibiotic resistance patterns of urinary tract pathogens in Turkish children. 10 10.1186/s41256-018-0063-1 Knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance patterns is essential for evidence- based empirical antibiotic prescribing. We aimed to investigate the distribution and changes in causative agents of urinary tract (...) infections in children and the resistance rates, and to recommend the most appropriate antibiotics. In this retrospective study, we evaluated causative agents and antimicrobial resistance in urine isolates from the positive community from September 2014 to April 2016 in a single hospital in Ankara, Turkey. A total of 850 positive urine cultures were identified, of which 588 (69.2%) were from girls and 262 (30.8%) were from boys. Their mean age was 36.5 ± 45.0 months. The most common causative agent

Global health research and policy2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

239. Systemic corticosteroids for acute otitis media in children.

Systemic corticosteroids for acute otitis media in children. BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common acute infection in children. Pain is its most prominent and distressing symptom. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for AOM, although they have only a modest effect in reducing pain at two to three days. There is insufficient evidence for benefits of other treatment options, including systemic corticosteroids. However, systemic corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, and so (...) theoretically could be effective, either alone or as an addition to antibiotics. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of systemic corticosteroids (oral or parenteral), with or without antibiotics, for AOM in children. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) which contains the Cochrane ARI Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Elsevier), CINAHL (EBSCO), Web of Science (Thomson Reuters), and LILACS (BIREME) for published studies

Cochrane2018

240. Orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth (Class II malocclusion) in children and adolescents.

Orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth (Class II malocclusion) in children and adolescents. BACKGROUND: Prominent upper front teeth are a common problem affecting about a quarter of 12-year-old children in the UK. The condition develops when permanent teeth erupt. These teeth are more likely to be injured and their appearance can cause significant distress. Children are often referred to an orthodontist for treatment with dental braces to reduce the prominence of their teeth (...) . If a child is referred at a young age, the orthodontist is faced with the dilemma of whether to treat the patient early or to wait and provide treatment in adolescence. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth initiated when children are seven to 11 years old ('early treatment' in two phases) compared to in adolescence at around 12 to 16 years old ('late treatment' in one phase); to assess the effects of late treatment compared to no treatment

Cochrane2018